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Volume 68 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 68 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

Chemical composition of dried Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves and effect of ultrasound-assisted extraction on total steviosides content in extract

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Steviol stevioside, which has been used in the production of food products as a low-calorie sweeten, is one of the main glycoside groups in the leaves of the Stevia plants. It is useful for human health.

Objective: The main objection of the present study was to find out some major chemical compositions of the dried Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves and an effective, affordable, and environmentally friendly method to reach the high extraction yield of total steviosides from them. Therefore, a novel extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), was carried out to extract total steviosides from dried leaves of S. rebaudiana plant with ethanol of 70% (v/v) as a solvent.

Methods: Some major chemical compositions of the dried S. rebaudiana leaves were analyzed according to the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and total steviosides content (TSC) was measured by anthrone-sulphuric acid colorimetric assay with main influencing factors including material/solvent ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time.

Results: The results referred that some chemical compounds such as protein, lipid, fibre, sugar, etc. existed in this material. The best extraction conditions were the sample/solvent ratio of 1:100 (g/ml), extraction temperature of 75oC, and extraction time of 30 min.

Conclusion: The highest amount of total steviosides content of 8.894 % was obtained at the optimal extraction condition. Consequently, these results demonstrated that the parameters of UAE were applied successfully for producing total glycosides.

Keywords

  • chemical composition
  • extraction
  • sweetener
  • total steviosides content
  • ultrasound
Open Access

Effect of different drying processes on an antioxidant potential of three species of the Lamiaceae family

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 8 - 17

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Spice plants are a rich source of biologically active compounds. Processes of drying, limits the development of microorganisms and biochemical reactions in raw herbs, at the same time modifies their chemical composition.

Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of drying process of selected plants on their anti-oxidant potential and the content of biologically active compounds.

Methods: The herbal materials thyme herb (Thymus vulgaris L.), sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.) and rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis) were dried using two methods: convective (at 30° C), and freeze-drying. In both, fresh and subjected to drying processes herbs, changes in total polyphenol and antioxidant potential (with the DPPH radical), vitamin C (in the form of ascorbic acid) and chlorophyll pigments contents, were studied.

Results: The highest content of polyphenols and vitamin C was recorded in rosemary, while sage was characte- rized by the highest content of chlorophylls. It was found that the drying processes caused large losses of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and dyes in comparison to the fresh material. The highest losses of vitamin C occurred in convection dried sage (95%), while most was preserved in lyophilised thyme (losses 74%). Drying had also influenced the reduction of the content of chlorophylls with the largest loss of these compounds, at 94% observed in the freeze-dried rosemary. However, the content of polyphenols increased, underscoring a large impact on the antioxidant activity of herbs.

Conclusions: Drying processes resulted in the release of phenolic compounds, so their content increased three to four times in the case of rosemary and sage. The largest increase was observed in the case of lyophilised thyme. Simultaneously, the antioxidant potential was significantly increased. Herbal droughts proved to be a rich source of antioxidant compounds with promising applications as a food additive.

Keywords

  • drying
  • herbs
  • antioxidant activity
  • ascorbic acid
  • chlorophyll
Open Access

Comparative analysis on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Algerian fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and Syrian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 18 - 34

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Natural products represent a gold mine for scientists looking for compounds for the treatment of health problems and diseases with their different biological and pharmacological activities. However, recent research is focused on finding natural sources of antioxidants.

Objective: The objective of current research was to determine the phytochemical profile of Algerian fenu-greek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), and Syrian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds in order to characterize their phenolic compounds and to determine their antioxidant activities.

Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoids, condensed and hydrolysable tannins contents were quantified using Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminium chloride, vanillin and ferric chloride methods, respectively. Phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC method and antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH assay.

Results: The higher amounts of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, condensed and hydrolysable tannins were given by fenugreek. Results of HPLC analysis of our plants showed that eight phytochemical compounds were found in cumin extract, and seven molecules in fenugreek extract. Moreover, fenugreek possessed higher antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: This study confirmed that our plants are a good source of phenolic contents and possess a high antioxidant activity.

Keywords

  • Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
  • Cuminum cyminum L.
  • phytochemistry
  • HPLC
  • DPPH
Open Access

Isolation, characterization and evaluation of anti-proliferative properties of andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata on cultured HaCaT cells

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 35 - 45

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by hyper-proliferation, abnormal epidermal keratinocytes and inflammatory infiltration. It affects approximately 4% of the population globally. Herbal extracts have better results with less toxic effects than the synthetic drugs in the treatment of psoriasis.

