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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-7575
ISSN
1642-5952
First Published
17 Mar 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 12 (2012): Issue 4 (December 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-7575
ISSN
1642-5952
First Published
17 Mar 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
access type Open Access

Examples of lake disappearance as an effect of reclamation works in Poland

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 161 - 167

Abstract

Abstract

Glacial lakes undergo evolution with their disappearance as the last stage of it. Natural processes which determine the rate of lake shrinking occur rather slowly but they have been increasing their speed with the stronger human interference in the environment. The most drastic effect of anthropogenic pressure exerted on lake ecosystems is their complete disappearance caused by reclamation works. One can state that this process is a change of rapid character (a lake can disappear within a few years or several decades, in extreme cases even within one year). Drainage works are particularly unfavourable in areas with a shortage of water supplies, where rapid lake shallowing reduces water retention even more. A considerable part of Poland suffers from water supply deficiency. Therefore, draining of lakes should be considered as an adverse operation. This study discusses the examples of eleven lakes located in Poland and subjected to reclamation works. Analyses of those cases lead us to the conclusion that drainage aiming to broaden agricultural areas has not always been proper.

Keywords

  • reclamation
  • lake
  • environmental transformation
  • anthropopressure
access type Open Access

Changes in the water surface area of Lakes Udzierz and Mątasek in the light of cartographic materials

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 169 - 177

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the changes in the water surface area of Lakes Udzierz and Mątasek located in the headwaters of the catchment of the River Mątawa (tributary of the River Vistula). The assessment of the rate of changes was based on Polish and German topographic maps as well as orthophotomaps. The analysed lakes turned out to be two of the fastest disappearing Polish lakes. In the last century (1910-2010) the water surface area of Lake Udzierz decreased from 148.87 to 69.60 ha and that of Lake Mątasek from 29.5 to 0.64 ha. The average rate of loss of the lake surface area during this period was from 0.53 to 0.98% per annum. Such drastic morphometric changes in the studied lakes are, on the one hand, mainly due to poorly conducted drainage and, on the other hand, the eutrophication of the lake waters intensified by the anthropogenic impact.

Keywords

  • Lake Udzierz
  • Lake Mątasek
  • Kociewie Region
  • Tuchola Forest
  • disappearance of lakes
access type Open Access

Over 200 years of drainage practices and lake level drawdown in the Uściwierskie Lowering (Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland)

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 179 - 190

Abstract

Abstract

Meliorations of the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland have considerably determined its water relations within the last more than 200 years. The analysis of the map by Anton Mayer von Heldensfeld, so far not applied in studies on the drainage network of this lakeland, executed in the years 1801-04, revealed the drainage of the Uściwierskie Lowering already at the turn of the 18th and 19th century. This shifts the commencement of strong anthropogenic impact on this area to a considerably earlier period than was previously assumed. The lakes subject to analysis (Rotcze, Uściwierz, Bikcze, and Lakes Piaseczno and Łukie neighbouring with the Lowering) were incorporated into the drainage system in various periods. Such incorporation of a water body involved water level drawdown. The water level decreased first in Lake Bikcze, and the latest in Lake Rotcze. More detailed information on changes in the water level in the lakes of the Uściwierskie Lowering since 1882 was obtained based on calculation and on comparison with current data of measurements conducted by Rostworowski. The analysis revealed that the water level in Lakes Bikcze and Piaseczno, although fluctuating, has not changed within the last 130 years, whereas the water level in Lake Uściwierz decreased by 33 cm, and in Lake Rotcze by 90 cm.

Keywords

  • Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland
  • Uściwierskie Lowering
  • artificial drainage
  • drainage network
  • water level fluctuations
  • Heldensfeld’s map
access type Open Access

Definitions and evolutions of the terms “flowing and stagnant waters” in the context of the proprietorship of the lakes in Poland

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 191 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

This article discusses the problem of property and use of waters and the legal aspects of the definitions of lakes in particular. To achieve this, the authors reviewed the acts on Water Law from 1922 up to the present day. They proved consistency in the application of the water law. From the hydrological point of view the lake belongs to stagnant waters. The definition included in the Water Law act is contrary to this depiction of the lake. The act reads that the lake may be classified as stagnant or flowing water depending upon the existence of the natural, permanent or seasonal, inflow (or outflow) of the lake. This obviously constitutes a discrepancy between the scientific and legal definition of the lake.

