Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 68 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 68 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

In silico studies of selected xanthophylls as potential candidates against SARS-CoV-2 targeting main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro)

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The main protease (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) are essential for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Both proteases can be targets for drugs acting against SARS-CoV-2.

Objective: This paper aims to investigate the in silico activity of nine xanthophylls as inhibitors of Mpro and PLpro.

Methods: The structures of Mpro (PDB-ID: 6LU7) and PLpro (PDB-ID: 6W9C) were obtained from RCSB Protein Data Bank and developed with BIOVIA Discovery Studio. Active sites of proteins were performed using CASTp. For docking the PyRx was used. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ADMET were evaluated using SwissADME and pkCSM.

Results: β-cryptoxanthin exhibited the highest binding energy: –7.4 kcal/mol in the active site of Mpro. In PLpro active site, the highest binding energy had canthaxanthin of –9.4 kcal/mol, astaxanthin –9.3 kcal/mol, flavoxanthin –9.2 kcal/mol and violaxanthin –9.2 kcal/mol. ADMET studies presented lower toxicity of xanthophylls in comparison to ritonavir and ivermectin.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that xanthophylls can be used as potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 main protease and papain-like protease.

Keywords

  • coronavirus
  • COVID-19
  • pandemics
  • computer-aided drug design
  • antiviral
Open Access

Potential of karamunting (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) fraction against kidney damage in diabetic rats

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 9 - 16

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Karamunting (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) is Indonesian native plant that contains high anti-oxidant compounds with the potential to suppress oxidative stress activity in cells. This study is the first research to specifically explore the role of the karamunting fraction in protecting kidney damage due to the formation of AGEs in the renal glomerulus in diabetes mellitus.

Objective: This study aims to assess the impact of karamunting on blood glucose profile, HbA1c, insulin profile and kidney condition (AGEs expression, TNF-α and kidney histology) in diabetic rats.

Methods: The karamunting extraction process was carried out by maceration with ethanol. Induction of diabetes mellitus was carried out using streptozotocin. Thirty male rats (Rattus norvegicus), Wistar strain weighing between 200–250 grams were the subject in this study. HbA1c, insulin, TNF-α, AGEs levels were evaluated in the kidney tissue. Histological assessment of the kidney was carried out.

Results: Karamunting can improve blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. This improvement in blood glucose levels causes an improvement in the level of HbA1c. Administration of karamunting fraction can prevent AGEs deposition in renal tissue, which in turn will inhibits the inflammation and prevents further damage of kidneys.

Conclusion: Karamunting fraction can improve blood glucose regulation so that it can prevent further damage and complications of kidney organs in diabetic rats.

Keywords

  • glycated haemoglobin A
  • insulin
  • protective agents
  • oxidative stress
  • Rhodomyrtus tomentosa
Open Access

Attitude and awareness of medicinal plants in treatment of kidney lithiasis in eastern Morocco: a retrospective study

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 17 - 28

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Kidney stone is a major public health problem. Over 5% of the population is affected by kidney stones, with causes a lifetime risk of transmitting renal lithiasis of about 8 to 10%.

Objective: The goal of our study is the attitude and awareness of lithiasis patients regarding the use of medicinal plants in eastern Morocco.

Methods: We carried out a study on lithiasis patients to retrospectively identify medicinal plants used in this disease, using a pre-established questionnaire. The study was carried out from 10 December 2017 to 28 February 2018.

Results: Our survey describes several medicinal plants used to treat renal lithiasis in eastern Morocco. Most patients used Herniaria hirsuta L., Zea mays L., Urtica dioica L., and Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss. This preliminary study showed that the first reason to use medicinal plants in half of lithiasis patients is to calm the pain and expel the stones. The primary source of plant use information is oral tradition. However 67% of lithiasis patients are unaware of the harmful and toxic effects that can appear.

Conclusion: Medicinal plants must, like medicines, comply with strict requirements and standard rules of use to which only the specialist in herbal medicine can respond and sensitize people to the dangers of irrational consumption of medicinal plants.

Keywords

  • renal lithiasis
  • medicinal plants
  • eastern Morocco
  • retrospective study
Open Access

Ethnobotanical investigation of significant seasonal medicinal weeds of Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab, Pakistan

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 29 - 38

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Medicinal plants are found throughout the world but most are considered weeds. They are – directly or indirectly – the major source of medicines in pharmaceutical and herbal industries. Formulations used to prepare medicines or the method of use for these plants are mainly based on folk or traditional knowledge. This folk knowledge is not documented in many areas and needs to be explored.

Objectives: This study was aimed to enlist the seasonal weed species with traditional medicinal usage in Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab, Pakistan.

