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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Evaluation of milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) seed germination in relation to seed health and seedling emergence

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 1 - 10

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: : Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is an important medicinal plant. Achenes of milk thistle contain sylimarin, protecting liver cells against toxic compounds.

Objective: The aim of the research was to find an optimum method of evaluation of milk thistle seed germination.

Methods: Ten seed samples were tested. The seeds were germinated: on top of blotter paper, on top of blotter paper after seed disinfection, between pleated blotter paper, in rolled blotter paper and in sand. Germination at the first and final counts, the percentages of abnormal seedlings and dead seeds were determined. The correlation coefficients between seed germination, evaluated with various methods, and seedling emergence were calculated. Moreover, fungi associated with seeds and diseased seedlings were identified.

Results: The lowest percentage of normal seedlings was observed after germination on the top of blotter. Highly significant positive correlations were noted between seedling emergence and seed germination at the final count evaluated in rolled paper, between pleated paper and in sand. The fungi from genera: Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium and Verticillium were frequently identified on seeds and seedlings.

Conclusions: Infestation with fungi significantly affected milk thistle seed germination and plant emergence. Germination in rolled blotter paper may be recommended for evaluation of milk thistle seed germination, as the most practical and significantly correlated with seedling emergence.

Keywords

  • milk thistle
  • seed germination
  • seedling emergence
  • seedling health
Open Access

Assessment of phytoaccumulation of trace elements in medicinal plants from natural habitats

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 11 - 19

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The high concentration of some trace elements in medicinal plants may lowering the value of herbal material, and may cause poisoning effects.

Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the content of trace elements in the organs of: sandy everlasting, yarrow and stinging nettle.

Methods: In the soil samples, the grain size composition, pH, the content of carbon and nitrogen were determined. In the plant material and for the soil samples, the total contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb were assayed. The values of the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor were also calculated.

Results: The concentration of metals in plant tissues followed in order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Hg. The studied species of medicinal plants accumulated mainly Zn, Pb and Hg. It was also shown a high Hg mobility and a low Pb mobility which mainly accumulated in the roots.

Conclusions: As our research shows the plants used in phytotherapy, should come from plantations monitored for toxic heavy metals in soil.

Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • herbal plants
  • bioconcentration factor
  • translocation factor
  • phytotherapy
Open Access

Phytochemical characterisation and bioactive properties of Solanum sodomaeum L. fruits at two stages of maturation

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 20 - 30

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Solanum sodomaeum L. has been observed to have several medicinal properties, in particular, in the treatment of several types of human skin cancer.

Objective: The influence of the maturation stage of S. sodomaeum fruits on the total lipid contents, fatty acid profiles, essential oil yields and compositions, as well as the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils, was investigated.

Methods: The fatty acid and essential oil constituents were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The antioxidant properties of essential oil and vegetal oil were assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and reducing power assays. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was tested using the disc diffusion assay for resistance in human pathogenic bacteria.

Results: Mature fruits showed higher total lipid content (17%) and were characterised by polyunsaturated fatty acids (53.87%), represented mainly by linoleic acid (53.11%). Similar yields of essential oils were detected for immature (0.43%) and mature (0.45%) fruits. Tetrahydronaphthalene (41.79%) was detected as the major essential oil component at the immature stage versus dihydrocoumarin pentane (18.27%), hexadecanoic acid (17.43%) and 2-undecanone (13.20%) in mature fruits. The DPPH test showed that essential oils had better antioxidant properties; however, the vegetal oils showed better performance in the reducing power assay. Moreover, the essential oil of S. sodomaeum mature fruits was active against bacterial strains.

Conclusions:S. sodomaeum fruits could be a valuable source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial agents.

Keywords

  • antibacterial activity
  • antioxidant activity
  • essential oils
  • fatty acids
  • fruit maturation
  • Solanum sodomaeum
Open Access

Expression of genes modulated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate in breast cancer cells

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 31 - 37

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women. Both drug resistance and metastasis are major problems in the treatment of breast cancer. Therefore, adjuvant therapy may improve patients’ survival and affect their quality of life. It is suggested that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) which is well known for its chemopreventive activity and acts on numerous molecular targets may inhibit the growth and metastasis of some cancers. Hence, discovering the metastatic molecular mechanisms for breast cancer may be useful for therapy.

