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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

Eugenia aromatica O. Berg and Afromomum melegueta K. Schum botanical entomocides as possible synergetic protectant against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricus) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation on stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)

Published Online: 30 Jun 2019
Page range: 1 - 13

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Post-harvest protection of food grains against stored products insects’ infestation is a complementary means towards ensuring food security.

Objective: Powders and extracts from Eugenia aromatica O. Berg and Aframomom melegueta K. Schum are to be evaluated for their synergetic effects on Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricus under laboratory conditions.

Methods: The products were applied at rates of 1 g/20 g and 1% conc./20 g cowpea seeds respectively.

Results: Findings show that E. aromatica products was more effective by evoking 100% mortality within 24 and 48 h, while synergetic effects of the two products evoked 100% mortality at 72 and 96 h. The survival of the bruchids treated with plant powder from eggs to adults indicated that, control had significant (p<0.05) progeny development (75.50%) in comparison with sole application of E. aromatica and combination with A. melegueta which recorded no progeny development.

Conclusion: The study revealed that the plant products exerted toxicity effect against cowpea bruchid. Thus, they can be used to prevent egg hatching and thereby helping in the management of cowpea seeds.

Keywords

  • Eugenia aromatica
  • Afromonum melegueta
  • egg hatching
  • mortality
  • post-harvest protection
  • plant products
  • progeny development
  • toxicity
Open Access

Fumigate efficacy of Juniperus foetidissima essential oil and two terpenes against Phthorimaea operculella

Published Online: 30 Jun 2019
Page range: 14 - 21

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable crop in Syria. Potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella is the main damaging pest of this crop. Many approaches were tried to control it.

Objectives: This study evaluates the insecticidal activity of Juniperus foetidissima essential oil and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth using fumigation bioassays.

Methods: Essential oil was extracted from new plant branches of Juniperus foetidissima using Clevenger-type apparatus. Potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella, (adults, eggs, larvae, and pupae) were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil of Juniperus foetidissima for various periods. The significance of differences between treatments at p<0.05 were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance using the mortality percentages data. The LC50 and LC90 were calculated by Probit analysis.

Results: Essential oil vapor with LC50: 0.3 μl/l air was very effective against potato tuber moth at the adult stage. However; adults sensitivity to monoterpenes varied: Nerol caused a 100% mortality at 0.025 μl/l air after 6 h, while the same concentration of citronellol caused 98% mortality. The 0.125 µl/l air concentration of the two compounds caused 100% mortality after 6 h.

Conclusion: Results suggest the possibility of using Juniperus foetidissima essential oil as a fumigant to control potato tuber moth infestation in stores.

Keywords

  • Phthorimaea operculella
  • Juniperus foetidissima
  • essential oil
  • nerol
  • citronellol
Open Access

Antimicrobial activity of four essential oils extracted from plants commonly used in traditional medicine against some clinical strains

Published Online: 30 Jun 2019
Page range: 22 - 29

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Recently, efforts regarding the discovery of the effectual components of plants possessing antimicrobial properties are advanced. Herbal essential oils are widely used for treatment of various diseases, and they play an important role in healthcare considerations.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Cinnamomum verum, Eucalyptus globulus, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Candida albicans and some pathogenic bacteria.

Methods: The antibacterial activity of four essential oils (EOs) against different microbial strains was evaluated using the disk diffusion method as well as determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and bactericidal concentration (MBC). For Candida albicans, the MFC of the plant oils was determined using a macro broth dilution assay. A range of concentrations (50 to 0.2 mg/ml) were prepared in Mueller Hinton Broth medium in flasks. Tween 80 (0.01% v/v) was included to enhance oil solubility. Each flask was inoculated with 108 CFU/ml of C. albicans. The flasks were incubated at 35°C for 48 hours. From each flask 13 μl of culture was inoculated onto Mueller-Hinton Agar plates and incubated at 35°C for 48 h. The plates were observed and the MFC was determined as the lowest concentration of plant oil completely inhibiting the growth of C. albicans.