Methods: Field surveys were arranged in winter and summer 2019–2020 to enlist the important medicinal weeds and traditional knowledge of the local community. Data collected were as follows: local name of weed, medicinal use, method and part used.

Results: Numerous wild perennial, biennial and annual plants were identified, 30 of them were ethnomedicinally important in the local community. They were grouped in 16 families. It was found that whole weed is used in many prescriptions (37%). Achyranthes aspera L. (Amaranthaceae) was the most common weed used in treating fevers, respiratory problems and asthma. Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) was used in summer drinks to reduce thirst, improve digestion and liver function. Chenopodium album L. (Amaranthaceae) was used with 0.71 UV and 0.147 RFC values. Medicago polymorpha L. (Fabaceae) was used to treat kidney, intestinal and bladder infections. Its UV was 0.65 and RFC was 0.121. Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) was used in impotency treatment, and in the removal of kidney stones and urinary tract infections treatment. It has 0.63 UV and 0.21 RFC values. This weed also showed the highest Fidelity Level (FL) (77%), as compared to other weeds.

Conclusion: It was concluded that there are many significant medicinal weeds in the Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab, Pakistan that are used in traditional medicines in treating various disorders. These plants also showed herbal or pharmacological importance that can be used to develop medicine at commercial scale.

Keywords

  • weeds
  • ethnobotany
  • flora
  • survey
Open Access

Probiotics in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 39 - 48

Abstract

Summary

The human microbiota has a tremendous effect on our health. In the last decades, our knowledge about interactions between bacteria and humans have grown greatly. Not only is it necessary for humans to synthesize vitamins, to have tight intestinal barriers or protect from pathogens, it also has an impact on our immune system and thus plays an important role in autoimmune diseases and prevention of excessive inflammatory response. The idea of probiotics is to restore the balance in humans digestive microbiota. There is a growing number of scientific papers that proves a positive impact of using probiotics in various diseases. However, there are still questions that need to be answered before probiotics play a bigger role in the treatment. This paper presents the information about the use of probiotics in most common diseases of gastrointestinal tract.

Keywords

  • probiotics
  • gastrointestinal diseases
  • microbiota
Open Access

Phytochemistry and biological activities of Opuntia seed oils: Opuntia dillenii (Ker Gawl.) Haw. and Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. A review

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 49 - 64

Abstract

Summary

Opuntia species belong to semi-arid and arid regions of Mexico and the United States. O. ficus-indica and O. dillenii are commonly used in alternative medicine to treat various diseases. Up to date, several scientific works have been carried out on the different parts of these plants. However, over the last few years, studies have been focusing on the oil obtained from the fruit seeds of these species. For this reason, this study aims to draw the attention of researchers toward the phytochemical and the pharmacological effects of these two Opuntia oils, which would help set up other scientific projects that promote these products. Phytochemical studies have shown that these oils are rich in biologically active molecules, such as unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (mainly linoleic acid and β-sitosterol), as well as vitamin E, which is represented only by the γ-tocopherol. Besides, these oils are rich in polyphenols that protect them from photo-oxidation. Moreover, several studies have shown their antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective activities, as well as their hypolipidemic properties. The beneficial effects of these oils include also their ability to block the weight loss, and what makes them more interesting is their safety, according to the literature.

Keywords

  • Opuntia ficus-indica
  • Opuntia dillenii
  • seed oil
  • phytochemistry
  • biological effect
Open Access

Nigerian polyherbal-based hydrotherapy: a panacea to infectious diseases

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 65 - 79

Abstract

Summary

A global society, including developed countries, continues to struggle with fatal diseases that are difficult to treat with Western medicine. A variety of infectious diseases have existed for ages, but in Africa they had been limited thanks to the Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) prior to the introduction of cosmopolitan medicine. Influenza virus repression has been demonstrated by a number of herbal antivirals, yet the invaluable therapeutic potential of herbal medicine has been underestimated. Despite various reliable methods offered by Western medicine, the globally destructive COVID-19 pandemic requires a successful fight. The wisdom of African IKS used in tackling epidemics that have broken out in the past is brought to mind again. Pneumonia – a COVID-19 symptom, could be treated with polyherbal fomentation. Selected plants cultivated across Nigeria for hydrotherapy are under consideration to be used in proper doses. Given the potential associated with IKS, a multi-disciplinary approach involving experts in phytomedicine, ethnobotany, phytochemistry, plant physiology and ecology is necessary to unlock the therapeutic potential of traditional medicine.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • indigenous knowledge system
  • influenza
  • fomentation
  • phytomedicine
  • coronavirus
7 Articles
Open Access

In silico studies of selected xanthophylls as potential candidates against SARS-CoV-2 targeting main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro)

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The main protease (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) are essential for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Both proteases can be targets for drugs acting against SARS-CoV-2.