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of EGGC on the mRNA expression level of genes such as ZEB1, ABCB1, MDM2, TWIST1 and PTEN in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Methods: MCF7/DOX were cultured in the presence of 0.2 μM DOX and EGCG (20-50 μM). The mRNA expression level was determined by real-time quantitative PCR using RealTime ready Custom Panel 96 kit.

Results: Our results showed an important increase (about 2-fold for 20 μM EGCG + 0.2 μM DOX and 2.5-fold for 50 μM EGCG + 0.2 μM DOX, p<0.05) in ZEB1 expression levels. In case of ABCB1 gene lack of influence on the mRNA level was observed (p>0.05). We also observed significant decrease of ZEB1 expression in MCF7 cells with 20 μM and 50 μM EGCG (p<0.05). In addition, EGCG (20 μM) caused an increase of MDM2 and PTEN mRNA levels in almost 100% (p<0.05) and 40% (p>0.05), respectively. Lack of the influence of EGCG was noted for the TWIST1 gene expression. In case of MCF7/DOX we showed an increase of mRNA level of PTEN gene about 50% (p<0.05).

Conclusions: These results suggest that EGCG may be potentially used in adjuvant therapy in the breast cancer treatment.

Keywords

  • breast cancer
  • EGCG
  • molecular study
  • expression
  • adjuvant therapy
Open Access

Antifungal effect of Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad essential oil on oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 38 - 49

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Satureja khuzestanica (Lamiaceae) have been investigated in numerous studies.

Objective: The antifungal effects of S. khuzestanica essential oil (SKJO) in immunosuppressed rats suffering from oral candidiasis were investigated.

Methods: A fungal suspension with a density of 3×108 CFU/ml was taken from the isolate of a case with acute vaginitis. In order to achieve a medicinal formulation, accurate twice the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of SKJO and 10 times MIC of nystatin was used with 0.8% agar as a base material. In this study, 35 rats divided into 5 groups each of 7 were used. The assessment of level of infection and specification of the effects of treatment were performed using microbiological and histopathological methods as well as clinical examinations.

Results: Our results show that carvacrol is the main compound of SKJ essential oil. Lesions completely disappeared in both treatment groups (SKJO and nystatin) after 8 days of treatment. Furthermore, in groups treated with SKJO and nystatin, the quantities of mean logarithm of colony forming unit (CFU) were 85.62% and 90.62%, respectively, in comparison with placebo group. Also, histopathological properties suggested no infection in groups who had clean and normal dorsal tongue mucosa.

Conclusions: Using SKJO with twice accuracy it was concluded that MIC in immunosuppressed rats was quite successful in a time of a week and equal with that of a nystatin treatment with an accuracy of 10 times the MIC.

Keywords

  • Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad
  • essential oil
  • nystatin
  • placebo
  • candidiasis
  • MIC
Open Access

Harnessing the medicinal properties of Cussonia barteri Seem. (Araliaceae) in drug development. A review

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 50 - 61

Abstract

Summary

Cussonia barteri Seem (Araliaceae) is a deciduous tree growing in savannah of Africa. Ethnomedicinally, it is used in Africa as an analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, anti-anaemic, anti-diarhoea, anti-poison, ani-pyschotic and anti-epileptic agent. This review provides a brief summary on the phytochemical screenings, ethnomedicinal and pharmacological applications of various parts of C. barteri. Leaves, stem bark and seed of C. barteri have been shown to be rich in saponins, flavonoids, phenols, sugars and alkaloids. Some of these constituents have been isolated and elucidated from C. barteri. Several compounds isolated from plant include triterpenes, saponins, polyenyne and quinic esters. Phytochemical constituents are also partly responsible for biological activities of C. barteri. Extracts and components isolated from the plant have demonstrated neuropharmacological, anti-larvicidal, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Overall, the insights provided by this review reinforce the potential of C. barteri for drug development and create the need for further scientific probe of constituents of the plant with the aim of developing novel drug candidates.

