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Volume 66 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

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Volume 65 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Volume 64 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Volume 64 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Volume 63 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

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Volume 60 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

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Volume 59 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

Developmental and chemical characteristics of Melittis melissophyllum L. in limited access of sunlight

Published Online: 08 Oct 2020
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Bastard balm grows in forests, in central and southeastern part of Europe. The herb of this species is rich in phenolics, mainly flavonoids, phenolic acids and coumarins. The plant is used in traditional European medicine, in digestive problems and for aromatizing tobacco and alcohol products.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of shading on bastard balm development and the accumulation of phenolics in its herb, with special respect to coumarin as a quality marker of this raw material.

Methods: The plants were cultivated in full sunlight, in 30% and 50% shade provided by shading nets. The herb was harvested from plants in the third year of vegetation, at four subsequent developmental stages and then subjected to chemical evaluation. In the raw material, the total contents of flavonoids, phenolic acids and coumarins was determined. The content of coumarin was analyzed using HPLC-DAD.

Results: Plants grown in 30% shade produced the highest number of flowers and seeds. They produced the highest mass of herb at the beginning of the seed-setting stage. The plants grown in full sunlight revealed the highest content of flavonoids and phenolic acids, especially during flowering and at the beginning of the seed-setting stage. The mass of herb obtained by plants cultivated at deep (50%) shade was the lowest, however, the content of coumarin in these plants was the highest.

Conclusion: The influence of shade on bastard balm was expressed by the herb mass and coumarin content increment. The plants thrived best in 30% shade, both in terms of flowering abundance and the mass of herb, whereas those from 50% shade were the richest in coumarin.

Keywords

  • shading
  • developmental stage
  • seed viability
  • flavonoids
  • phenolic acids
  • coumarins
Open Access

Research on polyphenols extraction from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots

Published Online: 08 Oct 2020
Page range: 9 - 17

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. is a herbal common plant in Asia, with many beneficial health effects for human because it contains many bioactive compounds which can prevent some diseases, for instance such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.

Objective: The purpose of this research is to point out the effects of extraction factors such as type of solvent, material/solvent ratio (w/v), solvent concentration (%, v/v), temperature (°C) and extraction time on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots, for instance, total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC).

Methods: The raw material consisting of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb root was extracted by the reflux maceration method. TPC and AC of received extract were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu technique and DPPH method with Trolox as a standard agent.

Results: The optimal conditions for the extraction process were acetone-water mixture (60%, v/v) as a solvent, material/solvent ratio of 1/40, extraction temperature of 50°C and extraction time of 90 minutes. The surface structure of material after extraction process changed insignificantly compared with the initial structure.

Conclusion: The results showed that TPC and AC obtained the best values (38.60±0.56 mg GAE/g DW (dry weight) and 298.15±2.99 μmol TE/g DW, respectively) at optimal extraction conditions. In addition, some phenolic compounds were detected in the extract such as gallic acid, catechin and resveratrol.

Keywords

  • antioxidant
  • extract
  • phenolic compounds
  • Polygonum multiflorum Thunb
Open Access

Antioxidant status and hepato-protective role of Anchomanes difformis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats

Published Online: 08 Oct 2020
Page range: 18 - 36

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The liver is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and their metabolites and it is vulnerable to oxidative damage. Hyperglycaemia is highly implicated in the progression of diabetes mellitus, and adversely affects the liver. Though, conventional hypoglycaemic drugs may be effective in reducing blood glucose, they do not appear to be effective in attenuating the progression of diabetes and its complications.

Objective: This study evaluated the ameliorative effects of Anchomanes difformis on hyperglycaemia and hepatic injuries in type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg BW) after two weeks of fructose (10%) administration. Aqueous extract of A. difformis (200 and 400 mg/kg BW) and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg BW) were administered orally for six weeks. Blood glucose concentrations were measured. Serum levels of liver dysfunction markers (ALT, AST, and ALP), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were investigated. Total protein, albumin, and globulin were also assessed. Antioxidant parameters: ORAC, GSH, GSSG, SOD, CAT and FRAP were evaluated in the liver while ORAC, FRAP and lipid peroxidation were determined in the serum. Histological examination of the liver tissue was carried out.

