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Volume 68 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 68 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) for commercial purposes in Poland - a system’s analysis

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 1 - 18

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Poland is one of the main exporters of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in Europe. A substantial part of this plant material is collected in the wild. So far, the system of wild collection (WC) of medicinal plants in Poland, its social and ecological aspects have not been studied comprehensively.

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse the organisation of WC system in Poland, including legislation, situation of protected species, and socio-ecological dimensions of the MAPs’ supply chains.

Methods: Data from environmental agencies (RDOŚ) about protected MAPs was analysed. Stakeholders engaged in WC were interviewed. National legislation on WC was reviewed.

Results: Although Poland is the second largest exporter of MAPs in Europe, legislation on wild collection in the country is sparse and incoherent. Monitoring does not apply to WC entirely. The structure of WC has a large degree of informality, lacks transparency, and does not take many sustainability criteria into account.

Conclusions: The system needs major adjustments: a) to insure sustainability of WC, b) to accommodate market demands, including plant material quality.

Keywords

  • medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs)
  • wild collection (WC)
  • legislation
  • protected species
  • supply chains
  • sustainability
Open Access

Phytochemical characterization of Moringa oleifera leaves

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 19 - 26

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Moringa oleifera (moringa) is a fast-growing tree from north India and Himalayan foothills considered to be one of the most nutritious species. Especially it’s leaves contain proteins in a high concentration, all essential amino acids, nutrients like calcium, iron, potassium and cooper, vitamin A, E and group B, and also antioxidants and polyphenols. Many studies have demonstrated the medicinal properties of moringa leaves consumption thanks to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, prevention of diabetes or antitumor and anticancer properties. The amount and number of essential nutrients and phytochemical constituents may vary depending on the plant tissue and age and especially on the climatic and edaphological conditions.

Methods: We pointed to demonstrate moringa plants grown on proper conditions display a better production of its desired compounds. In this work, the mineral, amino acids, antioxidant activity and various bioactive compounds were analysed in moringa leaves extract from plants grown on Tenerife Island under organic production and similar climatic and edaphological conditions as the place of origin.

Results: Our results revealed a high concentration of several nutrients as calcium, potassium and iron, as comparison to other moringa plants; β-carotene (pro-vitamin A), ascorbate (vitamin C) and glutathione, whose function is mainly antioxidant; chlorogenic acid with anticancer function; quercetin with antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic functions, among others; glucomoringin-isothiocyanate with anti-micro-biological and neuroprotective function.

Conclusion: The results obtained in this study placed on Tenerife Island as one of the best suitable places for moringa good quality production and highlight the potential use of moringa novel food for humans and as a biostimulant for plants.

Keywords

  • Moringa oleifera
  • bioactive compounds
  • antioxidant activity
  • Canary Island
Open Access

Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxicity evaluation of flowering buds of Bauhinia variegata L.

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 27 - 36

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Bauhinia variegata is used in traditional medicine in Pakistan.

Objective: The present study was designated to analyze phytochemical screening and cytotoxicity assay of crude aqueous and methanol extracts of flowering buds of Bauhinia variegata.

Methods: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of both extracts were performed by using standard protocols while brine shrimp lethality assay was conducted for cytotoxicity analysis of both extracts.

Results: The highest levels of phenolics, flavonoids and terpenoids were observed in methanol extract with respective standard drugs. The aminoacid content was highest followed by phenol and flavonoids in crude aqueous extract of the raw materials. In cytotoxic studies (brine shrimp lethality assay) the use of methanol extract was reported as potent with LD50 of 241.778 µg/ml as compared to aqueous extract with LD50 of 489.7061 µg/ml.

Conclusion: This study reveals that the presence of bioactive compounds in both extracts are responsible for the treatment of various ailments and being utilized by the traditional folks as a food as well. And showed that methanol extract possess cytotoxic activity and thus needs further scientific intervention for its value addition.

Keywords

  • Bauhinia variegata
  • phytochemical analysis
  • cytotoxic activity
  • secondary metabolites
Open Access

Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee (Coffea robusta L. Linden) bee pollen

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 37 - 44

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Coffee bee pollen contains some precious bioactive compounds, especially phenolic compounds. This material is easily found in many regions in Vietnam and is quite useful for human health.

Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine the best extraction conditions for the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of coffee (Coffea robusta L. Linden) bee pollen with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE).

Methods: TPC and AC of extract of coffee (C. robusta) bee pollen were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In addition, micromorphology of sample was observed using scanning electron micrographs (SEM).

