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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-7575
First Published
17 Mar 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 13 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-7575
First Published
17 Mar 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
access type Open Access

The infrared camera: a tool for mountain lakes research

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 129 - 138

Abstract

Abstract

During field research work an attempt was made to use an infrared camera in alpine conditions without the use of a plane. The images received as thermal pictures are of high value because they show a continuous record of temperature on the whole water surface. The scale of temperature diversity is very high and amounts to approximately 6°C. It is necessary to take photos of this type at short time intervals. It will enable the circulation of waters which results in a change in water temperature to be captured. This research will also allow seasonal changes of water temperature to be seized, for example during summer stagnation, water freezing, destruction of the ice layer and also the influence of the coastal zone on shaping thermal conditions in the zone of coastal waters.

Keywords

  • lakes
  • Tatra Mountains
  • infrared camera
  • lake surface temperature
access type Open Access

Impact of cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis L.) colonies on microbial pollution in lakes

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 139 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

During 2009-2011 we investigated the effect of perennial and roosting cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) colonies on microbial pollution in 3 lakes: Góreckie (Greater Poland National Park), Chrzypsko (Greater Poland Province) and Ostrowiec (Drawa National Park). On Lake Góreckie cormorants formed a roosting colony (<200 individuals) that inhabited part of the lake shore. On Lake Chrzypsko a new breeding colony was formed (3 nests) while the breeding colony on Lake Ostrowiec, established over 40 years ago, consisted of over 170 breeding pairs. In the case of Lake Ostrowiec, high pollution with coliform bacteria (including Escherichia coli) was observed. Compared to the control station the significantly higher Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform bacteria was found in groundwater under the colony. It was found that bacterial counts decreased in the direction of the centre of the water body with the highest numbers noted in the lake samples collected within the colony boundaries. Furthermore, seasonal variations in coliform bacteria were also observed with maximum densities during the breeding season. Similar trends were observed for the roosting colony on Lake Góreckie while for the newly forming colony on Lake Chrzypsko increased density of investigated bacteria was noted only in groundwater.

Keywords

  • cormorant
  • microbial contamination
  • coliform bacteria
  • Escherichia coli
access type Open Access

Water level fluctuations in selected Wielkopolski National Park lakes in 2012 against changes noted in 2007-2008

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 147 - 153

Abstract

Abstract

The results presented in this paper of water level fluctuations in selected lakes of Wielkopolski National Park have a preliminary character, contributing new information to the knowledge on this area. Five lakes situated in three distinct tunnel valleys were selected for research: Jarosławieckie, Góreckie, Budzyńskie, Witobelskie and Łódzko-Dymaczewskie. The water level was measured from December 2006 till January 2008 and from January till December of 2012 with ca. monthly frequency. An increase in the water stage was noted in the autumn-winter period, which was rather unusual. The comparison of years 2007 and 2012 indicated higher water levels in the latter. The amplitude of the water level was higher in flow-through lakes due to the reaction to precipitation in early spring as well as different catchment features. Specific water level fluctuations in Lake Góreckie are probably related to the influence of groundwater of the Wielkopolska fossil valley.

Keywords

  • lakes
  • water level fluctuations
  • Wielkopolski National Park
access type Open Access

Historical medium-scale maps as a source of information on the overgrowing of lakes

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 155 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

In the work, medium-scale topographic maps from the first half of the 20th century and aerial photographs from the first decade of the 21st century were used to determine the rate of overgrowing of lakes. A comparison of results for lakes located in different parts of Poland demonstrated that the process of proliferation of emergent plants dominated - such a situation was recorded for 14 out of the 15 lakes analysed in the work. The calculated average overgrowing rate for all the lakes in the years 1945-2010 was 0.4 ha yr-1. Lake Karaś (1.83 ha yr-1) and Lake Oświn (1.2 ha yr-1) were characterized by the highest overgrowing rates. Moreover, the work presents an attempt at discovering the factors which determine the scale of the lake overgrowing process. To this end, the main lake parameters were analysed and it was concluded that the rate of overgrowing of lakes was influenced, inter alia, by water level fluctuations and the shape and depth of a given lake. However, each lake should be treated as an individual object which responds to the processes occurring in its environment in a unique way.