Results: Treatment with aqueous extract of A. difformis significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood glucose and reversed steatosis in the diabetic-treated rats. The antioxidant status of diabetic-treated rats was significantly (p<0.05) improved. Serum levels of liver dysfunction markers were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in diabetic-treated rats.

Conclusion: The findings in this study revealed that 400 mg/kgBW Anchomanes difformis was more effective than 200 mg/kg BW in ameliorating diabetes-induced hepatopathy, however, both doses of Anchomanes difformis demonstrated more antidiabetic ability than glibenclamide. Anchomanes difformis may be a novel and potential therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes and resulted hepatic injuries.

Keywords

  • Anchomanes difformis
  • antioxidants
  • diabetes
  • hyperglycaemia
  • hyperlipidaemia
  • liver
Open Access

Ethnobotanical knowledge and folk medicinal significance of the flora of district Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan

Published Online: 08 Oct 2020
Page range: 37 - 51

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Medicinal plants are the natural source of medicines used in treatment of many diseases among local communities of various countries. It is also the raw material for the pharmaceutical industry. Pakistan is a country with a variety of medicinal plants, comprehensively studied in some areas, while others still need more studies of their flora.

Objectives: The study was performed to catalogue the flora of district Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan and to assess its ethnomedicinal importance.

Methods: A field survey was conducted in the Gujrat district (including Sarai Alamgir, Gujrat and Kharian) in 2019–2020 to collect the flora. Nearly 200 people of various age groups were interviewed and the questionnaire was filled, the gender and professions of the participants were also noted.

Results: The plant species collected belonged to 32 different Angiosperm families i.e. Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Myrtaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Malvaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Lamiaceae. The obtained material consisted of 30 herbs, 20 shrubs and 22 trees. The floral parts used most often were leaves (63%) followed by: flower (41%), fruit (28%), stem (16%), seed (16%), bark (14%), root (13%), whole plant (12%), underground part (3%) and latex (3%). According to the study, the highest RFC (Relative Frequency of Citation) values were 0.1 in Cassia fistula L. (0.25) and the smallest RFC values were observed in Stellaria media (L.) Vill. – 0.025. The highest UV (Use Values) were noted for Achyranthes aspera L. at 0.9. In disease category, the highest value (0.67) of ICF (Informant Consensus Factor) was observed for stomach and skin infections, while the lowest ICF value was noted for diabetes and gonorrhoea (0.27).

Conclusions: It was concluded that the Gujrat district is rich in useful plants that can be used in the preparation of various medicines as well as be sold on the herbal market.

Keywords

  • District Gujrat
  • medicine
  • ethnomedicinal flora
  • survey
  • native people
Open Access

Pharmacological properties of fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) and bioavailability of ellagitannins. A review

Published Online: 08 Oct 2020
Page range: 52 - 64

Abstract

Summary

Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) is a well-known medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of urogenital diseases, stomach and liver disorders, skin problems, etc. E. angustifolium extracts show anti-androgenic, antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities. The unique combination of biological properties demonstrated by the results of some studies indicates that fireweed has a positive effect in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and potentially in the prostate cancer chemoprevention. However, the efficacy of E. angustifolium phytotherapy is still poorly tested in clinical trials, while numerous beneficial effects of extracts have been documented in the in vitro and in vivo tests. Fireweed is rich in polyphenolic compounds, particularly ellagitannins. Currently, polyphenols are considered to be modulators of beneficial gut microbiota. The literature data support the use of ellagitannins in the prostate cancer chemoprevention, but caution is advised due to the highly variable production of urolithins by the individual microbiota. A better understanding of the microbiota’s role and the mechanisms of its action are crucial for an optimal therapeutic effect. This paper aims to summarize and discuss experimental data concerning pharmacological properties of E. angustifolium and bioavailability of ellagitannins – important bioactive compounds of this plant.