Results: The findings showed that all factors strongly affected the efficiency of the extraction process. The best extraction conditions obtained were ethanol concentration of 60% (v/v), solid to solvent ratio of 1/30 (w/v), extraction time of 7 min, and a microwave power of 314 W.

Conclusion: The highest TPC and AC obtained were 13.73 mg GAE/g DW and 10.08 µmol TE/g DW with aqueous ethanol as the solvent at the optimal extraction condition. In addition, the microstructures of the material changed insignificantly under microwave irradiation.

Keywords

  • bee pollen
  • Coffea robusta
  • microwave
  • extraction
  • polyphenols
Open Access

Cytoprotective roles of epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol on staurosporine-treated mesenchymal stem cells in in vitro culture

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 45 - 52

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: There are many scientific reports on the beneficial effects of epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol on the human body, e.g. antioxidant properties, a protective effect on the circulatory system and reduction of inflammation.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of these substances on the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the presence of the pro-apoptotic factor staurosporine.

Methods: Cell viability WST-1 colorimetric assay.

Results: It was confirmed that both 25 µM/ml and 50 µM/ml of epigallocatechin and 50 µM/ml of resveratrol statistically significantly increased the MSC survival rate.

Conclusion: An excess supply of epigallocatechin gallate (50 µM/ml and higher) has a cytotoxic effect on MSC, which may have a negative impact on the body’s auto-regenerative capacity. Under toxic and stressful conditions, resveratrol and epigallocatechin gallate perform cytoprotective functions, thereby reducing the negative impact of toxic environmental conditions on the mesenchymal stem cells.

Keywords

  • epigallocatechin gallate
  • resveratrol
  • cytoprotection
  • mesenchymal stem cells
  • staurosporine
Open Access

Lack of salidroside impact on selected cytochromes encoding genes transcription in the liver of ethanol induced rats

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 53 - 65

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The molecular basis of in vivo metabolism of selected representatives of phenylethanoids in the presence of ethanol has not been fully elucidated.

Objective: The aim was to estimate a salidroside (Sal) metabolism in the liver tissue in rats with induced alcohol tolerance by assessing changes in the transcription of genes encoding cytochromes: CYP1A2, 2D2, 3A1, 2C23.

Methods: cDNA was synthesized from total RNA isolated from rat liver samples. mRNA level changes were evaluated using real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technique.

Results: Ethanol caused a significant induction of the CYP1A2 and CYP2C23 genes transcription, and a decrease in the CYP3A1 mRNA level, predominantly without statistical significance. A statistically significant increase of the CYP1A2 mRNA level was observed in the group receiving only Sal (4.5 mg/kg b.w.; p.o.) (p<0.01).

Conclusions: There was no unequivocal effect of salidroside on the transcription of investigated cytochrome genes in the liver of rats with induced alcohol tolerance.

Keywords

  • salidroside
  • Rhodiola rosea
  • Rhodiola kirilowii
  • alcohol tolerance
  • liver
  • cytochrome
  • biotransformation
Open Access

Pilot study of dietary supplement consumption by kindergarten and elementary school children

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 66 - 72

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The use of dietary supplements has been increasing globally, especially among children. A lot of parents are influenced by advertising. In addition, in Poland a trend to self-medication has been observed. Parents often do not distinguish dietary supplements, medicinal products and non-prescription drugs. These are the most common reasons for the increase in sales of dietary supplements in Poland. Until a few years ago, many products containing vitamins and minerals intended for children were sold as medicines. Today, a product with the same formulation is sold as a dietary supplement. However, a few studies have been conducted to assess the use of dietary supplements among Polish children.

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse the use of dietary supplements provided by parents and the study of the awareness of the risks associated with supplements intake among preschool and elementary school students.

Methods: The study was conducted by questionnaire method among 316 parents/legal guardians of children attending elementary schools and preschools in three provinces.

Results: The questionnaire was completed by 88.3% mothers and 11.7% fathers. The age of the respondents was as follows: 64.5% aged 31–40, 18.3% aged 41–45, 9.5% aged 26–30, 7.2% above 46 years and only 0.3% younger than 25. About 80% of parents administered their children with dietary supplements in specific situations. Vitamin and mineral supplements were predominant. A statistical analysis showed the effect of the education level as well as having many children on the administration of dietary supplements.

Conclusion: The questionnaire shows that the vast majority of parents/legal guardians administer their children with dietary supplements. There is a need to educate parents/legal guardians about the use of supplements and the risks involved.

