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Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Experimental Paper. The effect of colour grading of milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) seeds on their quality for sowing

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 7 - 19

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is a medicinal plant belonging to Asteraceae family. Extract from milk thistle achenes (termed in practice as seeds) contains sylimarin, which protects liver cells against inorganic and organic toxic compounds. Objective: The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of colour grading on the quality of milk thistle seeds. Methods: Seeds were graded manually by colour according to the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart, issued in Great Britain. In three samples two fractions of seeds were separated: beige and brown, whereas seeds of the fourth sample were graded into three fractions: yellow, beige and brown. The 1000-seed weight and germination of graded and non-graded seeds were evaluated. Infestation of graded seeds with fungi was assessed. Results: Brown seeds had a higher 1000-seed weight than beige or yellow ones. Germination at the final count of beige seeds did not differ as compared to that of brown seeds or was even better. Milk thistle seeds were infested with numerous fungi, however Alternaria alternata and Ulocladium consortiale predominated. Conclusions: Less mature beige seeds can be used as sowing material because their germination at the final count did not differ as compared to that of fully mature brown seeds or was even better. Infestation of these seeds with some of the fungi was lower than brown seeds.

Keywords

  • milk thistle
  • 1000-seed weight
  • seed germination
  • seed health
Open Access

Experimental Paper. Intrapopulation variability of flavonoid content in roots of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi)

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 20 - 31

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) is an important medicinal plant, indigenous to Asia. Due to a wide range of pharmacological activities, its roots has been used for ages in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recently, the species has become an object of interest of Western medicine, as well. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the variability of Baikal skullcap population originated from Mongolia and cultivated in Poland, in terms of content and composition of flavonoids in the roots. Methods: The objects of the study were 15 individual plants, selected within examined population and cloned in order to obtain a sufficient amount of raw material. The total content of flavonoids in roots was determined according to Polish Pharmacopeia 6th. The qualitative analysis of flavonoids was carried out using HPLC, Shimadzu chromatograph. Results: The dry mass of roots ranged from 25.88 to 56.14 g × plant-1. The total content of flavonoids (expressed as a quercetin equivalent) varied between 0.17 and 0.52% dry matter (DM). Nine compounds were detected within the group, with oroxylin A 7-Oglucuronide (346.90-1063.00 mg × 100 g-1 DM) as a dominant, which differentiated investigated clones at the highest degree (CV=0.27). Baicalin (391.40-942.00 mg × 100 g-1 DM), wogonoside (324.00-641.10 mg × 100 g-1 DM) and hesperetine 7-O-glucoside (163.00-346.32 mg × 100 g-1 DM) were also present in a considerable amounts. Clone 7 was distinguished by the highest content of all investigated compounds, except wogonin and oroxylin A 7-O-glucuronide. Conclusions: Results obtained in present study show a high variability within Baical skullcap investigated population in respect of flavonoid compounds detected in roots. Thus, the results may be used in future investigations concerning the selection and breeding of this species.

Keywords

  • Baikal skullcap
  • variability
  • roots
  • flavonoids
  • baicalin
Open Access

Experimental Paper. The effect of different development stages on the quantity and quality of the essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle in Iran

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 32 - 42

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The Mexican lime tree with the scientific name of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle have great economic value because of its essential oil with a unique flavour. Objective: The essential oils from the peel of C. aurantifolia were collected during three development periods. Methods: The essential oil was analyzed by capillary GC and GC-MS. Results: The essential oil yields (v/w%) were 1.54%, 0.88% and 1.23%, respectively. The highest oil yield was obtained at stage I (1.54% v/w). The analysis of the essential oil indicated that limonene, β-pinene, geranial, neral and γ-terpinene were the main compounds of all samples. At the first stage, the highest percentages belonged to limonene (39.38%), geranial (14.32%) and neral (11.01%). On the other hand, the highest percentages of β-pinene and γ-terpinene (24.25% and 8.92%, respectively) were found at the final stage. Conclusion: Therefore, it is concluded that the harvest time has a considerable effect on the content and amount of lime fruit essential oil.