Keywords

  • rosebay willowherb
  • pharmacology
  • bioavailability
  • benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • oenothein B
  • urolithins
  • gut microbiota
5 Articles
Open Access

Developmental and chemical characteristics of Melittis melissophyllum L. in limited access of sunlight

Published Online: 08 Oct 2020
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Bastard balm grows in forests, in central and southeastern part of Europe. The herb of this species is rich in phenolics, mainly flavonoids, phenolic acids and coumarins. The plant is used in traditional European medicine, in digestive problems and for aromatizing tobacco and alcohol products.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of shading on bastard balm development and the accumulation of phenolics in its herb, with special respect to coumarin as a quality marker of this raw material.

Methods: The plants were cultivated in full sunlight, in 30% and 50% shade provided by shading nets. The herb was harvested from plants in the third year of vegetation, at four subsequent developmental stages and then subjected to chemical evaluation. In the raw material, the total contents of flavonoids, phenolic acids and coumarins was determined. The content of coumarin was analyzed using HPLC-DAD.

Results: Plants grown in 30% shade produced the highest number of flowers and seeds. They produced the highest mass of herb at the beginning of the seed-setting stage. The plants grown in full sunlight revealed the highest content of flavonoids and phenolic acids, especially during flowering and at the beginning of the seed-setting stage. The mass of herb obtained by plants cultivated at deep (50%) shade was the lowest, however, the content of coumarin in these plants was the highest.

Conclusion: The influence of shade on bastard balm was expressed by the herb mass and coumarin content increment. The plants thrived best in 30% shade, both in terms of flowering abundance and the mass of herb, whereas those from 50% shade were the richest in coumarin.

Keywords

  • shading
  • developmental stage
  • seed viability
  • flavonoids
  • phenolic acids
  • coumarins
Open Access

Research on polyphenols extraction from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots

Published Online: 08 Oct 2020
Page range: 9 - 17

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. is a herbal common plant in Asia, with many beneficial health effects for human because it contains many bioactive compounds which can prevent some diseases, for instance such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.

Objective: The purpose of this research is to point out the effects of extraction factors such as type of solvent, material/solvent ratio (w/v), solvent concentration (%, v/v), temperature (°C) and extraction time on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds from Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots, for instance, total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC).

Methods: The raw material consisting of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb root was extracted by the reflux maceration method. TPC and AC of received extract were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu technique and DPPH method with Trolox as a standard agent.

Results: The optimal conditions for the extraction process were acetone-water mixture (60%, v/v) as a solvent, material/solvent ratio of 1/40, extraction temperature of 50°C and extraction time of 90 minutes. The surface structure of material after extraction process changed insignificantly compared with the initial structure.

Conclusion: The results showed that TPC and AC obtained the best values (38.60±0.56 mg GAE/g DW (dry weight) and 298.15±2.99 μmol TE/g DW, respectively) at optimal extraction conditions. In addition, some phenolic compounds were detected in the extract such as gallic acid, catechin and resveratrol.

Keywords

  • antioxidant
  • extract
  • phenolic compounds
  • Polygonum multiflorum Thunb
Open Access

Antioxidant status and hepato-protective role of Anchomanes difformis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats

Published Online: 08 Oct 2020
Page range: 18 - 36

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The liver is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and their metabolites and it is vulnerable to oxidative damage. Hyperglycaemia is highly implicated in the progression of diabetes mellitus, and adversely affects the liver. Though, conventional hypoglycaemic drugs may be effective in reducing blood glucose, they do not appear to be effective in attenuating the progression of diabetes and its complications.

Objective: This study evaluated the ameliorative effects of Anchomanes difformis on hyperglycaemia and hepatic injuries in type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg BW) after two weeks of fructose (10%) administration. Aqueous extract of A. difformis (200 and 400 mg/kg BW) and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg BW) were administered orally for six weeks. Blood glucose concentrations were measured. Serum levels of liver dysfunction markers (ALT, AST, and ALP), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were investigated. Total protein, albumin, and globulin were also assessed. Antioxidant parameters: ORAC, GSH, GSSG, SOD, CAT and FRAP were evaluated in the liver while ORAC, FRAP and lipid peroxidation were determined in the serum. Histological examination of the liver tissue was carried out.