Objective: This paper aims to investigate the in silico activity of nine xanthophylls as inhibitors of Mpro and PLpro.

Methods: The structures of Mpro (PDB-ID: 6LU7) and PLpro (PDB-ID: 6W9C) were obtained from RCSB Protein Data Bank and developed with BIOVIA Discovery Studio. Active sites of proteins were performed using CASTp. For docking the PyRx was used. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ADMET were evaluated using SwissADME and pkCSM.

Results: β-cryptoxanthin exhibited the highest binding energy: –7.4 kcal/mol in the active site of Mpro. In PLpro active site, the highest binding energy had canthaxanthin of –9.4 kcal/mol, astaxanthin –9.3 kcal/mol, flavoxanthin –9.2 kcal/mol and violaxanthin –9.2 kcal/mol. ADMET studies presented lower toxicity of xanthophylls in comparison to ritonavir and ivermectin.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that xanthophylls can be used as potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 main protease and papain-like protease.

Keywords

  • coronavirus
  • COVID-19
  • pandemics
  • computer-aided drug design
  • antiviral
Open Access

Potential of karamunting (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) fraction against kidney damage in diabetic rats

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 9 - 16

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Karamunting (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) is Indonesian native plant that contains high anti-oxidant compounds with the potential to suppress oxidative stress activity in cells. This study is the first research to specifically explore the role of the karamunting fraction in protecting kidney damage due to the formation of AGEs in the renal glomerulus in diabetes mellitus.

Objective: This study aims to assess the impact of karamunting on blood glucose profile, HbA1c, insulin profile and kidney condition (AGEs expression, TNF-α and kidney histology) in diabetic rats.

Methods: The karamunting extraction process was carried out by maceration with ethanol. Induction of diabetes mellitus was carried out using streptozotocin. Thirty male rats (Rattus norvegicus), Wistar strain weighing between 200–250 grams were the subject in this study. HbA1c, insulin, TNF-α, AGEs levels were evaluated in the kidney tissue. Histological assessment of the kidney was carried out.

Results: Karamunting can improve blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. This improvement in blood glucose levels causes an improvement in the level of HbA1c. Administration of karamunting fraction can prevent AGEs deposition in renal tissue, which in turn will inhibits the inflammation and prevents further damage of kidneys.

Conclusion: Karamunting fraction can improve blood glucose regulation so that it can prevent further damage and complications of kidney organs in diabetic rats.

Keywords

  • glycated haemoglobin A
  • insulin
  • protective agents
  • oxidative stress
  • Rhodomyrtus tomentosa
Open Access

Attitude and awareness of medicinal plants in treatment of kidney lithiasis in eastern Morocco: a retrospective study

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 17 - 28

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Kidney stone is a major public health problem. Over 5% of the population is affected by kidney stones, with causes a lifetime risk of transmitting renal lithiasis of about 8 to 10%.

Objective: The goal of our study is the attitude and awareness of lithiasis patients regarding the use of medicinal plants in eastern Morocco.

Methods: We carried out a study on lithiasis patients to retrospectively identify medicinal plants used in this disease, using a pre-established questionnaire. The study was carried out from 10 December 2017 to 28 February 2018.

Results: Our survey describes several medicinal plants used to treat renal lithiasis in eastern Morocco. Most patients used Herniaria hirsuta L., Zea mays L., Urtica dioica L., and Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss. This preliminary study showed that the first reason to use medicinal plants in half of lithiasis patients is to calm the pain and expel the stones. The primary source of plant use information is oral tradition. However 67% of lithiasis patients are unaware of the harmful and toxic effects that can appear.

Conclusion: Medicinal plants must, like medicines, comply with strict requirements and standard rules of use to which only the specialist in herbal medicine can respond and sensitize people to the dangers of irrational consumption of medicinal plants.

Keywords

  • renal lithiasis
  • medicinal plants
  • eastern Morocco
  • retrospective study
Open Access

Ethnobotanical investigation of significant seasonal medicinal weeds of Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab, Pakistan

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 29 - 38

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Medicinal plants are found throughout the world but most are considered weeds. They are – directly or indirectly – the major source of medicines in pharmaceutical and herbal industries. Formulations used to prepare medicines or the method of use for these plants are mainly based on folk or traditional knowledge. This folk knowledge is not documented in many areas and needs to be explored.

Objectives: This study was aimed to enlist the seasonal weed species with traditional medicinal usage in Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab, Pakistan.

