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Volume 68 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 68 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

Study of total antioxidant activity of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.)

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: There is a high interest in creating medicines, dietary supplements, cosmetics including plant extract with antioxidant activity. For understanding whether plant extract has a maximum level of antioxidant activity it is important to know the total antioxidant activity of raw material.

Objective: The main goal of study was to find out the green tea leaves total antioxidant activity.

Methods: The antioxidant activity was measured by potentiometric method. Total phenolic, flavonoids, catechins and hydrocinnamic acids derivatives were quantified using Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminium chloride, vanillin and sodium molibdate methods, respectively.

Results: The green tea leaves total antioxidant activity was 660.75 mmol-eqv./mres. dry weight. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity, which indicated its main role in antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: The research showed that the green rea leaves possess a high value of antioxidant activity and it is a good source of phenolic constituents.

Keywords

  • Camellia sinensis L.
  • total antioxidant activity
  • potentiometric method
  • phytochemistry
  • analysis
Open Access

Evaluation of antioxidant activity of extracts from Leucosidea sericea

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 10 - 18

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Leucosidea sericea finds applications in the treatment of herpes and HIV.

Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and determine the total flavonoid contents (TFCs) and total phenolic contents (TPCs) of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol crude extracts obtained from leaves and stem-bark of L. sericea.

Methods: Maceration and hot solvent extraction methods were used to obtain various crude extracts. DPPH and ferric reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Colorimetric aluminium chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu methods were used to determine the TFCs and TPCs, respectively.

Results: The methanol leaf extract showed highest radical scavenging activity of 82.00±0.93% at a concentration of 3000 µg/ml followed by ethyl acetate leaf extract and methanol stem-bark extract with 79.40±5.21 and 75.16±1.15%, respectively. Acetone stem-bark extract showed highest ferric reducing power of 0.539±0.004 at 700 nm at a concentration of 100 µg/ml followed by hexane leaf extract and hexane stem-bark extract with 0.474±0.014 and 0.437±0.013 at 700 nm, respectively. Ethyl acetate stem-bark extract showed highest TFCs of 655.6±0.1111 mg QE/g of DW of the extract followed by acetone stem-bark extract with 450.0±0.00711 mg QE/g of DW of the extract. Acetone stem-bark extract showed highest TPCs of 891.9±0.657 mg TAE/g of the DW of extract followed by methanol stem-bark extract with 878.3±0.029 mg TAE/g of DW of the extract.

Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from leaves and stem-bark of L. sericea was evaluated. L. sericea could be a source of potent antioxidants.

Keywords

  • Leucosidea sericea
  • Rosaceae
  • DPPH assay
  • ferric reducing power assay
  • total flavonoid contents (TFCs)
  • total phenolic contents (TPCs)
Open Access

Anti-methicillin resistant and growth inhibitory studies of extract and fractions of leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz (Crassulaceae)

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 19 - 28

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Bryophyllum pinnatum is a plant with diverse ethnomedicinal claims yet to be verified scientifically.

Objective: This work was aimed at evaluating the extract and vacuum liquid chromatographic (VLC) fractions of B. pinnatum on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and anti-proliferating seed radicle cells of Sorghum bicolor.

Methods: The extract and VLC fractions of B. pinatum were screened phytochemically and subsequently tested against MRSA at concentrations of 3.125–100 mg/ml, while the antiproliferative assay at 1–30 and 1–10 mg/ml.

Results: The extract recorded zone of inhibition of 7.05 mm was only at 100 mg/ml against L20 MRSA strains. While VLC bulked fractions A(1), C (5–7), D (8–9) and E (10) had no zones of inhibition against the strains, fraction B had zones of inhibitions at all concentrations with the highest ones of 9.7 and 8.5 mm at 125 and 62.5 mg/ml, respectively, against MRSA sample (L20). The MIC of the active fraction B was observed at 3.9, 7.8 and 15.6 mg/ml for all samples used. At 96 h of seed incubation, 56 mm radicle length was recorded by the control seeds was reduced to 1.5 mm (97%) and 0.4 mm (99%) when treated with 20 and 30 mg/ml of the extract. The VLC sub-fraction B at 10 mg/ml showed more inhibitory effects on the germinating radicles as it recorded 100% reduction when compared to the control at 96 h against 80 and 70% recorded by fractions ‘A’ and ‘C’, respectively.

