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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles

Experimental Paper

Open Access

Phytochemical and growth responses of Mentha piperita to foliar application of biostimulants under greenhouse and field conditions

Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
Page range: 1 - 12

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The biostimulant products are able to improve quality and quantity of medicinal plants.

Objectives: The comparative effects of biostimulants foliar spraying on peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) were investigated.

Methods: These studies were done on the basis of randomized complete blocks design in 3 replicates during 2015.

Results: In field conditions, the highest leaves and stems dry weight by 400 mg/l chitosan (CH) + 400 mg/l citric acid (CA), essential oil content by 200 mg/l chitosan + 400 mg/l humic acid (HA) + 400 mg/l citric acid and menthol content in 200 mg/l chitosan + 800 mg/l humic acid + 400 mg/l citric acid were observed. In greenhouse conditions, the best results of those mentioned parameters were obtained by 400 mg/l chitosan + 800 mg/l humic acid + 400 mg/l citric acid, 800 mg/l humic acid and 400 mg/l chitosan + 400 mg/l humic acid + 400 mg/l citric acid, respectively.

Conclusions: The foliar application of effective biostimulants could improve the yield quality and quantity of Mentha piperita.

Keywords

  • Mentha piperita L.
  • chitosan
  • citric acid
  • humic acid
  • essential oil
  • menthol
Open Access

Impact of foliar application of copper sulphate and copper nanoparticles on some morpho-physiological traits and essential oil composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)

Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
Page range: 13 - 24

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), a member of Lamiaceae family, is an important medicinal plant that has many useful properties. Copper is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and metabolism.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of copper sulphate and copper nanoparticles on morpho-physiological traits and essential oil composition of peppermint.

Methods: Seven treatments of copper sulphate and copper nanoparticles in three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/l) and control were applied in foliar application three times of the interval of 15 days up to flowering stages of peppermint in Karaj, Iran in 2015.

Results: Copper nanoparticles (1.0 g/l) increased chlorophyll content and essential oil percentage of 35% and 20% higher than control, respectively. The copper sulfate (0.5 g/l) increased dry matter yield up to 58% higher than control. The effects of treatments were significant on 17 out of 34 compositions. Copper nanoparticles (1.0 g/l) increased menthol, menthone and menthofuran content up to 15, 25 and 65% higher than in control, respectively.

Conclusions: Foliar application of copper sulfate (0.5 g/l) and copper nanoparticles (1.0 g/l) in flowering stage were suggested for increase of dry matter production, essential oil content and composition, respectively.

Keywords

  • essential oil
  • leaf pigments
  • yield
  • foliar spray
  • copper nanoparticles
  • Mentha piperita
Open Access

Antioxidant, antibacterial properties and the light barrier assessment of raw and purified melanins isolated from Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) seeds

Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
Page range: 25 - 36

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The nutritive value and terapeuthic activity of watermelon seeds is known, but up to day no studies on isolation and characterisation of their melanin were conducted.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and light barrier properties of raw and purified melanins isolated from watermelon seeds.

Methods: Native melanin was isolated from seeds by alkaline extraction. Obtained pigment was purified by acid hydrolysis. Chemical tests and FT-IR analysis were conducted to determine the melanin nature of the isolated pigments. UV-Vis, transmittance and colour properties were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant activity was determined using ABTS and antibacterial activity through a well diffusion method.

Results: The results of the study demonstrated that melanins isolated from watermelon seeds had antioxidant, light barrier and antibacterial properties. A purified form of melanin had higher antioxidant activity and light barrier properties than the raw form. Both melanins inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Conclusions: Watermelon seeds may be considered as a promising source of natural melanin which possess remarkable therapeutic action that can support the traditional use of this plant in the ethnomedicine.

Keywords

  • melanin
  • Citrullus lanatus
  • watermelon
  • antioxidants
  • antibacterials
  • light barrier
Open Access

Chemical composition and antifungal activities of Ziziphora tenuir and Z. clinopodioides essential oils against dermatophytes

Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
Page range: 37 - 45

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Ziziphora species are traditionally used for treatment of different infectious and non-infectious diseases as antiseptic agents.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides and Z. tenuir essential oils and their antifungal effects againt five strains of dermatophytes.