Keywords

  • Citrus aurantifolia
  • development stages
  • essential oil
  • GC-MS
  • limonene
  • geranial
  • neral
Open Access

Experimental Paper. Activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin lesions in the course of staphylococcal skin infections

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 43 - 52

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an important etiological agent of skin and soft tissue infections. Due to the increasing resistance of this bacterium to antimicrobial agents, treatment of staphylococcal infections remains a great challenge for clinicians and requires an alternative treatment options. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils: caraway (CEO), patchouli (PEO) and geranium (GEO) against S. aureus strains isolated from skin lesions in the course of staphylococcal skin infections. Methods: The antibacterial activity of essential oils was tested using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton broth. Results: The antimicrobial effect of CEO, PEO and GEO was observed. The highest antimicrobial activity showed PEO (MIC = 1.7±0.8 µl/ml), the lower was observed for GEO (MIC = 5.4±2.0 µl/ml) and CEO (MIC = 18.8±10.3 µl/ml). Conclusion: All tested essential oils showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus strains isolated from skin lesions of patients with staphylococcal skin infections. Application of the CEO, PEO and GEO can become an alternative method of treatment of staphylococcal infections, but further microbiological tests and clinical trials should be assessed.

Keywords

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • caraway oil
  • patchouli oil
  • geranium oil
  • staphylococcal skin infections
Open Access

Experimental Paper. In vitro synthesis of mucilage in Plantago ovata Forsk affected by genotypes and culture media

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 53 - 66

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) is medicinally used mainly for its mucilage content. Objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to improve mucilage yield under in vitro callus culture using different genotypes, explants and culture media. Methods: The effects of a range of concentrations of plant growth regulators including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and kinetin (Kin) were evaluated on mucilage synthesis under in vitro culture using cotyledon, hypocotyl and seed explants. Fourteen genotypes originating from different geographical regions of Iran were used to evaluate their response to in vitro mucilage synthesis. Results: The highest rate of callus induction (76%) and callus growth rate CGR (0.38 mm/day) were induced on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l Kin and the hypocotyl explant. The results of analysis of variance showed significant genotypic differences for callus induction, CGR and mucilage content of callus and seeds. The mucilage content ranged from 0.38 to 0.08 (g/g DW) and 0.13 to 0.042 (g/g DW) for callus and seed, respectively. The superior callus induction (73%), CGR (0.45 mm/day) and mucilage content of callus (0.38 g/g DW) was denoted to Po1 genotype. The callus produced nearly three times more mucilage than the seeds using superior genotype (Po1). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that high efficiency of callus culture of P. ovata using hypocotyl explant accompanied by the exploration of genetic diversity are important to improve the yield of mucilage synthesis by in vitro callus culture.

Keywords

  • callus
  • mucilage production
  • hypocotyl explants
  • polysaccharide
Open Access

Health-promoting properties of compounds derived from Capsicum sp. A review

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 67 - 87

Abstract

Summary

This article presents multidirectional effects of capsaicin and its natural derivatives as well as natural and synthetic analogs in term of their therapeutic properties. Active agents present in various Capsicum genus plants exert analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant and gastroprotective effects. Furthermore, capsaicin positively influences the metabolism of lipids. Numerous research show that capsaicinoids inhibit proliferation and migration process of cancer cells, what makes them molecules of high interest in oncology. Among broad range of positive activities, we have focused only on those properties that have already found application in medicine or seemed to be the most probably used in the near future. Even if in low or single doses this compound has been reported successful in numerous therapies, the negative consequences of high doses or prolonged administration is also discussed in the review.

Keywords

  • capsaicin
  • capsaicinoids
  • capsaicin derivatives
  • capsaicin analogs
  • multidirectional activity
  • toxicity
Open Access

Bee pollen in allergy and immunology. Short review

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 88 - 94

Abstract

Summary

Bee pollen is a natural resource - pollen collected by bees and stored in the beehive with various bee enzymes added as it is a mixture of plants pollen and bee saliva. It is rich source of various nutrients, among them exogenous amino acids. Therefore, it can be a good and natural dietary supplement. New possibilities for bee pollen usage arise every day, yet it can also be a threat. Although bee pollen can act as an immunostimulant and anti-allergic agent, it is also and maybe even primarily allergic or cross-reactive with many allergens. A number of bee pollen allergy cases was described worldwide. A caution is therefore needed before ingestion or any other form of administration, especially in case of children or individuals with atopic predispositions. Anti-allergic attributes and immunostimmulation ability still need further research.