Keywords

  • overgrowing
  • macrophytes succession
  • lakes
  • historical maps
access type Open Access

Metal accumulation in sediments and biota in Malta Reservoir (Poland)

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 163 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

Municipal water reservoirs improve urban landscape architecture, providing water for various domestic uses. At the same time, they are under strong human impact affecting water quality and biological conditions. We investigated the level of metal accumulation (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn) in sediments as well as mussels Anodonta anatina and Unio tumidus and common reed Phragmites australis collected from 8 sampling sites at Malta Reservoir (Poznań, Poland) just before the complete drainage of the lake in November, 2012. In all investigated samples metal concentrations ranked in decreasing order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd. Accumulation of toxic metals in roots of P. australis was higher than in soft tissues of mussels although it did not exceed phytotoxic levels. Roots of P. australis accumulated high levels of Cr (mean 9.7 μg g-1) and Ni (mean 5.7 μg g-1). U. tumidus accumulated higher concentrations of Cr (mean 1.1 μg g-1) than A. anatina indicating potential use in bioindication of this metal. The present study provides the most recent information on metal content in sediments and biota in Malta Reservoir and, further, suggests that this reservoir is capable of accumulating toxic elements from preceding water bodies (Lake Swarzędz) and surrounding residential areas.

Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • bioaccumulation
  • Phragmites australis
  • unionids
  • Metal Pollution Index
access type Open Access

Reproduction of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae taxa in an oxbow lake of the River Vistula

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 171 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the research was to establish the density of specimens and shoots as well as the reproductive effort of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae during the whole vegetative period in a Polish oxbow lake. The following specimen features were examined: plant diameter, total length, the number of buds, flowers, young fruit, ripe fruit, turions and leaves and also dry total mass, vegetative mass, generative mass, the bud mass, the flower mass, young fruit mass and ripe fruit mass. The density of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae specimens per square metre ranged from 10 to 170 while the density of shoots ranged from 10 to 545. From one square metre overgrown with Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, a maximum of 389 turions, 50 fruit and 4000 seeds are produced. The maximum of reproductive effort is 97.8% of vegetative mass and 2.2% of generative mass in September 2010. The factors which best explain changeability of the Hydrocharis morsusranae population in time are the length and the diameter of the specimens in the population. Fruiting of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae in Poland is higher than in Canada, where it is an invasive taxon. Hydrocharis morsus-ranae is well adapted to the environment in oxbow lakes of the River Vistula and represents the S-R strategy.

Keywords

  • density
  • flower
  • fruit
  • Hydrocharis
  • invasion
  • reproduction
  • seasonality
  • turion
access type Open Access

Variation of nitrogen forms in lakes with different intensity of anthropogenic pressure

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 181 - 188

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of nitrogen and trace the dynamics of its changes in two lakes with different intensity of anthropogenic pressure. The dominant land use of Lake Paskierz catchment is built-up areas, while in Lake Sajmino, wasteland is the dominant land use. The total amount of nitrogen in Lake Paskierz ranged from 1.68 to 6.58 g Ntot m-3, while in Lake Sajmino it was from 1.03 to 1.84 g Ntot m-3. The organic fraction was a dominant form in the surface water layers of the examined lakes. A slightly different situation was found in near-bottom water layers of Lake Paskierz, where ammonium nitrogen was the dominant form in the summer stagnation. In other cases organic nitrogen was a dominant form in each of the reservoirs. Concentrations of nitrites and nitrates were low and did not affect essentially the overall amount of nitrogen in the studied lakes. Based on the results, it can be concluded that Lake Paskierz is overfertilized. The high concentrations of ammonia measured in near-bottom layers of the lake indicate that the internal supply may be a very important process affecting the trophic status. Lake Sajmino was characterized by significantly less nitrogen abundance, although the periodically increasing nitrogen concentration reveals the presence of adverse anthropopressure on the lake.