Keywords

  • flowing waters
  • stagnant waters
  • evolution of the Water Law act
  • lakes
access type Open Access

Dammed lakes – Present state of knowledge and research requirements

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 198 - 205

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the current state of knowledge on dammed lakes in Poland and identifies the crucial research necessities in this area. The analysis of documents concerning dammed lakes and information obtained from institutions responsible for water management in Poland were the basis for a preliminary qualitative and quantitative assessment of dammed lakes located in north-west Poland. This allowed the identification of the necessary directions to be taken in the study of dammed lakes. In many cases, the indicated directions are innovative and have high potential for application.

Keywords

  • dammed lake
  • hydrotechnical construction
  • small retention programmes
access type Open Access

Characteristics of bottom sediments of Lake Widryńskie

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 207 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Lake Widryńskie bottom sediments (max. depth. 27.0 m, area 123.9 ha). The sampling of bottom sediments was conducted once, on 16 August 2010. Sampling was made in 10 specific areas. Among the 10 samples, 4 samples were taken from the littoral and sublittoral zones, while the rest were taken from the profundal zone. The dominant component of the sediments was silica and calcium carbonates were subdominant. Based on the survey, it was determined that silica occurred in greater numbers in littoral sediments, while in sublittoral sediments there was increased participation in the chemical composition of organic matter. The elements that build a capacity complex were a small percentage of the dry weight of sediment. Sediment from the vicinity of inflows contains higher amounts of silica, which confirmed the impact of the catchment on the chemical composition of sediments.

Keywords

  • bottom sediments
  • chemical composition
  • littoral
  • sublittoral
  • profundal
6 Articles
access type Open Access

Examples of lake disappearance as an effect of reclamation works in Poland

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 161 - 167

Abstract

Abstract

Glacial lakes undergo evolution with their disappearance as the last stage of it. Natural processes which determine the rate of lake shrinking occur rather slowly but they have been increasing their speed with the stronger human interference in the environment. The most drastic effect of anthropogenic pressure exerted on lake ecosystems is their complete disappearance caused by reclamation works. One can state that this process is a change of rapid character (a lake can disappear within a few years or several decades, in extreme cases even within one year). Drainage works are particularly unfavourable in areas with a shortage of water supplies, where rapid lake shallowing reduces water retention even more. A considerable part of Poland suffers from water supply deficiency. Therefore, draining of lakes should be considered as an adverse operation. This study discusses the examples of eleven lakes located in Poland and subjected to reclamation works. Analyses of those cases lead us to the conclusion that drainage aiming to broaden agricultural areas has not always been proper.

Keywords

  • reclamation
  • lake
  • environmental transformation
  • anthropopressure
access type Open Access

Changes in the water surface area of Lakes Udzierz and Mątasek in the light of cartographic materials

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 169 - 177

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the changes in the water surface area of Lakes Udzierz and Mątasek located in the headwaters of the catchment of the River Mątawa (tributary of the River Vistula). The assessment of the rate of changes was based on Polish and German topographic maps as well as orthophotomaps. The analysed lakes turned out to be two of the fastest disappearing Polish lakes. In the last century (1910-2010) the water surface area of Lake Udzierz decreased from 148.87 to 69.60 ha and that of Lake Mątasek from 29.5 to 0.64 ha. The average rate of loss of the lake surface area during this period was from 0.53 to 0.98% per annum. Such drastic morphometric changes in the studied lakes are, on the one hand, mainly due to poorly conducted drainage and, on the other hand, the eutrophication of the lake waters intensified by the anthropogenic impact.