Keywords

  • bee pollen
  • bee pollen allergy
  • bee pollen immunology
7 Articles
Open Access

Experimental Paper. The effect of colour grading of milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) seeds on their quality for sowing

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 7 - 19

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is a medicinal plant belonging to Asteraceae family. Extract from milk thistle achenes (termed in practice as seeds) contains sylimarin, which protects liver cells against inorganic and organic toxic compounds. Objective: The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of colour grading on the quality of milk thistle seeds. Methods: Seeds were graded manually by colour according to the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart, issued in Great Britain. In three samples two fractions of seeds were separated: beige and brown, whereas seeds of the fourth sample were graded into three fractions: yellow, beige and brown. The 1000-seed weight and germination of graded and non-graded seeds were evaluated. Infestation of graded seeds with fungi was assessed. Results: Brown seeds had a higher 1000-seed weight than beige or yellow ones. Germination at the final count of beige seeds did not differ as compared to that of brown seeds or was even better. Milk thistle seeds were infested with numerous fungi, however Alternaria alternata and Ulocladium consortiale predominated. Conclusions: Less mature beige seeds can be used as sowing material because their germination at the final count did not differ as compared to that of fully mature brown seeds or was even better. Infestation of these seeds with some of the fungi was lower than brown seeds.

Keywords

  • milk thistle
  • 1000-seed weight
  • seed germination
  • seed health
Open Access

Experimental Paper. Intrapopulation variability of flavonoid content in roots of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi)

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 20 - 31

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) is an important medicinal plant, indigenous to Asia. Due to a wide range of pharmacological activities, its roots has been used for ages in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Recently, the species has become an object of interest of Western medicine, as well. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the variability of Baikal skullcap population originated from Mongolia and cultivated in Poland, in terms of content and composition of flavonoids in the roots. Methods: The objects of the study were 15 individual plants, selected within examined population and cloned in order to obtain a sufficient amount of raw material. The total content of flavonoids in roots was determined according to Polish Pharmacopeia 6th. The qualitative analysis of flavonoids was carried out using HPLC, Shimadzu chromatograph. Results: The dry mass of roots ranged from 25.88 to 56.14 g × plant-1. The total content of flavonoids (expressed as a quercetin equivalent) varied between 0.17 and 0.52% dry matter (DM). Nine compounds were detected within the group, with oroxylin A 7-Oglucuronide (346.90-1063.00 mg × 100 g-1 DM) as a dominant, which differentiated investigated clones at the highest degree (CV=0.27). Baicalin (391.40-942.00 mg × 100 g-1 DM), wogonoside (324.00-641.10 mg × 100 g-1 DM) and hesperetine 7-O-glucoside (163.00-346.32 mg × 100 g-1 DM) were also present in a considerable amounts. Clone 7 was distinguished by the highest content of all investigated compounds, except wogonin and oroxylin A 7-O-glucuronide. Conclusions: Results obtained in present study show a high variability within Baical skullcap investigated population in respect of flavonoid compounds detected in roots. Thus, the results may be used in future investigations concerning the selection and breeding of this species.

Keywords

  • Baikal skullcap
  • variability
  • roots
  • flavonoids
  • baicalin
Open Access

Experimental Paper. The effect of different development stages on the quantity and quality of the essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle in Iran

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 32 - 42

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The Mexican lime tree with the scientific name of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle have great economic value because of its essential oil with a unique flavour. Objective: The essential oils from the peel of C. aurantifolia were collected during three development periods. Methods: The essential oil was analyzed by capillary GC and GC-MS. Results: The essential oil yields (v/w%) were 1.54%, 0.88% and 1.23%, respectively. The highest oil yield was obtained at stage I (1.54% v/w). The analysis of the essential oil indicated that limonene, β-pinene, geranial, neral and γ-terpinene were the main compounds of all samples. At the first stage, the highest percentages belonged to limonene (39.38%), geranial (14.32%) and neral (11.01%). On the other hand, the highest percentages of β-pinene and γ-terpinene (24.25% and 8.92%, respectively) were found at the final stage. Conclusion: Therefore, it is concluded that the harvest time has a considerable effect on the content and amount of lime fruit essential oil.

Keywords

  • Citrus aurantifolia
  • development stages
  • essential oil
  • GC-MS
  • limonene
  • geranial
  • neral
Open Access

Experimental Paper. Activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin lesions in the course of staphylococcal skin infections

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 43 - 52

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an important etiological agent of skin and soft tissue infections. Due to the increasing resistance of this bacterium to antimicrobial agents, treatment of staphylococcal infections remains a great challenge for clinicians and requires an alternative treatment options. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of essential oils: caraway (CEO), patchouli (PEO) and geranium (GEO) against S. aureus strains isolated from skin lesions in the course of staphylococcal skin infections. Methods: The antibacterial activity of essential oils was tested using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton broth. Results: The antimicrobial effect of CEO, PEO and GEO was observed. The highest antimicrobial activity showed PEO (MIC = 1.7±0.8 µl/ml), the lower was observed for GEO (MIC = 5.4±2.0 µl/ml) and CEO (MIC = 18.8±10.3 µl/ml). Conclusion: All tested essential oils showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus strains isolated from skin lesions of patients with staphylococcal skin infections. Application of the CEO, PEO and GEO can become an alternative method of treatment of staphylococcal infections, but further microbiological tests and clinical trials should be assessed.

Keywords

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • caraway oil
  • patchouli oil
  • geranium oil
  • staphylococcal skin infections
Open Access

Experimental Paper. In vitro synthesis of mucilage in Plantago ovata Forsk affected by genotypes and culture media

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 53 - 66

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) is medicinally used mainly for its mucilage content. Objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to improve mucilage yield under in vitro callus culture using different genotypes, explants and culture media. Methods: The effects of a range of concentrations of plant growth regulators including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and kinetin (Kin) were evaluated on mucilage synthesis under in vitro culture using cotyledon, hypocotyl and seed explants. Fourteen genotypes originating from different geographical regions of Iran were used to evaluate their response to in vitro mucilage synthesis. Results: The highest rate of callus induction (76%) and callus growth rate CGR (0.38 mm/day) were induced on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l Kin and the hypocotyl explant. The results of analysis of variance showed significant genotypic differences for callus induction, CGR and mucilage content of callus and seeds. The mucilage content ranged from 0.38 to 0.08 (g/g DW) and 0.13 to 0.042 (g/g DW) for callus and seed, respectively. The superior callus induction (73%), CGR (0.45 mm/day) and mucilage content of callus (0.38 g/g DW) was denoted to Po1 genotype. The callus produced nearly three times more mucilage than the seeds using superior genotype (Po1). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that high efficiency of callus culture of P. ovata using hypocotyl explant accompanied by the exploration of genetic diversity are important to improve the yield of mucilage synthesis by in vitro callus culture.

Keywords

  • callus
  • mucilage production
  • hypocotyl explants
  • polysaccharide
Open Access

Health-promoting properties of compounds derived from Capsicum sp. A review

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 67 - 87

Abstract

Summary

This article presents multidirectional effects of capsaicin and its natural derivatives as well as natural and synthetic analogs in term of their therapeutic properties. Active agents present in various Capsicum genus plants exert analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant and gastroprotective effects. Furthermore, capsaicin positively influences the metabolism of lipids. Numerous research show that capsaicinoids inhibit proliferation and migration process of cancer cells, what makes them molecules of high interest in oncology. Among broad range of positive activities, we have focused only on those properties that have already found application in medicine or seemed to be the most probably used in the near future. Even if in low or single doses this compound has been reported successful in numerous therapies, the negative consequences of high doses or prolonged administration is also discussed in the review.

Keywords

  • capsaicin
  • capsaicinoids
  • capsaicin derivatives
  • capsaicin analogs
  • multidirectional activity
  • toxicity
Open Access

Bee pollen in allergy and immunology. Short review

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 88 - 94

Abstract

Summary

Bee pollen is a natural resource - pollen collected by bees and stored in the beehive with various bee enzymes added as it is a mixture of plants pollen and bee saliva. It is rich source of various nutrients, among them exogenous amino acids. Therefore, it can be a good and natural dietary supplement. New possibilities for bee pollen usage arise every day, yet it can also be a threat. Although bee pollen can act as an immunostimulant and anti-allergic agent, it is also and maybe even primarily allergic or cross-reactive with many allergens. A number of bee pollen allergy cases was described worldwide. A caution is therefore needed before ingestion or any other form of administration, especially in case of children or individuals with atopic predispositions. Anti-allergic attributes and immunostimmulation ability still need further research.

Keywords

  • bee pollen
  • bee pollen allergy
  • bee pollen immunology

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