Keywords

  • dietary supplements
  • herbal substances
  • preschool
  • elementary school
  • children
  • Poland
7 Articles
Open Access

Wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) for commercial purposes in Poland - a system’s analysis

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 1 - 18

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Poland is one of the main exporters of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in Europe. A substantial part of this plant material is collected in the wild. So far, the system of wild collection (WC) of medicinal plants in Poland, its social and ecological aspects have not been studied comprehensively.

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse the organisation of WC system in Poland, including legislation, situation of protected species, and socio-ecological dimensions of the MAPs’ supply chains.

Methods: Data from environmental agencies (RDOŚ) about protected MAPs was analysed. Stakeholders engaged in WC were interviewed. National legislation on WC was reviewed.

Results: Although Poland is the second largest exporter of MAPs in Europe, legislation on wild collection in the country is sparse and incoherent. Monitoring does not apply to WC entirely. The structure of WC has a large degree of informality, lacks transparency, and does not take many sustainability criteria into account.

Conclusions: The system needs major adjustments: a) to insure sustainability of WC, b) to accommodate market demands, including plant material quality.

Keywords

  • medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs)
  • wild collection (WC)
  • legislation
  • protected species
  • supply chains
  • sustainability
Open Access

Phytochemical characterization of Moringa oleifera leaves

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 19 - 26

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Moringa oleifera (moringa) is a fast-growing tree from north India and Himalayan foothills considered to be one of the most nutritious species. Especially it’s leaves contain proteins in a high concentration, all essential amino acids, nutrients like calcium, iron, potassium and cooper, vitamin A, E and group B, and also antioxidants and polyphenols. Many studies have demonstrated the medicinal properties of moringa leaves consumption thanks to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, prevention of diabetes or antitumor and anticancer properties. The amount and number of essential nutrients and phytochemical constituents may vary depending on the plant tissue and age and especially on the climatic and edaphological conditions.

Methods: We pointed to demonstrate moringa plants grown on proper conditions display a better production of its desired compounds. In this work, the mineral, amino acids, antioxidant activity and various bioactive compounds were analysed in moringa leaves extract from plants grown on Tenerife Island under organic production and similar climatic and edaphological conditions as the place of origin.

Results: Our results revealed a high concentration of several nutrients as calcium, potassium and iron, as comparison to other moringa plants; β-carotene (pro-vitamin A), ascorbate (vitamin C) and glutathione, whose function is mainly antioxidant; chlorogenic acid with anticancer function; quercetin with antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic functions, among others; glucomoringin-isothiocyanate with anti-micro-biological and neuroprotective function.

Conclusion: The results obtained in this study placed on Tenerife Island as one of the best suitable places for moringa good quality production and highlight the potential use of moringa novel food for humans and as a biostimulant for plants.

Keywords

  • Moringa oleifera
  • bioactive compounds
  • antioxidant activity
  • Canary Island
Open Access

Phytochemical analysis and cytotoxicity evaluation of flowering buds of Bauhinia variegata L.

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 27 - 36

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Bauhinia variegata is used in traditional medicine in Pakistan.

Objective: The present study was designated to analyze phytochemical screening and cytotoxicity assay of crude aqueous and methanol extracts of flowering buds of Bauhinia variegata.

Methods: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of both extracts were performed by using standard protocols while brine shrimp lethality assay was conducted for cytotoxicity analysis of both extracts.

Results: The highest levels of phenolics, flavonoids and terpenoids were observed in methanol extract with respective standard drugs. The aminoacid content was highest followed by phenol and flavonoids in crude aqueous extract of the raw materials. In cytotoxic studies (brine shrimp lethality assay) the use of methanol extract was reported as potent with LD50 of 241.778 µg/ml as compared to aqueous extract with LD50 of 489.7061 µg/ml.

Conclusion: This study reveals that the presence of bioactive compounds in both extracts are responsible for the treatment of various ailments and being utilized by the traditional folks as a food as well. And showed that methanol extract possess cytotoxic activity and thus needs further scientific intervention for its value addition.

Keywords

  • Bauhinia variegata
  • phytochemical analysis
  • cytotoxic activity
  • secondary metabolites
Open Access

Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee (Coffea robusta L. Linden) bee pollen

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 37 - 44

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Coffee bee pollen contains some precious bioactive compounds, especially phenolic compounds. This material is easily found in many regions in Vietnam and is quite useful for human health.

Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine the best extraction conditions for the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of coffee (Coffea robusta L. Linden) bee pollen with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE).

Methods: TPC and AC of extract of coffee (C. robusta) bee pollen were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In addition, micromorphology of sample was observed using scanning electron micrographs (SEM).