Keywords

  • Lake Udzierz
  • Lake Mątasek
  • Kociewie Region
  • Tuchola Forest
  • disappearance of lakes
access type Open Access

Over 200 years of drainage practices and lake level drawdown in the Uściwierskie Lowering (Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland)

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 179 - 190

Abstract

Abstract

Meliorations of the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland have considerably determined its water relations within the last more than 200 years. The analysis of the map by Anton Mayer von Heldensfeld, so far not applied in studies on the drainage network of this lakeland, executed in the years 1801-04, revealed the drainage of the Uściwierskie Lowering already at the turn of the 18th and 19th century. This shifts the commencement of strong anthropogenic impact on this area to a considerably earlier period than was previously assumed. The lakes subject to analysis (Rotcze, Uściwierz, Bikcze, and Lakes Piaseczno and Łukie neighbouring with the Lowering) were incorporated into the drainage system in various periods. Such incorporation of a water body involved water level drawdown. The water level decreased first in Lake Bikcze, and the latest in Lake Rotcze. More detailed information on changes in the water level in the lakes of the Uściwierskie Lowering since 1882 was obtained based on calculation and on comparison with current data of measurements conducted by Rostworowski. The analysis revealed that the water level in Lakes Bikcze and Piaseczno, although fluctuating, has not changed within the last 130 years, whereas the water level in Lake Uściwierz decreased by 33 cm, and in Lake Rotcze by 90 cm.

Keywords

  • Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland
  • Uściwierskie Lowering
  • artificial drainage
  • drainage network
  • water level fluctuations
  • Heldensfeld’s map
access type Open Access

Definitions and evolutions of the terms “flowing and stagnant waters” in the context of the proprietorship of the lakes in Poland

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 191 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

This article discusses the problem of property and use of waters and the legal aspects of the definitions of lakes in particular. To achieve this, the authors reviewed the acts on Water Law from 1922 up to the present day. They proved consistency in the application of the water law. From the hydrological point of view the lake belongs to stagnant waters. The definition included in the Water Law act is contrary to this depiction of the lake. The act reads that the lake may be classified as stagnant or flowing water depending upon the existence of the natural, permanent or seasonal, inflow (or outflow) of the lake. This obviously constitutes a discrepancy between the scientific and legal definition of the lake.

Keywords

  • flowing waters
  • stagnant waters
  • evolution of the Water Law act
  • lakes
access type Open Access

Dammed lakes – Present state of knowledge and research requirements

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 198 - 205

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the current state of knowledge on dammed lakes in Poland and identifies the crucial research necessities in this area. The analysis of documents concerning dammed lakes and information obtained from institutions responsible for water management in Poland were the basis for a preliminary qualitative and quantitative assessment of dammed lakes located in north-west Poland. This allowed the identification of the necessary directions to be taken in the study of dammed lakes. In many cases, the indicated directions are innovative and have high potential for application.

Keywords

  • dammed lake
  • hydrotechnical construction
  • small retention programmes
access type Open Access

Characteristics of bottom sediments of Lake Widryńskie

Published Online: 12 Mar 2013
Page range: 207 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Lake Widryńskie bottom sediments (max. depth. 27.0 m, area 123.9 ha). The sampling of bottom sediments was conducted once, on 16 August 2010. Sampling was made in 10 specific areas. Among the 10 samples, 4 samples were taken from the littoral and sublittoral zones, while the rest were taken from the profundal zone. The dominant component of the sediments was silica and calcium carbonates were subdominant. Based on the survey, it was determined that silica occurred in greater numbers in littoral sediments, while in sublittoral sediments there was increased participation in the chemical composition of organic matter. The elements that build a capacity complex were a small percentage of the dry weight of sediment. Sediment from the vicinity of inflows contains higher amounts of silica, which confirmed the impact of the catchment on the chemical composition of sediments.

Keywords

  • bottom sediments
  • chemical composition
  • littoral
  • sublittoral
  • profundal

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