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Volume 63 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles

Experimental Paper

Open Access

Diversity of southern sweet-grass in its natural habitat and in cultivation

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 11 - 17

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Southern sweet-grass (Hierochloë australis /Schrad./Roem. & Schult.) is a wild growing plant. Its leaves, collected from natural sites, are aromatic raw material used in alcohol industry and as a food additive. Their quality is highly diversified.

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the development of plants and the accumulation of coumarin in leaves of southern sweet-grass occurring in natural environment and introduced into cultivation.

Methods: The in situ and ex situ studies were carried out on the same population. Observations on plant development, morphological parameters of leaves and their weight were made. In the leaves, the level of the coumarin was detected by HPLC-DAD as well as the total contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids were determined spectrophotometrically.

Results: Plants from the natural stand and from cultivation differed significantly in the developmental and morphological parameters as well as in the content of biologically active compounds. Plants from natural site were characterized by a significantly higher coumarin content in leaves, whereas those from cultivation – higher weight of leaves and higher generative reproductive capacity.

Conclusions: In cultivation, H. australis is characterized by much less variation in both developmental and yielding parameters, including leaf weight and coumarin content.

Keywords

  • Hierochloë australis
  • in situ
  • ex situ
  • development
  • yield of leaves
  • coumarin
Open Access

Fungi colonizing and damaging different parts of some medicinal plants

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 18 - 26

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Many fungal species infect medicinal plants during their cultivation, causing great damage to the yield and decreasing the quality of raw material.

Objective: Due to the increase in contamination of raw material and the damage caused by pathogenic fungi, the main species of medicinal plants cultivated in Poland were subject to the investigation.

Methods: In 2012–2014, an experiment was conducted on eight medicinal plant species breeding nurseries grown in the field in Plewiska. The following species and cultivars were investigated: lemon balm, peppermint, St. John’s wort cv. ‘Topaz’, lovage cv. ‘Amor’, valerian cv. ‘Polka’, caraway cv. ‘Kończewicki’, sweet basil cv. ‘Wala’, marjoram cv. ‘Miraż’.

Results: Fourteen species of eleven genera of pathogenic fungi were isolated from the investigated medicinal plants: Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium sp., Rhizoctonia solani, Septoria sp., Boeremia exiqua, Golovinomyces cichoracearum, Penicillium sp., Ramularia sp., and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The most severe infection was caused by Fusarium sp. and Botrytis cinerea. Also Cladosporium sp. (4 species), A. alternata and Septoria sp. (3 species) infected plant tissue. Leaves and stems were the most infected parts of the tested plants. Lemon balm, lovage and valerian were the most infected species, while marjoram was infected only with Fusarium sp.

Keywords

  • medicinal plants
  • pathogenic fungi
  • infection
Open Access

Dynamics of serious pest of Metopolophium dirhodum (Walk.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on shrubs of Rosa rugosa Thunb.

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 27 - 33

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Rose grain aphid (Metopolophium dirhodum Walk.) is one of the most important pests on cereals in Poland. The economic importance of this pest has increased in recent years due to the increase in the area of maize cultivation. M. dirhodum is an oligophagic aphid feeding also on different rose species.

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the dynamics of population of M. dirhodum on the saltspray rose.

Methods: The studies were conducted on saltspray rose stands at Aleksandria Park in Siedlce in 2005–2009. At each selected stand, 50 rose shoots were observed every 7 days from March to spring migration of the aphid.

Results: First fundatrices of the M. dirhodum on the R. rugosa were observed at the end of March. The rose-grain aphid population development on the primary host during May, and reached maximum population in the middle of May. During autumn, the aphid backed for overwintering on the primary host.

Conclusion: While the M. dirhodum population outbreaks, the aphid might be a serious pest of the saltspray rose.

Keywords

  • rose grain-aphid
  • Metopolophium dirhodum
  • saltspray rose
  • Rosa rugosa
  • aphid pest dynamics
Open Access

Antioxidant activity and free radicals of roasted herbal materials

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 34 - 41

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Novel raw materials are being constantly searched for chicory coffee, which thanks to their specific composition can influence human health, thus promoting properties and of course the attractive aroma. Prior to their addition herbs – sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.), rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia L.), lovage roots (Levisticum officinale Koch) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale coll.) – are roasted, which may change their antioxidant properties and generate free radicals with pro-oxidative properties.

Objective: The characteristic of antioxidant activity of roasted herbal raw materials (sea buckthorn fruits, rowanberry, lovage roots and dandelion roots) for the production of chicory coffee and to determine the level of free radicals formed under the influence of roasting.

Methods: Total phenolic contents were determined before and after the roasting process using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH assays. Free radicals were examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.

Results: The roasted materials were good sources of bioactive compounds, estimated at the total phenolic levels from 23.9 to 38.8 mg GAE/g. The highest antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH at 109.6 and 71.0 mg Tx/g was determined in roasted sea buckthorn. Free radicals were present in both the raw and roasted herbal materials. Roasted materials were characterised by markedly higher free radical concentrations when compared with the corresponding samples. The lowest free radical concentrations were recorded for roasted sea buckthorn fruits (0.031 × 1015 spin/g).