Results: The obtained results showed that all bacteria and yeasts tested were sensitive to cinnamon essential oil with an inhibition zone ranging from 22 to 39.33 mm and a MIC ranging from 0.20 mg/ml to 1.56 mg/ml. At low concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 3.13 mg/ml, this essential oil has shown the most important bactericidal effect. Eucalyptus essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus with a diameter of 21.33±1.15 mm. The antibacterial effect of mint indicates that the most sensitive bacterium is A. boumannii. However, S. enteritidis, C. albicans, K. pneumoni and P. aeruginosa are resistant germs whose inhibition diameter varies from 7.33±1.15 mm to 11.33±1.15 mm. Lavender EO has an inhibitory effect against S. aureus (20.67±1.15 mm) and an intermediate effect against Streptococcus pyogenes, Serratia marcescens and Enterococcus faecalis.

Conclusions: The antibacterial activity of essential oils, especially those of cinnamon against the strains studied, supports their potential use as a remedy against infectious microbial diseases.

Keywords

  • essential oils
  • antimicrobial activity
  • Candida albicans
  • pathogenic bacteria
Open Access

The role of folate receptor and reduced folate carrier polymorphisms in osteoporosis development

Published Online: 30 Jun 2019
Page range: 30 - 36

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Osteoporosis is a chronic metabolic disease with multifactorial etiology. One of possible osteoporosis causes may be impairment of osteoclasts function which leads to increased bone resorption. This may be a result of many metabolic changes. It is believed that changes of folate-methionine metabolism in osteoporosis play an essential role in the etiology of this disease.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how polymorphisms of SLC19A1 and FOLR3 genes may play the key role in folate-methionine pathway and influence on the etiology of osteoporosis.

Results: The statistically overrepresentation of mutated GG genotype of FOLR3 (rs11235449) was observed in the control group compared to the osteopenia (34.9% in osteopenia vs. 37.8% in controls, p=0.025, OR=0.61). As to the SLC19A1 (rs3788200) polymorphism we have noted the statistically significant over-representation of wild-type GG genotype (35.8% vs. 26.2%, p=0.046, OR=1.57) and overrepresentation of wild-type G allele (56.9% vs. 50.2%, p=0.061, OR=1.31) in osteopenia group if compared to the controls.

Conclusions: In our study we shown the protective role of mutated GG genotype of FOLR3 (rs11235449) polymorphism to osteopenia progress and possible role of wild-type GG genotype and wild-type G allele of SLC19A1 (rs3788200) polymorphism in osteopenia development.

Keywords

  • osteoporosis
  • osteopenia
  • folate-methionine metabolism
  • SLC19A1
  • FOLR3
Open Access

Contribution of Polish agrotechnical studies on Cannabis sativa L. to the global industrial hemp cultivation and processing economy

Published Online: 30 Jun 2019
Page range: 37 - 50

Abstract

Summary

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) attracts increasing interest of growers, in relation to both industrial and medical purposes. Construction is the most promising area of the economy for hemp, and specifically, the fast-growing production of insulation and bio-composite materials.

The most significant factors affecting the final yield of hemp seeds and biomass include: climatic factors, i.e. influence of weather conditions that determines the content of cannabinoids in plants; genetic predisposition of the variety used as well as agrotechnical factors. The article provides information on the botanical characteristics of fiber hemp, hemp cultivation area, Polish monoecious varieties of industrial hemp, hemp's agricultural requirements, including: the demand for macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium); choice of soil, pioneer crop, and field preparation; sowing timing and density; harvest time; water conditions; heat and light requirements for hemp. The review article is focused mainly on the results of studies carried out at the Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, data of the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture (ARiMR), Research Centre for Cultivar Testing (COBORU), European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA), published in 2008 - 2018.

