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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some moss species

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 11 - 17

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: For centuries, mosses have been used in traditional medicine due to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from 12 moss species: Brachythecium albicans, Bryum argenteum, Ceratodon purpureus, Dicranum scoparium, Dryptodon pulvinatus, Orthotrichum anomalum, Oxyrrhynchium hians, Plagiomnium undulatum, Polytrichum juniperinum, P. piliferum, Schistidium crassipilum, and Syntrichia ruralis. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against three Gram(+) bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes) and two Gram(-) bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), using the agar disc-diffusion method. Results: The high activity against all investigated bacteria was determined for extracts of D. pulvinatus, P. undulatum, B. argenteum, S. crassipilum, O. anomalum (mean inhibition zone: 11.3-13.1 mm) and to a lesser extent in the case of D. scoparium (8.3 mm). Extracts from P. juniperinum and P. piliferum showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria, with an inhibition zone from 7.3 to 9.7 mm. Four species: B. albicans, C. purpureus, O. hians, and S. ruralis had not antibacterial properties. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that mosses could be a significant source of antibacterial agents. For the first time, we presented antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts from S. crassipilum and O. anomalum.

Keywords

  • antibacterial activity
  • mosses
  • agar disc-diffusion method
  • Dryptodon pulvinatus
  • Schistidium crassipilum
  • Orthotrichum anomalum
Open Access

Antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora essential oil and its main components against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 18 - 24

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: In Iranian traditional medicine, Zataria multiflora Boiss (Lamiaceae family) is reputed due to its antiseptic effects. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm killing effects of Z. multiflora essential oil and main components against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: The main components of essential oil were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial properties of Z. multiflora oil and main components were determined by assessing the MIC and MBC values, and their inhibition percent of biofilm killing effects were determined by the evaluation of optical density. The role of each main component in these activities was determined according to the chemical profiles of essential oil. Results: Thymol (38.7%), carvacrol (30.6%), and p-cymene (8.3%) were main components of twenty five components of essential oil. Carvacrol had the higher role in antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, followed by thymol. P-cymene enhanced the antibacterial activities of thymol and carvacrol against P. aeruginosa. Carvacrol showed the weak role in biofilm killing effect. In spite of the low antibacterial activity of p-cymene against P. aeruginosa, it can enhance the antibacterial activity of thymol or carvacrol. Conclusion: Z. multiflora essential oil can be used for the management of P. aeruginosa infections. Determining the precise role of each components needs investigating in their behavior in different media.

Keywords

  • Zataria multiflora
  • thymol
  • carvacrol
  • biofilm
  • p-cymene
  • pyocyanin
Open Access

Antidiabetic and antiplatelet aggregation study of various methanol fractions of Nymphaea stellata Willd. leaves

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 25 - 34

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Nymphaeaceae) is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Alcohol extract of N. stellata leaves has been reported for hypoglycaemic activity. Objective: The aim of this study was to further investigate the different methanol fractions of N. stellata leaves for anti-diabetic activity and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Methods: Methanol extract was fractioned in to unsaponified petroleum ether fraction of methanol extract (UPFME), chloroform fraction of methanol extract (CFME) and residual fraction of methanol extract (RFME). All fractions were evaluated for in vivo anti-diabetic activity (STZ-NAD-induced rat model), in vitro anti-diabetic activity (PTP1B inhibition study) and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Results: UPFME showed significant changes in all studied parameters, compared to the diabetic control. UPFME also showed an IC50 value of 19.30±1.1 mg/ml and 13.11±0.7 μg/ml in PTP1B inhibition study and anti-platelet aggregation study, respectively. Conclusion: The study indicates that UPFME of N. stellata leaves exhibit anti-diabetic and anti-platelet aggregation activity.

Keywords

  • STZ-NAD
  • PTP1B inhibition
  • ADP induced
  • co-TLC
  • histopathology
Open Access

Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations of aqueous extract from stem bark of Grewia mollis (Malvaceae) in rats

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 35 - 47

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Different parts of Grewia mollis Juss. (Malvaceae) are commonly used in folk medicine to treat several ailments, including diarrhea, ulcers, rickets, cough and fever. Although several studies have proved its therapeutic effectiveness, there are very few toxicological studies on the plant. Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. mollis stem bark (GM) in animals. Methods: In the acute study, rats were orally administrated with GM at doses of 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 mg/kg to determine the oral medial lethal dose (LD50). In the chronic study, rats received three doses of GM (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) for 28 days. After the treatments, food intake, body weights, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were analyzed. Results: The LD50 was estimated to be >9600 mg/kg. No significant alterations in the animal’s body weight gain, relative organs weight, serum biochemical analysis, hematological or histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and spleen were observed. Conclusions: The results of this study provided evidence that oral administration of GM at dose of 600 mg/kg is relatively safe in rats and may not exert severe toxic effects.