Conclusion: The results obtained showed an evidence of susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and growth inhibitory potentials of B. pinnatum, particularly the active VLC fraction “B”. Thus, further studies are required to support these findings.

Keywords

  • Bryophyllum pinnatum
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • anti-methicillin resistant
  • fractionation
  • bulked fractions
  • vacuum liquid chromatography
  • chromatogram
Open Access

The occurrence of fungi on the commercial dietary supplements based on the milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) available on Polish market

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 29 - 34

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is an important medicinal plant, its achenes contain a silymarin, which has a regenerating and stabilizing effect on liver cells. The milk thistle based dietary supplements are among the best-selling plant pharmaceuticals in the US and the UE.

Objective: The goal of the experiment was to determine which – if any – fungi contaminated either the whole or ground milk thistle achenes, available on the Polish market.

Methods: The mycological analyses were performed on 200 achenes, using deep-freeze blotter method. Ground material was assessed using agar test method. For each sample, 10 Petri dishes were used. The material was applied in five places per one Petri dish, with a micro scoop laboratory spatula. Then, Petri dishes with achenes and ground material were incubated at 20°C under alternating cycles of 12 h NUV light and 12 h darkness. The identification of fungi was performed using stereo microscope and compound microscope, if necessary.

Results: The milk thistle achenes were infested with following fungi: Alternaria alternata, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus spp., Bipolaris sp., Cladosporium spp., Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium spp., Melanospora simplex, Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Sarocladium strictum, Stemphylium botryosum, Trichothecium roseum, Ulocladium consortiale and Verticillium sp. Among them A. alternata predominated. Whereas, milled milk thistle achenes were occupied by Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium sp., Mortierella spp., Mucor spp., Penicillium spp. and R. stolonifer.

Conclusion: Considering the significant fungal contamination of milk thistle achenes-based dietary supplements, it seems reasonable to introduce a system of achene control due to possible microbiological contamination.

Keywords

  • storage fungi
  • pathogenic fungi
  • mycotoxins
  • seed health
  • human health
  • food safety
Open Access

Natural aldose reductase inhibitors for treatment and prevention of diabetic cataract: A review

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 35 - 58

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Aldose reductase (AR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol responsible for the development of diabetic complications like cataracts. Medicinal plants contain several phytocompounds that can inhibit this enzyme.

Objective: The purpose of this review is to cite medicinal plants that have been tested for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase and consequently prevent cataracts and classify the major isolated compounds that have this activity.

Methods: We reviewed 154 articles published between 1954 and 2020 in English via three databases: ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and PubMed. We have classified the plants that showed a significant anti-cataract effect, in the form of a list including the scientific and family names of each plant. Also, we have cited the IC50 values and the active constituents of each plant that showed inhibitory activity towards AR.

Results: We have described 38 herbs belonging to 29 families. Besides, 47 isolated compounds obtained from the cited herbs have shown an AR inhibitory effect: luteolin, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin, 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3’-O-β-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, andrographolide, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8-β-O-D-glucoside-2H-chromen-2-one, E-4-(60-hydroxyhex-30-en-1-yl)phenyl propionate, delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3’,5’-di-O-β-glucopyranoside, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol, (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol, trans-anethole, gallic acid 4-O-β-D-(6’-O-galloyl)-glucoside, β-glucogallin, puerariafuran, quercetin, gallic acid 4-O-β-D-glucoside, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone, protocatechuic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid and syringic acid.

Conclusion: natural therapy becomes an interesting alternative in the treatment and prevention of cataract by using medicinal plants rich in active compounds considered as AR inhibitors.

Keywords

  • aldehyde reductase
  • diabetic complications
  • cataract
  • medicinal plants
  • phytochemicals
  • flavonoids
5 Articles
Open Access

Study of total antioxidant activity of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.)