Keywords

  • Cussonia barteri
  • isolated compounds
  • phytochemical constituents
  • ethnomedicine
6 Articles
Open Access

Evaluation of milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) seed germination in relation to seed health and seedling emergence

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 1 - 10

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: : Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is an important medicinal plant. Achenes of milk thistle contain sylimarin, protecting liver cells against toxic compounds.

Objective: The aim of the research was to find an optimum method of evaluation of milk thistle seed germination.

Methods: Ten seed samples were tested. The seeds were germinated: on top of blotter paper, on top of blotter paper after seed disinfection, between pleated blotter paper, in rolled blotter paper and in sand. Germination at the first and final counts, the percentages of abnormal seedlings and dead seeds were determined. The correlation coefficients between seed germination, evaluated with various methods, and seedling emergence were calculated. Moreover, fungi associated with seeds and diseased seedlings were identified.

Results: The lowest percentage of normal seedlings was observed after germination on the top of blotter. Highly significant positive correlations were noted between seedling emergence and seed germination at the final count evaluated in rolled paper, between pleated paper and in sand. The fungi from genera: Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium and Verticillium were frequently identified on seeds and seedlings.

Conclusions: Infestation with fungi significantly affected milk thistle seed germination and plant emergence. Germination in rolled blotter paper may be recommended for evaluation of milk thistle seed germination, as the most practical and significantly correlated with seedling emergence.

Keywords

  • milk thistle
  • seed germination
  • seedling emergence
  • seedling health
Open Access

Assessment of phytoaccumulation of trace elements in medicinal plants from natural habitats

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 11 - 19

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The high concentration of some trace elements in medicinal plants may lowering the value of herbal material, and may cause poisoning effects.

Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the content of trace elements in the organs of: sandy everlasting, yarrow and stinging nettle.

Methods: In the soil samples, the grain size composition, pH, the content of carbon and nitrogen were determined. In the plant material and for the soil samples, the total contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb were assayed. The values of the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor were also calculated.

Results: The concentration of metals in plant tissues followed in order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Hg. The studied species of medicinal plants accumulated mainly Zn, Pb and Hg. It was also shown a high Hg mobility and a low Pb mobility which mainly accumulated in the roots.

Conclusions: As our research shows the plants used in phytotherapy, should come from plantations monitored for toxic heavy metals in soil.

Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • herbal plants
  • bioconcentration factor
  • translocation factor
  • phytotherapy
Open Access

Phytochemical characterisation and bioactive properties of Solanum sodomaeum L. fruits at two stages of maturation

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 20 - 30

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Solanum sodomaeum L. has been observed to have several medicinal properties, in particular, in the treatment of several types of human skin cancer.

Objective: The influence of the maturation stage of S. sodomaeum fruits on the total lipid contents, fatty acid profiles, essential oil yields and compositions, as well as the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils, was investigated.

Methods: The fatty acid and essential oil constituents were identified using gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The antioxidant properties of essential oil and vegetal oil were assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and reducing power assays. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was tested using the disc diffusion assay for resistance in human pathogenic bacteria.

Results: Mature fruits showed higher total lipid content (17%) and were characterised by polyunsaturated fatty acids (53.87%), represented mainly by linoleic acid (53.11%). Similar yields of essential oils were detected for immature (0.43%) and mature (0.45%) fruits. Tetrahydronaphthalene (41.79%) was detected as the major essential oil component at the immature stage versus dihydrocoumarin pentane (18.27%), hexadecanoic acid (17.43%) and 2-undecanone (13.20%) in mature fruits. The DPPH test showed that essential oils had better antioxidant properties; however, the vegetal oils showed better performance in the reducing power assay. Moreover, the essential oil of S. sodomaeum mature fruits was active against bacterial strains.

Conclusions:S. sodomaeum fruits could be a valuable source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial agents.

Keywords

  • antibacterial activity
  • antioxidant activity
  • essential oils
  • fatty acids
  • fruit maturation
  • Solanum sodomaeum
Open Access

Expression of genes modulated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate in breast cancer cells

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 31 - 37

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women. Both drug resistance and metastasis are major problems in the treatment of breast cancer. Therefore, adjuvant therapy may improve patients’ survival and affect their quality of life. It is suggested that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) which is well known for its chemopreventive activity and acts on numerous molecular targets may inhibit the growth and metastasis of some cancers. Hence, discovering the metastatic molecular mechanisms for breast cancer may be useful for therapy.