Methods: GC and GC-MS methods were used for essentional oils analize. The anti-elastase activities were determined by porcine pancreatic elastase assays.

Results: 48 different compounds were identified in these two essential oils, which thymol, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene were their major components. The anti-dermatophyte activities of essential oils against dermatophytes showed that the essential oils (150 ppm) inhibited the mycelium growth, about 5–100%, which Z. clinopodioides essential oil had higher mycelium growth inhibition (28–100%) than that of Z. tenuir oil. The MIC and MFC values of essential oils were 0.01–1 µl/ml. 0.5 µl/ml essential oils inhibited porcine pancreatic elastase, dose-dependently.

Conclusions: Due to the anti-dermatophyte and anti-elastase effects of Ziziphora sp., it can be considered as natural antifungal agent for more clinical and pre-clinical trials.

Keywords

  • Anti-dermatophyte activity
  • Ziziphora sp.
  • anti-elastase activity
Open Access

Actual solubility (S|real.|), level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLBRequ., HLBD, HLBG) and partition coefficient (log P) of phytochemicals contained in Ext. Camellia sinensis L. aqu. siccum in the light of general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility

Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
Page range: 46 - 59

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Using the general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility, the mole fraction (x2) of solubility of phytochemicals contained in the dry green tea leaves was calculated which determines the profile of pharmacological activity.

Objective: The applicative purpose of the study was to estimate the actual solubility of phytochemicals – S|real.| [mol/dm3] in water and in water-ethanol solutions of diversified polarity (εM) for their selective extraction and optimal formulation of oral solid dosage form.

Methods: The basic physico-chemical and structural quantities of phytochemicals and corresponding mathematical equations of general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility were used to calculate the actual solubility – S|real.| and the level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB).

Results: The calculated actual solubility values – S|real.| [mol/dm3] collated with correlation equations enabled the assessment of phytochemical capability for the process of mass exchange on phase boundary. Correlation equations for the dependence log P = f (– log S|real.|) point to the structural preferences of phytochemicals in the kinetics of the mass exchange (diffusion) through the natural phase boundary.

Conclusions: Calculations and correlations between the values characterizing the actual solubility – S|real.|, media polarity (water, ethanol and their solutions) and the partition coefficient (log P) including the level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) show that basing on thermodynamic components of the general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility, the diffusion profile of phytochemicals contained in the green tea extract (Ext. Camellia sinensis L. aqu. siccum) through the biological phase boundary as well as optimal choice of the extraction medium for selective extraction of the class of phytochemicals can be estimated.

Keywords

    Open Access

    Selected physicochemical and solubilization properties of pharmacopeal solutions of dry green tea leaf extract (Ext. Camellia sinensis L. folium aqu. siccum)

    Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
    Page range: 68 - 76

    Abstract

    Summary

    Introduction: Green tea offers not only pleasant, delicate flavor, but also provides health benefits. The extract contains, among others, polyphenols responsible for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They reduce the risk of cancer and their presence exerts preventive activity against cardiovascular diseases.

    Objective: Analysis of selected physicochemical and solubilizing properties of pharmacopoeial-true solutions of dry green tea extract.

    Methods: The caffeine content was determined in the extract and in dry residue after solubilization by high performance liquid chromatography. The process of micellar solubilization of cholesterol granules and ketoprofen was carried out in model solutions of green tea extract.

    Results: The obtained results indicate that the prepared ‘ex tempore’ leaf green tea infusion subjected to short thermal exposure will be characterized by significant solubilization abilities.

    Conclusions: The outcomes of the research pointed to the possibility of developing a solid oral dosage form with titrated dry green tea extract of expected pharmacotherapeutic profile.

    Keywords

    • Camellia sinensis
    • phytochemicals
    • solubilization
    • ketoprofen
    • caffeine
    • cholesterol
    6 Articles

    Experimental Paper

    Open Access

    Phytochemical and growth responses of Mentha piperita to foliar application of biostimulants under greenhouse and field conditions

    Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
    Page range: 1 - 12

    Abstract

    Summary

    Introduction: The biostimulant products are able to improve quality and quantity of medicinal plants.