Results: Treatment with aqueous extract of A. difformis significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood glucose and reversed steatosis in the diabetic-treated rats. The antioxidant status of diabetic-treated rats was significantly (p<0.05) improved. Serum levels of liver dysfunction markers were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in diabetic-treated rats.

Conclusion: The findings in this study revealed that 400 mg/kgBW Anchomanes difformis was more effective than 200 mg/kg BW in ameliorating diabetes-induced hepatopathy, however, both doses of Anchomanes difformis demonstrated more antidiabetic ability than glibenclamide. Anchomanes difformis may be a novel and potential therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes and resulted hepatic injuries.

Keywords

  • Anchomanes difformis
  • antioxidants
  • diabetes
  • hyperglycaemia
  • hyperlipidaemia
  • liver
Open Access

Ethnobotanical knowledge and folk medicinal significance of the flora of district Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan

Published Online: 08 Oct 2020
Page range: 37 - 51

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Medicinal plants are the natural source of medicines used in treatment of many diseases among local communities of various countries. It is also the raw material for the pharmaceutical industry. Pakistan is a country with a variety of medicinal plants, comprehensively studied in some areas, while others still need more studies of their flora.

Objectives: The study was performed to catalogue the flora of district Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan and to assess its ethnomedicinal importance.

Methods: A field survey was conducted in the Gujrat district (including Sarai Alamgir, Gujrat and Kharian) in 2019–2020 to collect the flora. Nearly 200 people of various age groups were interviewed and the questionnaire was filled, the gender and professions of the participants were also noted.

Results: The plant species collected belonged to 32 different Angiosperm families i.e. Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Myrtaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Malvaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Lamiaceae. The obtained material consisted of 30 herbs, 20 shrubs and 22 trees. The floral parts used most often were leaves (63%) followed by: flower (41%), fruit (28%), stem (16%), seed (16%), bark (14%), root (13%), whole plant (12%), underground part (3%) and latex (3%). According to the study, the highest RFC (Relative Frequency of Citation) values were 0.1 in Cassia fistula L. (0.25) and the smallest RFC values were observed in Stellaria media (L.) Vill. – 0.025. The highest UV (Use Values) were noted for Achyranthes aspera L. at 0.9. In disease category, the highest value (0.67) of ICF (Informant Consensus Factor) was observed for stomach and skin infections, while the lowest ICF value was noted for diabetes and gonorrhoea (0.27).

Conclusions: It was concluded that the Gujrat district is rich in useful plants that can be used in the preparation of various medicines as well as be sold on the herbal market.

Keywords

  • District Gujrat
  • medicine
  • ethnomedicinal flora
  • survey
  • native people
Open Access

Pharmacological properties of fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) and bioavailability of ellagitannins. A review

Published Online: 08 Oct 2020
Page range: 52 - 64

Abstract

Summary

Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) is a well-known medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of urogenital diseases, stomach and liver disorders, skin problems, etc. E. angustifolium extracts show anti-androgenic, antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities. The unique combination of biological properties demonstrated by the results of some studies indicates that fireweed has a positive effect in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and potentially in the prostate cancer chemoprevention. However, the efficacy of E. angustifolium phytotherapy is still poorly tested in clinical trials, while numerous beneficial effects of extracts have been documented in the in vitro and in vivo tests. Fireweed is rich in polyphenolic compounds, particularly ellagitannins. Currently, polyphenols are considered to be modulators of beneficial gut microbiota. The literature data support the use of ellagitannins in the prostate cancer chemoprevention, but caution is advised due to the highly variable production of urolithins by the individual microbiota. A better understanding of the microbiota’s role and the mechanisms of its action are crucial for an optimal therapeutic effect. This paper aims to summarize and discuss experimental data concerning pharmacological properties of E. angustifolium and bioavailability of ellagitannins – important bioactive compounds of this plant.

Keywords

  • rosebay willowherb
  • pharmacology
  • bioavailability
  • benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  • oenothein B
  • urolithins
  • gut microbiota

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