Keywords

  • Grewia mollis
  • LD50
  • subchronic
  • haematology
  • histopathology
Open Access

Characterization of the essential oil from cone-berries of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae)

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 48 - 55

Abstract

Summary

Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) is a plant widely cultivated in the Northern hemisphere. Juniper berries, the fruit of Juniperus communis L. are a highly valued, essential oil-rich plant material used traditionally in folk medicine as antiseptic, diuretic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungicidal agent. This paper reviews information on extraction methods of the essential oil from the juniper berries, its chemical composition and antimicrobial as well as antioxidant properties.

Keywords

  • Juniperus communis L.
  • essential oils
  • Juniperi pseudofructus
Open Access

Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L.) – plant species of potential medicinal properties

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 56 - 64

Abstract

Summary

Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L.) is a widespread circumboreal plant species belonging to Linnaeaceae family (previously Caprifoliaceae). L. borealis commonly grows in taiga and tundra. In some countries in Europe, including Poland, twinflower is protected as a glacial relict. Chemical composition of this species is not well known, however in folk medicine of Scandinavian countries, L. borealis has a long tradition as a cure for skin diseases and rheumatism. It is suggested that twinflower has potential medicinal properties. The new study on lead secondary metabolites responsible for biological activity are necessary. This short review summarizes very sparse knowledge on twinflower: its biology, distribution, conservation status, chemical constituents, and describes the role of this plant in folk tradition of Scandinavian countries.

Keywords

  • Linnaea borealis
  • botanical description
  • distribution
  • secondary metabolites
  • folk medicine
6 Articles
Open Access

Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some moss species

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 11 - 17

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: For centuries, mosses have been used in traditional medicine due to their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained from 12 moss species: Brachythecium albicans, Bryum argenteum, Ceratodon purpureus, Dicranum scoparium, Dryptodon pulvinatus, Orthotrichum anomalum, Oxyrrhynchium hians, Plagiomnium undulatum, Polytrichum juniperinum, P. piliferum, Schistidium crassipilum, and Syntrichia ruralis. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against three Gram(+) bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes) and two Gram(-) bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), using the agar disc-diffusion method. Results: The high activity against all investigated bacteria was determined for extracts of D. pulvinatus, P. undulatum, B. argenteum, S. crassipilum, O. anomalum (mean inhibition zone: 11.3-13.1 mm) and to a lesser extent in the case of D. scoparium (8.3 mm). Extracts from P. juniperinum and P. piliferum showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria, with an inhibition zone from 7.3 to 9.7 mm. Four species: B. albicans, C. purpureus, O. hians, and S. ruralis had not antibacterial properties. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that mosses could be a significant source of antibacterial agents. For the first time, we presented antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts from S. crassipilum and O. anomalum.

Keywords

  • antibacterial activity
  • mosses
  • agar disc-diffusion method
  • Dryptodon pulvinatus
  • Schistidium crassipilum
  • Orthotrichum anomalum
Open Access

Antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora essential oil and its main components against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 18 - 24

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: In Iranian traditional medicine, Zataria multiflora Boiss (Lamiaceae family) is reputed due to its antiseptic effects. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm killing effects of Z. multiflora essential oil and main components against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: The main components of essential oil were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial properties of Z. multiflora oil and main components were determined by assessing the MIC and MBC values, and their inhibition percent of biofilm killing effects were determined by the evaluation of optical density. The role of each main component in these activities was determined according to the chemical profiles of essential oil. Results: Thymol (38.7%), carvacrol (30.6%), and p-cymene (8.3%) were main components of twenty five components of essential oil. Carvacrol had the higher role in antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, followed by thymol. P-cymene enhanced the antibacterial activities of thymol and carvacrol against P. aeruginosa. Carvacrol showed the weak role in biofilm killing effect. In spite of the low antibacterial activity of p-cymene against P. aeruginosa, it can enhance the antibacterial activity of thymol or carvacrol. Conclusion: Z. multiflora essential oil can be used for the management of P. aeruginosa infections. Determining the precise role of each components needs investigating in their behavior in different media.