Keywords

  • Cannabis sativa L.
  • hemp
  • agrotechnical studies
5 Articles
Open Access

Eugenia aromatica O. Berg and Afromomum melegueta K. Schum botanical entomocides as possible synergetic protectant against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricus) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation on stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)

Published Online: 30 Jun 2019
Page range: 1 - 13

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Post-harvest protection of food grains against stored products insects’ infestation is a complementary means towards ensuring food security.

Objective: Powders and extracts from Eugenia aromatica O. Berg and Aframomom melegueta K. Schum are to be evaluated for their synergetic effects on Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricus under laboratory conditions.

Methods: The products were applied at rates of 1 g/20 g and 1% conc./20 g cowpea seeds respectively.

Results: Findings show that E. aromatica products was more effective by evoking 100% mortality within 24 and 48 h, while synergetic effects of the two products evoked 100% mortality at 72 and 96 h. The survival of the bruchids treated with plant powder from eggs to adults indicated that, control had significant (p<0.05) progeny development (75.50%) in comparison with sole application of E. aromatica and combination with A. melegueta which recorded no progeny development.

Conclusion: The study revealed that the plant products exerted toxicity effect against cowpea bruchid. Thus, they can be used to prevent egg hatching and thereby helping in the management of cowpea seeds.

Keywords

  • Eugenia aromatica
  • Afromonum melegueta
  • egg hatching
  • mortality
  • post-harvest protection
  • plant products
  • progeny development
  • toxicity
Open Access

Fumigate efficacy of Juniperus foetidissima essential oil and two terpenes against Phthorimaea operculella

Published Online: 30 Jun 2019
Page range: 14 - 21

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable crop in Syria. Potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella is the main damaging pest of this crop. Many approaches were tried to control it.

Objectives: This study evaluates the insecticidal activity of Juniperus foetidissima essential oil and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth using fumigation bioassays.

Methods: Essential oil was extracted from new plant branches of Juniperus foetidissima using Clevenger-type apparatus. Potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella, (adults, eggs, larvae, and pupae) were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil of Juniperus foetidissima for various periods. The significance of differences between treatments at p<0.05 were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance using the mortality percentages data. The LC50 and LC90 were calculated by Probit analysis.

Results: Essential oil vapor with LC50: 0.3 μl/l air was very effective against potato tuber moth at the adult stage. However; adults sensitivity to monoterpenes varied: Nerol caused a 100% mortality at 0.025 μl/l air after 6 h, while the same concentration of citronellol caused 98% mortality. The 0.125 µl/l air concentration of the two compounds caused 100% mortality after 6 h.

Conclusion: Results suggest the possibility of using Juniperus foetidissima essential oil as a fumigant to control potato tuber moth infestation in stores.

Keywords

  • Phthorimaea operculella
  • Juniperus foetidissima
  • essential oil
  • nerol
  • citronellol
Open Access

Antimicrobial activity of four essential oils extracted from plants commonly used in traditional medicine against some clinical strains

Published Online: 30 Jun 2019
Page range: 22 - 29

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Recently, efforts regarding the discovery of the effectual components of plants possessing antimicrobial properties are advanced. Herbal essential oils are widely used for treatment of various diseases, and they play an important role in healthcare considerations.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Cinnamomum verum, Eucalyptus globulus, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Candida albicans and some pathogenic bacteria.

Methods: The antibacterial activity of four essential oils (EOs) against different microbial strains was evaluated using the disk diffusion method as well as determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and bactericidal concentration (MBC). For Candida albicans, the MFC of the plant oils was determined using a macro broth dilution assay. A range of concentrations (50 to 0.2 mg/ml) were prepared in Mueller Hinton Broth medium in flasks. Tween 80 (0.01% v/v) was included to enhance oil solubility. Each flask was inoculated with 108 CFU/ml of C. albicans. The flasks were incubated at 35°C for 48 hours. From each flask 13 μl of culture was inoculated onto Mueller-Hinton Agar plates and incubated at 35°C for 48 h. The plates were observed and the MFC was determined as the lowest concentration of plant oil completely inhibiting the growth of C. albicans.