Results: The findings showed that all factors strongly affected the efficiency of the extraction process. The best extraction conditions obtained were ethanol concentration of 60% (v/v), solid to solvent ratio of 1/30 (w/v), extraction time of 7 min, and a microwave power of 314 W.

Conclusion: The highest TPC and AC obtained were 13.73 mg GAE/g DW and 10.08 µmol TE/g DW with aqueous ethanol as the solvent at the optimal extraction condition. In addition, the microstructures of the material changed insignificantly under microwave irradiation.

Keywords

  • bee pollen
  • Coffea robusta
  • microwave
  • extraction
  • polyphenols
Open Access

Cytoprotective roles of epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol on staurosporine-treated mesenchymal stem cells in in vitro culture

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 45 - 52

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: There are many scientific reports on the beneficial effects of epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol on the human body, e.g. antioxidant properties, a protective effect on the circulatory system and reduction of inflammation.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of these substances on the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the presence of the pro-apoptotic factor staurosporine.

Methods: Cell viability WST-1 colorimetric assay.

Results: It was confirmed that both 25 µM/ml and 50 µM/ml of epigallocatechin and 50 µM/ml of resveratrol statistically significantly increased the MSC survival rate.

Conclusion: An excess supply of epigallocatechin gallate (50 µM/ml and higher) has a cytotoxic effect on MSC, which may have a negative impact on the body’s auto-regenerative capacity. Under toxic and stressful conditions, resveratrol and epigallocatechin gallate perform cytoprotective functions, thereby reducing the negative impact of toxic environmental conditions on the mesenchymal stem cells.

Keywords

  • epigallocatechin gallate
  • resveratrol
  • cytoprotection
  • mesenchymal stem cells
  • staurosporine
Open Access

Lack of salidroside impact on selected cytochromes encoding genes transcription in the liver of ethanol induced rats

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 53 - 65

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The molecular basis of in vivo metabolism of selected representatives of phenylethanoids in the presence of ethanol has not been fully elucidated.

Objective: The aim was to estimate a salidroside (Sal) metabolism in the liver tissue in rats with induced alcohol tolerance by assessing changes in the transcription of genes encoding cytochromes: CYP1A2, 2D2, 3A1, 2C23.

Methods: cDNA was synthesized from total RNA isolated from rat liver samples. mRNA level changes were evaluated using real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technique.

Results: Ethanol caused a significant induction of the CYP1A2 and CYP2C23 genes transcription, and a decrease in the CYP3A1 mRNA level, predominantly without statistical significance. A statistically significant increase of the CYP1A2 mRNA level was observed in the group receiving only Sal (4.5 mg/kg b.w.; p.o.) (p<0.01).

Conclusions: There was no unequivocal effect of salidroside on the transcription of investigated cytochrome genes in the liver of rats with induced alcohol tolerance.

Keywords

  • salidroside
  • Rhodiola rosea
  • Rhodiola kirilowii
  • alcohol tolerance
  • liver
  • cytochrome
  • biotransformation
Open Access

Pilot study of dietary supplement consumption by kindergarten and elementary school children

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Page range: 66 - 72

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The use of dietary supplements has been increasing globally, especially among children. A lot of parents are influenced by advertising. In addition, in Poland a trend to self-medication has been observed. Parents often do not distinguish dietary supplements, medicinal products and non-prescription drugs. These are the most common reasons for the increase in sales of dietary supplements in Poland. Until a few years ago, many products containing vitamins and minerals intended for children were sold as medicines. Today, a product with the same formulation is sold as a dietary supplement. However, a few studies have been conducted to assess the use of dietary supplements among Polish children.

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse the use of dietary supplements provided by parents and the study of the awareness of the risks associated with supplements intake among preschool and elementary school students.

Methods: The study was conducted by questionnaire method among 316 parents/legal guardians of children attending elementary schools and preschools in three provinces.

Results: The questionnaire was completed by 88.3% mothers and 11.7% fathers. The age of the respondents was as follows: 64.5% aged 31–40, 18.3% aged 41–45, 9.5% aged 26–30, 7.2% above 46 years and only 0.3% younger than 25. About 80% of parents administered their children with dietary supplements in specific situations. Vitamin and mineral supplements were predominant. A statistical analysis showed the effect of the education level as well as having many children on the administration of dietary supplements.

Conclusion: The questionnaire shows that the vast majority of parents/legal guardians administer their children with dietary supplements. There is a need to educate parents/legal guardians about the use of supplements and the risks involved.

Keywords

  • dietary supplements
  • herbal substances
  • preschool
  • elementary school
  • children
  • Poland

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