    Objectives: The comparative effects of biostimulants foliar spraying on peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) were investigated.

    Methods: These studies were done on the basis of randomized complete blocks design in 3 replicates during 2015.

    Results: In field conditions, the highest leaves and stems dry weight by 400 mg/l chitosan (CH) + 400 mg/l citric acid (CA), essential oil content by 200 mg/l chitosan + 400 mg/l humic acid (HA) + 400 mg/l citric acid and menthol content in 200 mg/l chitosan + 800 mg/l humic acid + 400 mg/l citric acid were observed. In greenhouse conditions, the best results of those mentioned parameters were obtained by 400 mg/l chitosan + 800 mg/l humic acid + 400 mg/l citric acid, 800 mg/l humic acid and 400 mg/l chitosan + 400 mg/l humic acid + 400 mg/l citric acid, respectively.

    Conclusions: The foliar application of effective biostimulants could improve the yield quality and quantity of Mentha piperita.

    Keywords

    • Mentha piperita L.
    • chitosan
    • citric acid
    • humic acid
    • essential oil
    • menthol
    Open Access

    Impact of foliar application of copper sulphate and copper nanoparticles on some morpho-physiological traits and essential oil composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)

    Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
    Page range: 13 - 24

    Abstract

    Summary

    Introduction: Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), a member of Lamiaceae family, is an important medicinal plant that has many useful properties. Copper is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and metabolism.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of copper sulphate and copper nanoparticles on morpho-physiological traits and essential oil composition of peppermint.

    Methods: Seven treatments of copper sulphate and copper nanoparticles in three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/l) and control were applied in foliar application three times of the interval of 15 days up to flowering stages of peppermint in Karaj, Iran in 2015.

    Results: Copper nanoparticles (1.0 g/l) increased chlorophyll content and essential oil percentage of 35% and 20% higher than control, respectively. The copper sulfate (0.5 g/l) increased dry matter yield up to 58% higher than control. The effects of treatments were significant on 17 out of 34 compositions. Copper nanoparticles (1.0 g/l) increased menthol, menthone and menthofuran content up to 15, 25 and 65% higher than in control, respectively.

    Conclusions: Foliar application of copper sulfate (0.5 g/l) and copper nanoparticles (1.0 g/l) in flowering stage were suggested for increase of dry matter production, essential oil content and composition, respectively.

    Keywords

    • essential oil
    • leaf pigments
    • yield
    • foliar spray
    • copper nanoparticles
    • Mentha piperita
    Open Access

    Antioxidant, antibacterial properties and the light barrier assessment of raw and purified melanins isolated from Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) seeds

    Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
    Page range: 25 - 36

    Abstract

    Summary

    Introduction: The nutritive value and terapeuthic activity of watermelon seeds is known, but up to day no studies on isolation and characterisation of their melanin were conducted.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and light barrier properties of raw and purified melanins isolated from watermelon seeds.

    Methods: Native melanin was isolated from seeds by alkaline extraction. Obtained pigment was purified by acid hydrolysis. Chemical tests and FT-IR analysis were conducted to determine the melanin nature of the isolated pigments. UV-Vis, transmittance and colour properties were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant activity was determined using ABTS and antibacterial activity through a well diffusion method.

    Results: The results of the study demonstrated that melanins isolated from watermelon seeds had antioxidant, light barrier and antibacterial properties. A purified form of melanin had higher antioxidant activity and light barrier properties than the raw form. Both melanins inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Conclusions: Watermelon seeds may be considered as a promising source of natural melanin which possess remarkable therapeutic action that can support the traditional use of this plant in the ethnomedicine.

    Keywords

    • melanin
    • Citrullus lanatus
    • watermelon
    • antioxidants
    • antibacterials
    • light barrier
    Open Access

    Chemical composition and antifungal activities of Ziziphora tenuir and Z. clinopodioides essential oils against dermatophytes

    Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
    Page range: 37 - 45

    Abstract

    Summary

    Introduction:Ziziphora species are traditionally used for treatment of different infectious and non-infectious diseases as antiseptic agents.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides and Z. tenuir essential oils and their antifungal effects againt five strains of dermatophytes.