Objective: Present study was aimed to access the anti-psoriatic effect of andrographolide extracted from Andrographis paniculate (A. paniculata).

Method: We extracted, characterized, and screened the extracted andrographolide for anti-proliferative characteristics using cultured cell model of human HaCaT keratinocyte.

Results: Andrographolide at 31.25 µg/mL (90 µM) demonstrated significant inhibitory effect on human HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation in cell culture. To our best knowledge, we reported the anti-proliferative potency of andrographolide extracted from A. paniculata for the first time.

Conclusion: The results suggest that the andrographolide extracted from A. paniculata plant may have potential to be used in the management of psoriasis.

Keywords

  • andrographolide
  • Andrographis paniculata
  • anti-proliferative
  • psoriasis
  • epidermal keratinocytes
Open Access

Scope of herbal mucilage in pharmaceutical formulations. A review

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 46 - 57

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the article was to obtain maximum information about plant mucilage, its sources and applications in the pharmaceutical industry. This study focuses on the scientific articles and books available in Internet resources and college library that deal with the sources, applications, extraction and isolation of plant mucilage. Mucilage is obtained mainly from plant sources and can be isolated easily. Due to the low cost, easy availability, non-toxicity, non-irritancy, and biocompatibility, mucilage is of great demand in the field of pharmaceuticals. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Abelmoschus esculentus L, Plantago ovata Forssk. and Aloe barbadensis L. are some common sources of mucilage. The isolation methods vary depending on the part of the plant where mucilage is present. It is commonly used as gelling agent, suspending agent, binder, and disintegrant. Since it is hydrophilic in nature, chances of deterioration are higher. In this review, different mucilage sources and their isolation methods are discussed in detail. Mucilage is used as excipient in many formulations of tablets, suspensions, gels, etc. The study explores the potential of plant mucilage as an excipient in pharmaceutical formulations. The biodegradable and biocompatible properties of this inexpensive excipient make it more favourable for the newer formulation development.

Keywords

  • mucilage
  • herbal excipient
  • suspending agent
  • binding agent
  • disintegrating agent
5 Articles
Open Access

Chemical composition of dried Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves and effect of ultrasound-assisted extraction on total steviosides content in extract

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Steviol stevioside, which has been used in the production of food products as a low-calorie sweeten, is one of the main glycoside groups in the leaves of the Stevia plants. It is useful for human health.

Objective: The main objection of the present study was to find out some major chemical compositions of the dried Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves and an effective, affordable, and environmentally friendly method to reach the high extraction yield of total steviosides from them. Therefore, a novel extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), was carried out to extract total steviosides from dried leaves of S. rebaudiana plant with ethanol of 70% (v/v) as a solvent.

Methods: Some major chemical compositions of the dried S. rebaudiana leaves were analyzed according to the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and total steviosides content (TSC) was measured by anthrone-sulphuric acid colorimetric assay with main influencing factors including material/solvent ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time.

Results: The results referred that some chemical compounds such as protein, lipid, fibre, sugar, etc. existed in this material. The best extraction conditions were the sample/solvent ratio of 1:100 (g/ml), extraction temperature of 75oC, and extraction time of 30 min.

Conclusion: The highest amount of total steviosides content of 8.894 % was obtained at the optimal extraction condition. Consequently, these results demonstrated that the parameters of UAE were applied successfully for producing total glycosides.

Keywords

  • chemical composition
  • extraction
  • sweetener
  • total steviosides content
  • ultrasound
Open Access

Effect of different drying processes on an antioxidant potential of three species of the Lamiaceae family

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 8 - 17

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Spice plants are a rich source of biologically active compounds. Processes of drying, limits the development of microorganisms and biochemical reactions in raw herbs, at the same time modifies their chemical composition.

Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of drying process of selected plants on their anti-oxidant potential and the content of biologically active compounds.

Methods: The herbal materials thyme herb (Thymus vulgaris L.), sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.) and rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis) were dried using two methods: convective (at 30° C), and freeze-drying. In both, fresh and subjected to drying processes herbs, changes in total polyphenol and antioxidant potential (with the DPPH radical), vitamin C (in the form of ascorbic acid) and chlorophyll pigments contents, were studied.