Keywords

  • lake
  • nitrogen
  • anthropogenic eutrophication
  • catchment
7 Articles
access type Open Access

The infrared camera: a tool for mountain lakes research

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 129 - 138

Abstract

Abstract

During field research work an attempt was made to use an infrared camera in alpine conditions without the use of a plane. The images received as thermal pictures are of high value because they show a continuous record of temperature on the whole water surface. The scale of temperature diversity is very high and amounts to approximately 6°C. It is necessary to take photos of this type at short time intervals. It will enable the circulation of waters which results in a change in water temperature to be captured. This research will also allow seasonal changes of water temperature to be seized, for example during summer stagnation, water freezing, destruction of the ice layer and also the influence of the coastal zone on shaping thermal conditions in the zone of coastal waters.

Keywords

  • lakes
  • Tatra Mountains
  • infrared camera
  • lake surface temperature
access type Open Access

Impact of cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis L.) colonies on microbial pollution in lakes

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 139 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

During 2009-2011 we investigated the effect of perennial and roosting cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) colonies on microbial pollution in 3 lakes: Góreckie (Greater Poland National Park), Chrzypsko (Greater Poland Province) and Ostrowiec (Drawa National Park). On Lake Góreckie cormorants formed a roosting colony (<200 individuals) that inhabited part of the lake shore. On Lake Chrzypsko a new breeding colony was formed (3 nests) while the breeding colony on Lake Ostrowiec, established over 40 years ago, consisted of over 170 breeding pairs. In the case of Lake Ostrowiec, high pollution with coliform bacteria (including Escherichia coli) was observed. Compared to the control station the significantly higher Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform bacteria was found in groundwater under the colony. It was found that bacterial counts decreased in the direction of the centre of the water body with the highest numbers noted in the lake samples collected within the colony boundaries. Furthermore, seasonal variations in coliform bacteria were also observed with maximum densities during the breeding season. Similar trends were observed for the roosting colony on Lake Góreckie while for the newly forming colony on Lake Chrzypsko increased density of investigated bacteria was noted only in groundwater.

Keywords

  • cormorant
  • microbial contamination
  • coliform bacteria
  • Escherichia coli
access type Open Access

Water level fluctuations in selected Wielkopolski National Park lakes in 2012 against changes noted in 2007-2008

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 147 - 153

Abstract

Abstract

The results presented in this paper of water level fluctuations in selected lakes of Wielkopolski National Park have a preliminary character, contributing new information to the knowledge on this area. Five lakes situated in three distinct tunnel valleys were selected for research: Jarosławieckie, Góreckie, Budzyńskie, Witobelskie and Łódzko-Dymaczewskie. The water level was measured from December 2006 till January 2008 and from January till December of 2012 with ca. monthly frequency. An increase in the water stage was noted in the autumn-winter period, which was rather unusual. The comparison of years 2007 and 2012 indicated higher water levels in the latter. The amplitude of the water level was higher in flow-through lakes due to the reaction to precipitation in early spring as well as different catchment features. Specific water level fluctuations in Lake Góreckie are probably related to the influence of groundwater of the Wielkopolska fossil valley.

Keywords

  • lakes
  • water level fluctuations
  • Wielkopolski National Park
access type Open Access

Historical medium-scale maps as a source of information on the overgrowing of lakes

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 155 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

In the work, medium-scale topographic maps from the first half of the 20th century and aerial photographs from the first decade of the 21st century were used to determine the rate of overgrowing of lakes. A comparison of results for lakes located in different parts of Poland demonstrated that the process of proliferation of emergent plants dominated - such a situation was recorded for 14 out of the 15 lakes analysed in the work. The calculated average overgrowing rate for all the lakes in the years 1945-2010 was 0.4 ha yr-1. Lake Karaś (1.83 ha yr-1) and Lake Oświn (1.2 ha yr-1) were characterized by the highest overgrowing rates. Moreover, the work presents an attempt at discovering the factors which determine the scale of the lake overgrowing process. To this end, the main lake parameters were analysed and it was concluded that the rate of overgrowing of lakes was influenced, inter alia, by water level fluctuations and the shape and depth of a given lake. However, each lake should be treated as an individual object which responds to the processes occurring in its environment in a unique way.