    Methods: GC and GC-MS methods were used for essentional oils analize. The anti-elastase activities were determined by porcine pancreatic elastase assays.

    Results: 48 different compounds were identified in these two essential oils, which thymol, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene were their major components. The anti-dermatophyte activities of essential oils against dermatophytes showed that the essential oils (150 ppm) inhibited the mycelium growth, about 5–100%, which Z. clinopodioides essential oil had higher mycelium growth inhibition (28–100%) than that of Z. tenuir oil. The MIC and MFC values of essential oils were 0.01–1 µl/ml. 0.5 µl/ml essential oils inhibited porcine pancreatic elastase, dose-dependently.

    Conclusions: Due to the anti-dermatophyte and anti-elastase effects of Ziziphora sp., it can be considered as natural antifungal agent for more clinical and pre-clinical trials.

    Keywords

    • Anti-dermatophyte activity
    • Ziziphora sp.
    • anti-elastase activity
    Open Access

    Actual solubility (S|real.|), level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLBRequ., HLBD, HLBG) and partition coefficient (log P) of phytochemicals contained in Ext. Camellia sinensis L. aqu. siccum in the light of general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility

    Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
    Page range: 46 - 59

    Abstract

    Summary

    Introduction: Using the general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility, the mole fraction (x2) of solubility of phytochemicals contained in the dry green tea leaves was calculated which determines the profile of pharmacological activity.

    Objective: The applicative purpose of the study was to estimate the actual solubility of phytochemicals – S|real.| [mol/dm3] in water and in water-ethanol solutions of diversified polarity (εM) for their selective extraction and optimal formulation of oral solid dosage form.

    Methods: The basic physico-chemical and structural quantities of phytochemicals and corresponding mathematical equations of general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility were used to calculate the actual solubility – S|real.| and the level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB).

    Results: The calculated actual solubility values – S|real.| [mol/dm3] collated with correlation equations enabled the assessment of phytochemical capability for the process of mass exchange on phase boundary. Correlation equations for the dependence log P = f (– log S|real.|) point to the structural preferences of phytochemicals in the kinetics of the mass exchange (diffusion) through the natural phase boundary.

    Conclusions: Calculations and correlations between the values characterizing the actual solubility – S|real.|, media polarity (water, ethanol and their solutions) and the partition coefficient (log P) including the level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) show that basing on thermodynamic components of the general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility, the diffusion profile of phytochemicals contained in the green tea extract (Ext. Camellia sinensis L. aqu. siccum) through the biological phase boundary as well as optimal choice of the extraction medium for selective extraction of the class of phytochemicals can be estimated.

    Keywords

      Open Access

      Selected physicochemical and solubilization properties of pharmacopeal solutions of dry green tea leaf extract (Ext. Camellia sinensis L. folium aqu. siccum)

      Published Online: 20 Jul 2018
      Page range: 68 - 76

      Abstract

      Summary

      Introduction: Green tea offers not only pleasant, delicate flavor, but also provides health benefits. The extract contains, among others, polyphenols responsible for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They reduce the risk of cancer and their presence exerts preventive activity against cardiovascular diseases.

      Objective: Analysis of selected physicochemical and solubilizing properties of pharmacopoeial-true solutions of dry green tea extract.

      Methods: The caffeine content was determined in the extract and in dry residue after solubilization by high performance liquid chromatography. The process of micellar solubilization of cholesterol granules and ketoprofen was carried out in model solutions of green tea extract.

      Results: The obtained results indicate that the prepared ‘ex tempore’ leaf green tea infusion subjected to short thermal exposure will be characterized by significant solubilization abilities.

      Conclusions: The outcomes of the research pointed to the possibility of developing a solid oral dosage form with titrated dry green tea extract of expected pharmacotherapeutic profile.

      Keywords

      • Camellia sinensis
      • phytochemicals
      • solubilization
      • ketoprofen
      • caffeine
      • cholesterol

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