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: There is a high interest in creating medicines, dietary supplements, cosmetics including plant extract with antioxidant activity. For understanding whether plant extract has a maximum level of antioxidant activity it is important to know the total antioxidant activity of raw material.

Objective: The main goal of study was to find out the green tea leaves total antioxidant activity.

Methods: The antioxidant activity was measured by potentiometric method. Total phenolic, flavonoids, catechins and hydrocinnamic acids derivatives were quantified using Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminium chloride, vanillin and sodium molibdate methods, respectively.

Results: The green tea leaves total antioxidant activity was 660.75 mmol-eqv./mres. dry weight. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity, which indicated its main role in antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: The research showed that the green rea leaves possess a high value of antioxidant activity and it is a good source of phenolic constituents.

Keywords

  • Camellia sinensis L.
  • total antioxidant activity
  • potentiometric method
  • phytochemistry
  • analysis
Open Access

Evaluation of antioxidant activity of extracts from Leucosidea sericea

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 10 - 18

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Leucosidea sericea finds applications in the treatment of herpes and HIV.

Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and determine the total flavonoid contents (TFCs) and total phenolic contents (TPCs) of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol crude extracts obtained from leaves and stem-bark of L. sericea.

Methods: Maceration and hot solvent extraction methods were used to obtain various crude extracts. DPPH and ferric reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Colorimetric aluminium chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu methods were used to determine the TFCs and TPCs, respectively.

Results: The methanol leaf extract showed highest radical scavenging activity of 82.00±0.93% at a concentration of 3000 µg/ml followed by ethyl acetate leaf extract and methanol stem-bark extract with 79.40±5.21 and 75.16±1.15%, respectively. Acetone stem-bark extract showed highest ferric reducing power of 0.539±0.004 at 700 nm at a concentration of 100 µg/ml followed by hexane leaf extract and hexane stem-bark extract with 0.474±0.014 and 0.437±0.013 at 700 nm, respectively. Ethyl acetate stem-bark extract showed highest TFCs of 655.6±0.1111 mg QE/g of DW of the extract followed by acetone stem-bark extract with 450.0±0.00711 mg QE/g of DW of the extract. Acetone stem-bark extract showed highest TPCs of 891.9±0.657 mg TAE/g of the DW of extract followed by methanol stem-bark extract with 878.3±0.029 mg TAE/g of DW of the extract.

Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from leaves and stem-bark of L. sericea was evaluated. L. sericea could be a source of potent antioxidants.

Keywords

  • Leucosidea sericea
  • Rosaceae
  • DPPH assay
  • ferric reducing power assay
  • total flavonoid contents (TFCs)
  • total phenolic contents (TPCs)
Open Access

Anti-methicillin resistant and growth inhibitory studies of extract and fractions of leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz (Crassulaceae)

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 19 - 28

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Bryophyllum pinnatum is a plant with diverse ethnomedicinal claims yet to be verified scientifically.

Objective: This work was aimed at evaluating the extract and vacuum liquid chromatographic (VLC) fractions of B. pinnatum on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and anti-proliferating seed radicle cells of Sorghum bicolor.

Methods: The extract and VLC fractions of B. pinatum were screened phytochemically and subsequently tested against MRSA at concentrations of 3.125–100 mg/ml, while the antiproliferative assay at 1–30 and 1–10 mg/ml.

Results: The extract recorded zone of inhibition of 7.05 mm was only at 100 mg/ml against L20 MRSA strains. While VLC bulked fractions A(1), C (5–7), D (8–9) and E (10) had no zones of inhibition against the strains, fraction B had zones of inhibitions at all concentrations with the highest ones of 9.7 and 8.5 mm at 125 and 62.5 mg/ml, respectively, against MRSA sample (L20). The MIC of the active fraction B was observed at 3.9, 7.8 and 15.6 mg/ml for all samples used. At 96 h of seed incubation, 56 mm radicle length was recorded by the control seeds was reduced to 1.5 mm (97%) and 0.4 mm (99%) when treated with 20 and 30 mg/ml of the extract. The VLC sub-fraction B at 10 mg/ml showed more inhibitory effects on the germinating radicles as it recorded 100% reduction when compared to the control at 96 h against 80 and 70% recorded by fractions ‘A’ and ‘C’, respectively.