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of EGGC on the mRNA expression level of genes such as ZEB1, ABCB1, MDM2, TWIST1 and PTEN in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Methods: MCF7/DOX were cultured in the presence of 0.2 μM DOX and EGCG (20-50 μM). The mRNA expression level was determined by real-time quantitative PCR using RealTime ready Custom Panel 96 kit.

Results: Our results showed an important increase (about 2-fold for 20 μM EGCG + 0.2 μM DOX and 2.5-fold for 50 μM EGCG + 0.2 μM DOX, p<0.05) in ZEB1 expression levels. In case of ABCB1 gene lack of influence on the mRNA level was observed (p>0.05). We also observed significant decrease of ZEB1 expression in MCF7 cells with 20 μM and 50 μM EGCG (p<0.05). In addition, EGCG (20 μM) caused an increase of MDM2 and PTEN mRNA levels in almost 100% (p<0.05) and 40% (p>0.05), respectively. Lack of the influence of EGCG was noted for the TWIST1 gene expression. In case of MCF7/DOX we showed an increase of mRNA level of PTEN gene about 50% (p<0.05).

Conclusions: These results suggest that EGCG may be potentially used in adjuvant therapy in the breast cancer treatment.

Keywords

  • breast cancer
  • EGCG
  • molecular study
  • expression
  • adjuvant therapy
Open Access

Antifungal effect of Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad essential oil on oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 38 - 49

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Satureja khuzestanica (Lamiaceae) have been investigated in numerous studies.

Objective: The antifungal effects of S. khuzestanica essential oil (SKJO) in immunosuppressed rats suffering from oral candidiasis were investigated.

Methods: A fungal suspension with a density of 3×108 CFU/ml was taken from the isolate of a case with acute vaginitis. In order to achieve a medicinal formulation, accurate twice the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of SKJO and 10 times MIC of nystatin was used with 0.8% agar as a base material. In this study, 35 rats divided into 5 groups each of 7 were used. The assessment of level of infection and specification of the effects of treatment were performed using microbiological and histopathological methods as well as clinical examinations.

Results: Our results show that carvacrol is the main compound of SKJ essential oil. Lesions completely disappeared in both treatment groups (SKJO and nystatin) after 8 days of treatment. Furthermore, in groups treated with SKJO and nystatin, the quantities of mean logarithm of colony forming unit (CFU) were 85.62% and 90.62%, respectively, in comparison with placebo group. Also, histopathological properties suggested no infection in groups who had clean and normal dorsal tongue mucosa.

Conclusions: Using SKJO with twice accuracy it was concluded that MIC in immunosuppressed rats was quite successful in a time of a week and equal with that of a nystatin treatment with an accuracy of 10 times the MIC.

Keywords

  • Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad
  • essential oil
  • nystatin
  • placebo
  • candidiasis
  • MIC
Open Access

Harnessing the medicinal properties of Cussonia barteri Seem. (Araliaceae) in drug development. A review

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Page range: 50 - 61

Abstract

Summary

Cussonia barteri Seem (Araliaceae) is a deciduous tree growing in savannah of Africa. Ethnomedicinally, it is used in Africa as an analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, anti-anaemic, anti-diarhoea, anti-poison, ani-pyschotic and anti-epileptic agent. This review provides a brief summary on the phytochemical screenings, ethnomedicinal and pharmacological applications of various parts of C. barteri. Leaves, stem bark and seed of C. barteri have been shown to be rich in saponins, flavonoids, phenols, sugars and alkaloids. Some of these constituents have been isolated and elucidated from C. barteri. Several compounds isolated from plant include triterpenes, saponins, polyenyne and quinic esters. Phytochemical constituents are also partly responsible for biological activities of C. barteri. Extracts and components isolated from the plant have demonstrated neuropharmacological, anti-larvicidal, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Overall, the insights provided by this review reinforce the potential of C. barteri for drug development and create the need for further scientific probe of constituents of the plant with the aim of developing novel drug candidates.

Keywords

  • Cussonia barteri
  • isolated compounds
  • phytochemical constituents
  • ethnomedicine

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