Keywords

  • overgrowing
  • macrophytes succession
  • lakes
  • historical maps
access type Open Access

Metal accumulation in sediments and biota in Malta Reservoir (Poland)

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 163 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

Municipal water reservoirs improve urban landscape architecture, providing water for various domestic uses. At the same time, they are under strong human impact affecting water quality and biological conditions. We investigated the level of metal accumulation (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn) in sediments as well as mussels Anodonta anatina and Unio tumidus and common reed Phragmites australis collected from 8 sampling sites at Malta Reservoir (Poznań, Poland) just before the complete drainage of the lake in November, 2012. In all investigated samples metal concentrations ranked in decreasing order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd. Accumulation of toxic metals in roots of P. australis was higher than in soft tissues of mussels although it did not exceed phytotoxic levels. Roots of P. australis accumulated high levels of Cr (mean 9.7 μg g-1) and Ni (mean 5.7 μg g-1). U. tumidus accumulated higher concentrations of Cr (mean 1.1 μg g-1) than A. anatina indicating potential use in bioindication of this metal. The present study provides the most recent information on metal content in sediments and biota in Malta Reservoir and, further, suggests that this reservoir is capable of accumulating toxic elements from preceding water bodies (Lake Swarzędz) and surrounding residential areas.

Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • bioaccumulation
  • Phragmites australis
  • unionids
  • Metal Pollution Index
access type Open Access

Reproduction of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae taxa in an oxbow lake of the River Vistula

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 171 - 179

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the research was to establish the density of specimens and shoots as well as the reproductive effort of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae during the whole vegetative period in a Polish oxbow lake. The following specimen features were examined: plant diameter, total length, the number of buds, flowers, young fruit, ripe fruit, turions and leaves and also dry total mass, vegetative mass, generative mass, the bud mass, the flower mass, young fruit mass and ripe fruit mass. The density of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae specimens per square metre ranged from 10 to 170 while the density of shoots ranged from 10 to 545. From one square metre overgrown with Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, a maximum of 389 turions, 50 fruit and 4000 seeds are produced. The maximum of reproductive effort is 97.8% of vegetative mass and 2.2% of generative mass in September 2010. The factors which best explain changeability of the Hydrocharis morsusranae population in time are the length and the diameter of the specimens in the population. Fruiting of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae in Poland is higher than in Canada, where it is an invasive taxon. Hydrocharis morsus-ranae is well adapted to the environment in oxbow lakes of the River Vistula and represents the S-R strategy.

Keywords

  • density
  • flower
  • fruit
  • Hydrocharis
  • invasion
  • reproduction
  • seasonality
  • turion
access type Open Access

Variation of nitrogen forms in lakes with different intensity of anthropogenic pressure

Published Online: 31 Dec 2013
Page range: 181 - 188

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of nitrogen and trace the dynamics of its changes in two lakes with different intensity of anthropogenic pressure. The dominant land use of Lake Paskierz catchment is built-up areas, while in Lake Sajmino, wasteland is the dominant land use. The total amount of nitrogen in Lake Paskierz ranged from 1.68 to 6.58 g Ntot m-3, while in Lake Sajmino it was from 1.03 to 1.84 g Ntot m-3. The organic fraction was a dominant form in the surface water layers of the examined lakes. A slightly different situation was found in near-bottom water layers of Lake Paskierz, where ammonium nitrogen was the dominant form in the summer stagnation. In other cases organic nitrogen was a dominant form in each of the reservoirs. Concentrations of nitrites and nitrates were low and did not affect essentially the overall amount of nitrogen in the studied lakes. Based on the results, it can be concluded that Lake Paskierz is overfertilized. The high concentrations of ammonia measured in near-bottom layers of the lake indicate that the internal supply may be a very important process affecting the trophic status. Lake Sajmino was characterized by significantly less nitrogen abundance, although the periodically increasing nitrogen concentration reveals the presence of adverse anthropopressure on the lake.

Keywords

  • lake
  • nitrogen
  • anthropogenic eutrophication
  • catchment

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