Results: The obtained results showed that all bacteria and yeasts tested were sensitive to cinnamon essential oil with an inhibition zone ranging from 22 to 39.33 mm and a MIC ranging from 0.20 mg/ml to 1.56 mg/ml. At low concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 3.13 mg/ml, this essential oil has shown the most important bactericidal effect. Eucalyptus essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus with a diameter of 21.33±1.15 mm. The antibacterial effect of mint indicates that the most sensitive bacterium is A. boumannii. However, S. enteritidis, C. albicans, K. pneumoni and P. aeruginosa are resistant germs whose inhibition diameter varies from 7.33±1.15 mm to 11.33±1.15 mm. Lavender EO has an inhibitory effect against S. aureus (20.67±1.15 mm) and an intermediate effect against Streptococcus pyogenes, Serratia marcescens and Enterococcus faecalis.

Conclusions: The antibacterial activity of essential oils, especially those of cinnamon against the strains studied, supports their potential use as a remedy against infectious microbial diseases.

Keywords

  • essential oils
  • antimicrobial activity
  • Candida albicans
  • pathogenic bacteria
Open Access

The role of folate receptor and reduced folate carrier polymorphisms in osteoporosis development

Published Online: 30 Jun 2019
Page range: 30 - 36

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Osteoporosis is a chronic metabolic disease with multifactorial etiology. One of possible osteoporosis causes may be impairment of osteoclasts function which leads to increased bone resorption. This may be a result of many metabolic changes. It is believed that changes of folate-methionine metabolism in osteoporosis play an essential role in the etiology of this disease.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how polymorphisms of SLC19A1 and FOLR3 genes may play the key role in folate-methionine pathway and influence on the etiology of osteoporosis.

Results: The statistically overrepresentation of mutated GG genotype of FOLR3 (rs11235449) was observed in the control group compared to the osteopenia (34.9% in osteopenia vs. 37.8% in controls, p=0.025, OR=0.61). As to the SLC19A1 (rs3788200) polymorphism we have noted the statistically significant over-representation of wild-type GG genotype (35.8% vs. 26.2%, p=0.046, OR=1.57) and overrepresentation of wild-type G allele (56.9% vs. 50.2%, p=0.061, OR=1.31) in osteopenia group if compared to the controls.

Conclusions: In our study we shown the protective role of mutated GG genotype of FOLR3 (rs11235449) polymorphism to osteopenia progress and possible role of wild-type GG genotype and wild-type G allele of SLC19A1 (rs3788200) polymorphism in osteopenia development.

Keywords

  • osteoporosis
  • osteopenia
  • folate-methionine metabolism
  • SLC19A1
  • FOLR3
Open Access

Contribution of Polish agrotechnical studies on Cannabis sativa L. to the global industrial hemp cultivation and processing economy

Published Online: 30 Jun 2019
Page range: 37 - 50

Abstract

Summary

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) attracts increasing interest of growers, in relation to both industrial and medical purposes. Construction is the most promising area of the economy for hemp, and specifically, the fast-growing production of insulation and bio-composite materials.

The most significant factors affecting the final yield of hemp seeds and biomass include: climatic factors, i.e. influence of weather conditions that determines the content of cannabinoids in plants; genetic predisposition of the variety used as well as agrotechnical factors. The article provides information on the botanical characteristics of fiber hemp, hemp cultivation area, Polish monoecious varieties of industrial hemp, hemp's agricultural requirements, including: the demand for macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium); choice of soil, pioneer crop, and field preparation; sowing timing and density; harvest time; water conditions; heat and light requirements for hemp. The review article is focused mainly on the results of studies carried out at the Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, data of the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture (ARiMR), Research Centre for Cultivar Testing (COBORU), European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA), published in 2008 - 2018.

Keywords

  • Cannabis sativa L.
  • hemp
  • agrotechnical studies

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