Results: The highest content of polyphenols and vitamin C was recorded in rosemary, while sage was characte- rized by the highest content of chlorophylls. It was found that the drying processes caused large losses of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and dyes in comparison to the fresh material. The highest losses of vitamin C occurred in convection dried sage (95%), while most was preserved in lyophilised thyme (losses 74%). Drying had also influenced the reduction of the content of chlorophylls with the largest loss of these compounds, at 94% observed in the freeze-dried rosemary. However, the content of polyphenols increased, underscoring a large impact on the antioxidant activity of herbs.

Conclusions: Drying processes resulted in the release of phenolic compounds, so their content increased three to four times in the case of rosemary and sage. The largest increase was observed in the case of lyophilised thyme. Simultaneously, the antioxidant potential was significantly increased. Herbal droughts proved to be a rich source of antioxidant compounds with promising applications as a food additive.

Keywords

  • drying
  • herbs
  • antioxidant activity
  • ascorbic acid
  • chlorophyll
Open Access

Comparative analysis on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Algerian fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and Syrian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 18 - 34

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Natural products represent a gold mine for scientists looking for compounds for the treatment of health problems and diseases with their different biological and pharmacological activities. However, recent research is focused on finding natural sources of antioxidants.

Objective: The objective of current research was to determine the phytochemical profile of Algerian fenu-greek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), and Syrian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds in order to characterize their phenolic compounds and to determine their antioxidant activities.

Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoids, condensed and hydrolysable tannins contents were quantified using Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminium chloride, vanillin and ferric chloride methods, respectively. Phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC method and antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH assay.

Results: The higher amounts of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, condensed and hydrolysable tannins were given by fenugreek. Results of HPLC analysis of our plants showed that eight phytochemical compounds were found in cumin extract, and seven molecules in fenugreek extract. Moreover, fenugreek possessed higher antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: This study confirmed that our plants are a good source of phenolic contents and possess a high antioxidant activity.

Keywords

  • Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
  • Cuminum cyminum L.
  • phytochemistry
  • HPLC
  • DPPH
Open Access

Isolation, characterization and evaluation of anti-proliferative properties of andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata on cultured HaCaT cells

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 35 - 45

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by hyper-proliferation, abnormal epidermal keratinocytes and inflammatory infiltration. It affects approximately 4% of the population globally. Herbal extracts have better results with less toxic effects than the synthetic drugs in the treatment of psoriasis.

Objective: Present study was aimed to access the anti-psoriatic effect of andrographolide extracted from Andrographis paniculate (A. paniculata).

Method: We extracted, characterized, and screened the extracted andrographolide for anti-proliferative characteristics using cultured cell model of human HaCaT keratinocyte.

Results: Andrographolide at 31.25 µg/mL (90 µM) demonstrated significant inhibitory effect on human HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation in cell culture. To our best knowledge, we reported the anti-proliferative potency of andrographolide extracted from A. paniculata for the first time.

Conclusion: The results suggest that the andrographolide extracted from A. paniculata plant may have potential to be used in the management of psoriasis.

Keywords

  • andrographolide
  • Andrographis paniculata
  • anti-proliferative
  • psoriasis
  • epidermal keratinocytes
Open Access

Scope of herbal mucilage in pharmaceutical formulations. A review

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 46 - 57

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the article was to obtain maximum information about plant mucilage, its sources and applications in the pharmaceutical industry. This study focuses on the scientific articles and books available in Internet resources and college library that deal with the sources, applications, extraction and isolation of plant mucilage. Mucilage is obtained mainly from plant sources and can be isolated easily. Due to the low cost, easy availability, non-toxicity, non-irritancy, and biocompatibility, mucilage is of great demand in the field of pharmaceuticals. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Abelmoschus esculentus L, Plantago ovata Forssk. and Aloe barbadensis L. are some common sources of mucilage. The isolation methods vary depending on the part of the plant where mucilage is present. It is commonly used as gelling agent, suspending agent, binder, and disintegrant. Since it is hydrophilic in nature, chances of deterioration are higher. In this review, different mucilage sources and their isolation methods are discussed in detail. Mucilage is used as excipient in many formulations of tablets, suspensions, gels, etc. The study explores the potential of plant mucilage as an excipient in pharmaceutical formulations. The biodegradable and biocompatible properties of this inexpensive excipient make it more favourable for the newer formulation development.

Keywords

  • mucilage
  • herbal excipient
  • suspending agent
  • binding agent
  • disintegrating agent

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