Conclusion: Despite a high content of compounds with potent antioxidant activity, free radicals were present in novel roasted herbal materials. The formation of both antioxidant molecules and free radicals during the roasting process demonstrates that the two processes were not inversely related.

Keywords

  • herbs
  • sea buckthorn fruits
  • rowanberry
  • lovage roots
  • dandelion roots
  • roasting process
  • antioxidant activity
  • free radicals

Short Communication

Open Access

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 42 - 47

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Chrysopogon aucheri is a species native to the South of Iran. It is used for the treatment of some oxidative-based disorders.

Objective: Due to lack of biological research on C. aucheri, we were prompted to investigate the antioxidant activities of leaf total extract and different sub-fractions for the first time. The phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined in the leaves as the interaction between these components and the antioxidant activity.

Methods: The antioxidant effects of total extract and sub-fractions were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively.

Results: Total extract of C. aucheri leaves was found to possess desirable antioxidant activity in vitro in comparison with standard antioxidant BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene). The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in the methanol sub-fraction. Results showed weak and moderate correlations with phenolics and flavonoids, respectively, and therefore other metabolites of C. aucheri leaves might be responsible for antioxidant activities.

Conclusion: The results suggested that C. aucheri leaves possess desirable antioxidant activity when compared with BHT and support the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the leaves in the management of some oxidative-based diseases.

Keywords

  • Chrysopogon aucheri
  • Poaceae
  • antioxidant activity
  • phenolics
  • flavonoids

Review Paper

Open Access

Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of Inonotus obliquus

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 48 - 58

Abstract

Summary

The article presents the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of compounds and extracts from Inonotus obliquus. Polysaccharides isolated from sclerotium have a direct antitumor effect due to protein synthesis inhibition in tumor cells. Polysaccharides derived from the mycelium function by activating the immune system. Due to the limited toxicity of these substances, both extracts as well as isolated and purified chemicals may be a good alternative to current chemotherapy and play a role in cancer prevention. In vitro experiments have shown the inhibition of inflammation with the influence of action of I. obliquus extracts; however, in vivo experiments on animals implanted with tumor cells of different types have shown the activation of the host immune system. This led to decrease in tumor mass and prolonged survival. The immunomodulatory mechanism of action is complex and it seems that stimulation of macrophages and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells is of great importance.

Keywords

  • Inonotus obliquus
  • chaga
  • antitumor activity
  • immunomodulatory activity
6 Articles

Experimental Paper

Open Access

Diversity of southern sweet-grass in its natural habitat and in cultivation

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 11 - 17

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Southern sweet-grass (Hierochloë australis /Schrad./Roem. & Schult.) is a wild growing plant. Its leaves, collected from natural sites, are aromatic raw material used in alcohol industry and as a food additive. Their quality is highly diversified.

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the development of plants and the accumulation of coumarin in leaves of southern sweet-grass occurring in natural environment and introduced into cultivation.

Methods: The in situ and ex situ studies were carried out on the same population. Observations on plant development, morphological parameters of leaves and their weight were made. In the leaves, the level of the coumarin was detected by HPLC-DAD as well as the total contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids were determined spectrophotometrically.

Results: Plants from the natural stand and from cultivation differed significantly in the developmental and morphological parameters as well as in the content of biologically active compounds. Plants from natural site were characterized by a significantly higher coumarin content in leaves, whereas those from cultivation – higher weight of leaves and higher generative reproductive capacity.

Conclusions: In cultivation, H. australis is characterized by much less variation in both developmental and yielding parameters, including leaf weight and coumarin content.

Keywords

  • Hierochloë australis
  • in situ
  • ex situ
  • development
  • yield of leaves
  • coumarin
Open Access

Fungi colonizing and damaging different parts of some medicinal plants

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 18 - 26

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Many fungal species infect medicinal plants during their cultivation, causing great damage to the yield and decreasing the quality of raw material.

Objective: Due to the increase in contamination of raw material and the damage caused by pathogenic fungi, the main species of medicinal plants cultivated in Poland were subject to the investigation.

Methods: In 2012–2014, an experiment was conducted on eight medicinal plant species breeding nurseries grown in the field in Plewiska. The following species and cultivars were investigated: lemon balm, peppermint, St. John’s wort cv. ‘Topaz’, lovage cv. ‘Amor’, valerian cv. ‘Polka’, caraway cv. ‘Kończewicki’, sweet basil cv. ‘Wala’, marjoram cv. ‘Miraż’.

Results: Fourteen species of eleven genera of pathogenic fungi were isolated from the investigated medicinal plants: Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium sp., Rhizoctonia solani, Septoria sp., Boeremia exiqua, Golovinomyces cichoracearum, Penicillium sp., Ramularia sp., and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The most severe infection was caused by Fusarium sp. and Botrytis cinerea. Also Cladosporium sp. (4 species), A. alternata and Septoria sp. (3 species) infected plant tissue. Leaves and stems were the most infected parts of the tested plants. Lemon balm, lovage and valerian were the most infected species, while marjoram was infected only with Fusarium sp.