Conclusion: The results obtained showed an evidence of susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and growth inhibitory potentials of B. pinnatum, particularly the active VLC fraction “B”. Thus, further studies are required to support these findings.

Keywords

  • Bryophyllum pinnatum
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • anti-methicillin resistant
  • fractionation
  • bulked fractions
  • vacuum liquid chromatography
  • chromatogram
Open Access

The occurrence of fungi on the commercial dietary supplements based on the milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) available on Polish market

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 29 - 34

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is an important medicinal plant, its achenes contain a silymarin, which has a regenerating and stabilizing effect on liver cells. The milk thistle based dietary supplements are among the best-selling plant pharmaceuticals in the US and the UE.

Objective: The goal of the experiment was to determine which – if any – fungi contaminated either the whole or ground milk thistle achenes, available on the Polish market.

Methods: The mycological analyses were performed on 200 achenes, using deep-freeze blotter method. Ground material was assessed using agar test method. For each sample, 10 Petri dishes were used. The material was applied in five places per one Petri dish, with a micro scoop laboratory spatula. Then, Petri dishes with achenes and ground material were incubated at 20°C under alternating cycles of 12 h NUV light and 12 h darkness. The identification of fungi was performed using stereo microscope and compound microscope, if necessary.

Results: The milk thistle achenes were infested with following fungi: Alternaria alternata, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus spp., Bipolaris sp., Cladosporium spp., Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium spp., Melanospora simplex, Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Sarocladium strictum, Stemphylium botryosum, Trichothecium roseum, Ulocladium consortiale and Verticillium sp. Among them A. alternata predominated. Whereas, milled milk thistle achenes were occupied by Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium sp., Mortierella spp., Mucor spp., Penicillium spp. and R. stolonifer.

Conclusion: Considering the significant fungal contamination of milk thistle achenes-based dietary supplements, it seems reasonable to introduce a system of achene control due to possible microbiological contamination.

Keywords

  • storage fungi
  • pathogenic fungi
  • mycotoxins
  • seed health
  • human health
  • food safety
Open Access

Natural aldose reductase inhibitors for treatment and prevention of diabetic cataract: A review

Published Online: 09 May 2022
Page range: 35 - 58

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Aldose reductase (AR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol responsible for the development of diabetic complications like cataracts. Medicinal plants contain several phytocompounds that can inhibit this enzyme.

Objective: The purpose of this review is to cite medicinal plants that have been tested for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase and consequently prevent cataracts and classify the major isolated compounds that have this activity.

Methods: We reviewed 154 articles published between 1954 and 2020 in English via three databases: ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and PubMed. We have classified the plants that showed a significant anti-cataract effect, in the form of a list including the scientific and family names of each plant. Also, we have cited the IC50 values and the active constituents of each plant that showed inhibitory activity towards AR.

Results: We have described 38 herbs belonging to 29 families. Besides, 47 isolated compounds obtained from the cited herbs have shown an AR inhibitory effect: luteolin, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin, 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3’-O-β-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, andrographolide, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8-β-O-D-glucoside-2H-chromen-2-one, E-4-(60-hydroxyhex-30-en-1-yl)phenyl propionate, delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3’,5’-di-O-β-glucopyranoside, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol, (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol, trans-anethole, gallic acid 4-O-β-D-(6’-O-galloyl)-glucoside, β-glucogallin, puerariafuran, quercetin, gallic acid 4-O-β-D-glucoside, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone, protocatechuic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid and syringic acid.

Conclusion: natural therapy becomes an interesting alternative in the treatment and prevention of cataract by using medicinal plants rich in active compounds considered as AR inhibitors.

Keywords

  • aldehyde reductase
  • diabetic complications
  • cataract
  • medicinal plants
  • phytochemicals
  • flavonoids

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