Keywords

  • Zataria multiflora
  • thymol
  • carvacrol
  • biofilm
  • p-cymene
  • pyocyanin
Open Access

Antidiabetic and antiplatelet aggregation study of various methanol fractions of Nymphaea stellata Willd. leaves

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 25 - 34

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Nymphaea stellata Willd. (Nymphaeaceae) is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Alcohol extract of N. stellata leaves has been reported for hypoglycaemic activity. Objective: The aim of this study was to further investigate the different methanol fractions of N. stellata leaves for anti-diabetic activity and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Methods: Methanol extract was fractioned in to unsaponified petroleum ether fraction of methanol extract (UPFME), chloroform fraction of methanol extract (CFME) and residual fraction of methanol extract (RFME). All fractions were evaluated for in vivo anti-diabetic activity (STZ-NAD-induced rat model), in vitro anti-diabetic activity (PTP1B inhibition study) and anti-platelet aggregation activity. Results: UPFME showed significant changes in all studied parameters, compared to the diabetic control. UPFME also showed an IC50 value of 19.30±1.1 mg/ml and 13.11±0.7 μg/ml in PTP1B inhibition study and anti-platelet aggregation study, respectively. Conclusion: The study indicates that UPFME of N. stellata leaves exhibit anti-diabetic and anti-platelet aggregation activity.

Keywords

  • STZ-NAD
  • PTP1B inhibition
  • ADP induced
  • co-TLC
  • histopathology
Open Access

Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations of aqueous extract from stem bark of Grewia mollis (Malvaceae) in rats

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 35 - 47

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Different parts of Grewia mollis Juss. (Malvaceae) are commonly used in folk medicine to treat several ailments, including diarrhea, ulcers, rickets, cough and fever. Although several studies have proved its therapeutic effectiveness, there are very few toxicological studies on the plant. Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. mollis stem bark (GM) in animals. Methods: In the acute study, rats were orally administrated with GM at doses of 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 mg/kg to determine the oral medial lethal dose (LD50). In the chronic study, rats received three doses of GM (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) for 28 days. After the treatments, food intake, body weights, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were analyzed. Results: The LD50 was estimated to be >9600 mg/kg. No significant alterations in the animal’s body weight gain, relative organs weight, serum biochemical analysis, hematological or histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and spleen were observed. Conclusions: The results of this study provided evidence that oral administration of GM at dose of 600 mg/kg is relatively safe in rats and may not exert severe toxic effects.

Keywords

  • Grewia mollis
  • LD50
  • subchronic
  • haematology
  • histopathology
Open Access

Characterization of the essential oil from cone-berries of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae)

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 48 - 55

Abstract

Summary

Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) is a plant widely cultivated in the Northern hemisphere. Juniper berries, the fruit of Juniperus communis L. are a highly valued, essential oil-rich plant material used traditionally in folk medicine as antiseptic, diuretic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungicidal agent. This paper reviews information on extraction methods of the essential oil from the juniper berries, its chemical composition and antimicrobial as well as antioxidant properties.

Keywords

  • Juniperus communis L.
  • essential oils
  • Juniperi pseudofructus
Open Access

Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L.) – plant species of potential medicinal properties

Published Online: 09 Dec 2017
Page range: 56 - 64

Abstract

Summary

Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L.) is a widespread circumboreal plant species belonging to Linnaeaceae family (previously Caprifoliaceae). L. borealis commonly grows in taiga and tundra. In some countries in Europe, including Poland, twinflower is protected as a glacial relict. Chemical composition of this species is not well known, however in folk medicine of Scandinavian countries, L. borealis has a long tradition as a cure for skin diseases and rheumatism. It is suggested that twinflower has potential medicinal properties. The new study on lead secondary metabolites responsible for biological activity are necessary. This short review summarizes very sparse knowledge on twinflower: its biology, distribution, conservation status, chemical constituents, and describes the role of this plant in folk tradition of Scandinavian countries.

Keywords

  • Linnaea borealis
  • botanical description
  • distribution
  • secondary metabolites
  • folk medicine

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