Keywords

  • medicinal plants
  • pathogenic fungi
  • infection
Open Access

Dynamics of serious pest of Metopolophium dirhodum (Walk.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on shrubs of Rosa rugosa Thunb.

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 27 - 33

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Rose grain aphid (Metopolophium dirhodum Walk.) is one of the most important pests on cereals in Poland. The economic importance of this pest has increased in recent years due to the increase in the area of maize cultivation. M. dirhodum is an oligophagic aphid feeding also on different rose species.

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the dynamics of population of M. dirhodum on the saltspray rose.

Methods: The studies were conducted on saltspray rose stands at Aleksandria Park in Siedlce in 2005–2009. At each selected stand, 50 rose shoots were observed every 7 days from March to spring migration of the aphid.

Results: First fundatrices of the M. dirhodum on the R. rugosa were observed at the end of March. The rose-grain aphid population development on the primary host during May, and reached maximum population in the middle of May. During autumn, the aphid backed for overwintering on the primary host.

Conclusion: While the M. dirhodum population outbreaks, the aphid might be a serious pest of the saltspray rose.

Keywords

  • rose grain-aphid
  • Metopolophium dirhodum
  • saltspray rose
  • Rosa rugosa
  • aphid pest dynamics
Open Access

Antioxidant activity and free radicals of roasted herbal materials

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 34 - 41

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Novel raw materials are being constantly searched for chicory coffee, which thanks to their specific composition can influence human health, thus promoting properties and of course the attractive aroma. Prior to their addition herbs – sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.), rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia L.), lovage roots (Levisticum officinale Koch) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale coll.) – are roasted, which may change their antioxidant properties and generate free radicals with pro-oxidative properties.

Objective: The characteristic of antioxidant activity of roasted herbal raw materials (sea buckthorn fruits, rowanberry, lovage roots and dandelion roots) for the production of chicory coffee and to determine the level of free radicals formed under the influence of roasting.

Methods: Total phenolic contents were determined before and after the roasting process using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH assays. Free radicals were examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.

Results: The roasted materials were good sources of bioactive compounds, estimated at the total phenolic levels from 23.9 to 38.8 mg GAE/g. The highest antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH at 109.6 and 71.0 mg Tx/g was determined in roasted sea buckthorn. Free radicals were present in both the raw and roasted herbal materials. Roasted materials were characterised by markedly higher free radical concentrations when compared with the corresponding samples. The lowest free radical concentrations were recorded for roasted sea buckthorn fruits (0.031 × 1015 spin/g).

Conclusion: Despite a high content of compounds with potent antioxidant activity, free radicals were present in novel roasted herbal materials. The formation of both antioxidant molecules and free radicals during the roasting process demonstrates that the two processes were not inversely related.

Keywords

  • herbs
  • sea buckthorn fruits
  • rowanberry
  • lovage roots
  • dandelion roots
  • roasting process
  • antioxidant activity
  • free radicals

Short Communication

Open Access

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Chrysopogon aucheri (Boiss.) Stapf

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 42 - 47

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Chrysopogon aucheri is a species native to the South of Iran. It is used for the treatment of some oxidative-based disorders.

Objective: Due to lack of biological research on C. aucheri, we were prompted to investigate the antioxidant activities of leaf total extract and different sub-fractions for the first time. The phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined in the leaves as the interaction between these components and the antioxidant activity.

Methods: The antioxidant effects of total extract and sub-fractions were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively.

Results: Total extract of C. aucheri leaves was found to possess desirable antioxidant activity in vitro in comparison with standard antioxidant BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene). The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed in the methanol sub-fraction. Results showed weak and moderate correlations with phenolics and flavonoids, respectively, and therefore other metabolites of C. aucheri leaves might be responsible for antioxidant activities.

Conclusion: The results suggested that C. aucheri leaves possess desirable antioxidant activity when compared with BHT and support the ethnomedicinal claims of the use of the leaves in the management of some oxidative-based diseases.

Keywords

  • Chrysopogon aucheri
  • Poaceae
  • antioxidant activity
  • phenolics
  • flavonoids

Review Paper

Open Access

Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of Inonotus obliquus

Published Online: 11 Jul 2017
Page range: 48 - 58

Abstract

Summary

The article presents the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of compounds and extracts from Inonotus obliquus. Polysaccharides isolated from sclerotium have a direct antitumor effect due to protein synthesis inhibition in tumor cells. Polysaccharides derived from the mycelium function by activating the immune system. Due to the limited toxicity of these substances, both extracts as well as isolated and purified chemicals may be a good alternative to current chemotherapy and play a role in cancer prevention. In vitro experiments have shown the inhibition of inflammation with the influence of action of I. obliquus extracts; however, in vivo experiments on animals implanted with tumor cells of different types have shown the activation of the host immune system. This led to decrease in tumor mass and prolonged survival. The immunomodulatory mechanism of action is complex and it seems that stimulation of macrophages and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells is of great importance.

Keywords

  • Inonotus obliquus
  • chaga
  • antitumor activity
  • immunomodulatory activity

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