Methods: Field surveys were arranged in winter and summer 2019–2020 to enlist the important medicinal weeds and traditional knowledge of the local community. Data collected were as follows: local name of weed, medicinal use, method and part used.

Results: Numerous wild perennial, biennial and annual plants were identified, 30 of them were ethnomedicinally important in the local community. They were grouped in 16 families. It was found that whole weed is used in many prescriptions (37%). Achyranthes aspera L. (Amaranthaceae) was the most common weed used in treating fevers, respiratory problems and asthma. Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) was used in summer drinks to reduce thirst, improve digestion and liver function. Chenopodium album L. (Amaranthaceae) was used with 0.71 UV and 0.147 RFC values. Medicago polymorpha L. (Fabaceae) was used to treat kidney, intestinal and bladder infections. Its UV was 0.65 and RFC was 0.121. Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) was used in impotency treatment, and in the removal of kidney stones and urinary tract infections treatment. It has 0.63 UV and 0.21 RFC values. This weed also showed the highest Fidelity Level (FL) (77%), as compared to other weeds.

Conclusion: It was concluded that there are many significant medicinal weeds in the Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab, Pakistan that are used in traditional medicines in treating various disorders. These plants also showed herbal or pharmacological importance that can be used to develop medicine at commercial scale.

Keywords

  • weeds
  • ethnobotany
  • flora
  • survey
Open Access

Probiotics in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 39 - 48

Abstract

Summary

The human microbiota has a tremendous effect on our health. In the last decades, our knowledge about interactions between bacteria and humans have grown greatly. Not only is it necessary for humans to synthesize vitamins, to have tight intestinal barriers or protect from pathogens, it also has an impact on our immune system and thus plays an important role in autoimmune diseases and prevention of excessive inflammatory response. The idea of probiotics is to restore the balance in humans digestive microbiota. There is a growing number of scientific papers that proves a positive impact of using probiotics in various diseases. However, there are still questions that need to be answered before probiotics play a bigger role in the treatment. This paper presents the information about the use of probiotics in most common diseases of gastrointestinal tract.

Keywords

  • probiotics
  • gastrointestinal diseases
  • microbiota
Open Access

Phytochemistry and biological activities of Opuntia seed oils: Opuntia dillenii (Ker Gawl.) Haw. and Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. A review

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 49 - 64

Abstract

Summary

Opuntia species belong to semi-arid and arid regions of Mexico and the United States. O. ficus-indica and O. dillenii are commonly used in alternative medicine to treat various diseases. Up to date, several scientific works have been carried out on the different parts of these plants. However, over the last few years, studies have been focusing on the oil obtained from the fruit seeds of these species. For this reason, this study aims to draw the attention of researchers toward the phytochemical and the pharmacological effects of these two Opuntia oils, which would help set up other scientific projects that promote these products. Phytochemical studies have shown that these oils are rich in biologically active molecules, such as unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (mainly linoleic acid and β-sitosterol), as well as vitamin E, which is represented only by the γ-tocopherol. Besides, these oils are rich in polyphenols that protect them from photo-oxidation. Moreover, several studies have shown their antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective activities, as well as their hypolipidemic properties. The beneficial effects of these oils include also their ability to block the weight loss, and what makes them more interesting is their safety, according to the literature.

Keywords

  • Opuntia ficus-indica
  • Opuntia dillenii
  • seed oil
  • phytochemistry
  • biological effect
Open Access

Nigerian polyherbal-based hydrotherapy: a panacea to infectious diseases

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Page range: 65 - 79

Abstract

Summary

A global society, including developed countries, continues to struggle with fatal diseases that are difficult to treat with Western medicine. A variety of infectious diseases have existed for ages, but in Africa they had been limited thanks to the Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) prior to the introduction of cosmopolitan medicine. Influenza virus repression has been demonstrated by a number of herbal antivirals, yet the invaluable therapeutic potential of herbal medicine has been underestimated. Despite various reliable methods offered by Western medicine, the globally destructive COVID-19 pandemic requires a successful fight. The wisdom of African IKS used in tackling epidemics that have broken out in the past is brought to mind again. Pneumonia – a COVID-19 symptom, could be treated with polyherbal fomentation. Selected plants cultivated across Nigeria for hydrotherapy are under consideration to be used in proper doses. Given the potential associated with IKS, a multi-disciplinary approach involving experts in phytomedicine, ethnobotany, phytochemistry, plant physiology and ecology is necessary to unlock the therapeutic potential of traditional medicine.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • indigenous knowledge system
  • influenza
  • fomentation
  • phytomedicine
  • coronavirus

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo