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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Yield and level of phenolic compounds in the inflorescence of yellow everlasting Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench collected from natural sites

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 11 - 21

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The inflorescence of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench shows anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifying properties and is traditionally used in liver and biliary tract diseases. Because of its difficult and expensive cultivation, the plant raw material is mainly harvested from natural sites.

Objective: The research aimed to determine the local variation in yield and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in the yellow everlasting inflorescence against the background of the layer structure of vegetation as the rate of plant succession.

Methods: The plant raw material was collected from 30 plots of 1 m2, established for three separate populations developing on sandy fallows near Zielona Góra (western Poland). For each study area, percentage cover of the moss-lichen and herb layers, the height, cover and yield of H. arenarium as well as the height and cover of other herbaceous plants were determined. Total contents of flavonoids (expressed as quercetin) and phenolic acids (calculated as caffeic acid) were measured spectrophotometrically, according to Polish Pharmacopoeia.

Results: Everlastings reached a cover of up to 70% and the maximum air-dry matter yield of 46.42 g/m2. The height, coverage and yield of H. arenarium were correlated with the parameters describing the herb layer. The content of flavonoids ranged from 0.56 to 0.99%, while that of phenolic acids from 0.82 to 1.80% DM.

Conclusions: Yellow everlasting is an important species of early fallows on poor sandy soils and these habitats constitute a rich natural source of herbal raw material. Inflorescences harvested from natural sites are distinguished by a high and similar content of polyphenols and usually meet the requirements of Polish Pharmacopoeia.

Keywords

  • Helichrysum arenarium
  • yellow everlasting
  • yielding
  • polyphenols
  • flavonoids
  • phenolic acids
  • fallows
  • psammophilous grasslands
  • layer structure of vegetation
Open Access

Comparison of antioxidant activities of fractionated extracts from seedlings and herb of Chelidonium majus L. using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 22 - 38

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Our study is a part of a trend of studies on the antioxidative properties of Chelidonium majus extracts or their fractions suggesting that antioxidant activities may depend on total flavonoid and/or alkaloid contents.

Objective: This study focused on the examination of antioxidative activities of full water extract, non-protein fraction and protein fraction of the extract from aerial parts of mature plants and young seedlings.

Methods: Total flavonoid and alkaloid contents were evaluated by spectrometric methods. Quantitative determination of chelidonine, coptisine, sanquinarine, berberine was made by HPLC-UV. The antioxidative activities were evaluated using (1) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), (2) 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and (3) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods.

Results: All concentrations of herb extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than extract from seedlings. Two antioxidant tests (DPPH, FRAP) showed that full water extract from herb had the highest antioxidant activity, while its non-protein fraction and protein fraction showed lower antioxidant activity. It was found that the full water extract from herb contained the highest concentrations of flavonoids and alkaloids when compared with other samples.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that chelidonine and coptisine especially could be responsible for the observed changes in the extract antioxidant activity, because these alkaloids were determined in the highest concentration in full water extract from herb. It cannot be also excluded that the observed variables values between extracts and their fractions from herb or from seedlings may also be the result of interactions between flavonoids and other chemical compounds.

Keywords

  • Chelidonium majus
  • greater celandine
  • herbal extract
  • antioxidant activity
  • DPPH
  • ABTS
  • FRAP
  • phytochemical analysis
  • alkaloids
  • flavonoids
  • statistical analysis
Open Access

The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Muscari neglectum flower ethanol extract

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 39 - 48

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Muscari neglectum has been used as food in some countries.

Objective: The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of M. neglectum were the subject of the study.

Methods: In this study, the total phenolic, flavonoid, monomeric anthocyanin contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of M. neglectum flowers ethanol extract were determined by different methods against some food poisoning microorganisms.

Results: Total phenolic, flavonoids and anthocyanin contents of the extract were 18.2, 0.94 and 0.11%, respectively. The IC50 for M. neglectum was higher than that of BHT. M. neglectum extract showed no inhibition zone (IZ) against Staphylococcus aureus and had small IZ against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli had the higher IZ than the others. The lower MIC and MLC values were for C. albicans, followed by Sh. flexneri and E. coli. S. aureus had the higher MIC and MLC values than the others.

Conclusion: Therefore, the M. neglectum flower extract can be used as a natural preservative and coloring agent in foods as replacement of synthetic ones.

Keywords

  • Muscari neglectum
  • flower
  • preservatives
  • food
  • phenolics
  • anthocyanins
Open Access

Solubility and solubilizing capabilities of aqueous solutions of Extractum Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum in light of selected values of general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 49 - 65

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The general Hildebrand-Scatchard theory of solubility supplemented by Fedors’ solubility parameter δ12$- \delta ^{{1 \over 2}} $ was used to estimate the real solubility by −log x2 (log of the mole fraction) of phytochemicals contained in Ext. Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum. Surface activity of aqueous solution of extracts was determined and quantified – solubilizing capabilities of solutions of cexp. ≥cmc in relation to cholesterol particle size of Ø=1.00 mm, as well as of ketoprofen were defined.

Objective: The calculated value −log x2 collated with the polarity of extraction medium εM allows to estimate the optimal solubility of phytochemicals that determine the viscosity of the aqueous extract of dandelion and above all its surface activity and the ability to solubilize lipophilic therapeutic agents (ketoprofen).

Methods: Viscosity of water model solutions of dandelion extracts and exhibition solutions after the effective micellar solubilization of cholesterol and ketoprofen was measured using Ubbelohde viscometer in accordance with the Polish Standard. The surface tension of aqueous solutions of extract and exhibition solutions after solubilization of cholesterol and ketoprofen was measured according to the Polish Standard with stalagmometric method.

Results: The calculated factual solubility, and mainly the determined and calculated hydrodynamic size mean, that despite the complex structure of the micelle, it solubilizes cholesterol (granulometric grain of diameter Ø=1.00 mm) and ketoprofen (state of technological fragmentation) in equilibrium conditions. Equilibrium solubilization of ketoprofen also occurs in an environment of model gastric juice (0.1 mol HCl).

Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that after the administration (and/or dietary supplementation) with Ext. Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum, the physiological parameters of gastric juice would not be measured and its presence (phytosurfactant) in the body of the duodenum (bile A) increases abilities of solubilizing lipophilic therapeutic agents and cholesterol accounting for its use in the treatment of liver diseases and cholesterol gall bladder stones.

Keywords

  • Taraxacum officinale
  • dry extract
  • solubility
  • solubilizing capability
Open Access

Formulation and profile of pharmaceutical availability from a model oral solid form of a drug of phytochemicals contained in dry Taraxacum officinale extract

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 66 - 81

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale coll.), also called the common dandelion grows wild throughout Europe, Asia and the Americas. It is a perennial plant of the family of Asteraceae, having powerful healing properties. The entire plant – flowers, roots and leaves – is the medicinal raw material.

Objective: The aim of this study was to manufacture model tablets of pharmacopoeial disintegration time by direct compression of dry titrated extract of dandelion with selected excipients.

Methods: Tablets were obtained by direct compression using reciprocating tableting machine (Erweka). Morphological parameters – hardness, friability, disintegration time in pharmacopoeial acceptor fluids were investigated using Erweka equipment. Their actual surface area was also calculated. There was also tested the rate of dissolution of phytochemicals from model tablets in the presence of excipients in pharmacopoeial acceptor fluids (V=1.0 dm3) by the method of a basket in Erweka apparatus. Spectrophotometric determinations were performed.

Results: It results from the morphological studies of model tablets containing Ext. Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum that they are characterized by comparable surface and friability at varying hardness, the latter depending on the applied excipients. This is reflected in the effective disintegration time in model acceptor fluids consistent with pharmacopoeial requirements.

Conclusions: The used excipients enabled to produce model tablets containing dry extract of dandelion by direct compression. The obtained results demonstrated that microcrystalline Prosolv-type cellulose, Vivapur 200 and Emdex were compatible with the structure of the extract of dandelion. They allow to manufacture a model solid oral dosage forms of the desired morphological parameters and effective disintegration time complying with the pharmacopoeial requirements.

Keywords

  • Taraxacum officinale
  • direct compression
  • solubilization
  • solubility of phytochemicals
  • pharmaceutical availability
Open Access

Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller)

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 82 - 96

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM) is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the essential oils of thyme and myrtle. In addition to evaluating the insecticidal activity of carvacrol and eucalyptol against the different life stages of potato tuber moth using a fumigation bioassays.

Methods: Thyme and myrtle oils were extracted from wild Thymus syriacus Boiss. and wild Myrtus communis L. by hydrodistillation. Fumigation experiments were conducted on potato tuber moth of different stages of development (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults), using standard methods. The potato tuber moth was treated for different periods using different concentrations of the essential oils. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied on the mortality percentages data to estimate the significance of differences between treatments at p<0.05. Probit analysis was used to estimate the LC50, LC90 and LT50.

Results: Adult stage was the most sensitive to essential oils vapours with LC50 value of 0.5 μl/l air. Whereas, pupal stages were the most tolerant. The essential oil of thyme possessed the strongest fumigant toxicity against eggs with a LC50 value of 6.1 μl/l air. The two monoterpens showed varied fumigant toxicity against adult stage. Carvacrol achieved 100% mortality at 0.125 μl/l air after 6 h, and 0.025 μl/l air after 48h exposure with LT50 period of 0.5 h.

Conclusion: The present work demonstrated that T. syriacus essential oil is a promising natural fumigant against the different developmental stages of PTM.

Keywords

  • Phthorimaea operculella
  • essential oil
  • myrtle
  • thymus
  • carvacrol
  • eucalyptol
Open Access

Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 97 - 106

Abstract

Summary

Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

Keywords

  • herbal substances
  • Union food law
  • dietary supplements
  • novel food ingredients
7 Articles
Open Access

Yield and level of phenolic compounds in the inflorescence of yellow everlasting Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench collected from natural sites

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 11 - 21

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The inflorescence of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench shows anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifying properties and is traditionally used in liver and biliary tract diseases. Because of its difficult and expensive cultivation, the plant raw material is mainly harvested from natural sites.

Objective: The research aimed to determine the local variation in yield and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in the yellow everlasting inflorescence against the background of the layer structure of vegetation as the rate of plant succession.

Methods: The plant raw material was collected from 30 plots of 1 m2, established for three separate populations developing on sandy fallows near Zielona Góra (western Poland). For each study area, percentage cover of the moss-lichen and herb layers, the height, cover and yield of H. arenarium as well as the height and cover of other herbaceous plants were determined. Total contents of flavonoids (expressed as quercetin) and phenolic acids (calculated as caffeic acid) were measured spectrophotometrically, according to Polish Pharmacopoeia.

Results: Everlastings reached a cover of up to 70% and the maximum air-dry matter yield of 46.42 g/m2. The height, coverage and yield of H. arenarium were correlated with the parameters describing the herb layer. The content of flavonoids ranged from 0.56 to 0.99%, while that of phenolic acids from 0.82 to 1.80% DM.

Conclusions: Yellow everlasting is an important species of early fallows on poor sandy soils and these habitats constitute a rich natural source of herbal raw material. Inflorescences harvested from natural sites are distinguished by a high and similar content of polyphenols and usually meet the requirements of Polish Pharmacopoeia.

Keywords

  • Helichrysum arenarium
  • yellow everlasting
  • yielding
  • polyphenols
  • flavonoids
  • phenolic acids
  • fallows
  • psammophilous grasslands
  • layer structure of vegetation
Open Access

Comparison of antioxidant activities of fractionated extracts from seedlings and herb of Chelidonium majus L. using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 22 - 38

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Our study is a part of a trend of studies on the antioxidative properties of Chelidonium majus extracts or their fractions suggesting that antioxidant activities may depend on total flavonoid and/or alkaloid contents.

Objective: This study focused on the examination of antioxidative activities of full water extract, non-protein fraction and protein fraction of the extract from aerial parts of mature plants and young seedlings.

Methods: Total flavonoid and alkaloid contents were evaluated by spectrometric methods. Quantitative determination of chelidonine, coptisine, sanquinarine, berberine was made by HPLC-UV. The antioxidative activities were evaluated using (1) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), (2) 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and (3) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods.

Results: All concentrations of herb extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than extract from seedlings. Two antioxidant tests (DPPH, FRAP) showed that full water extract from herb had the highest antioxidant activity, while its non-protein fraction and protein fraction showed lower antioxidant activity. It was found that the full water extract from herb contained the highest concentrations of flavonoids and alkaloids when compared with other samples.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that chelidonine and coptisine especially could be responsible for the observed changes in the extract antioxidant activity, because these alkaloids were determined in the highest concentration in full water extract from herb. It cannot be also excluded that the observed variables values between extracts and their fractions from herb or from seedlings may also be the result of interactions between flavonoids and other chemical compounds.

Keywords

  • Chelidonium majus
  • greater celandine
  • herbal extract
  • antioxidant activity
  • DPPH
  • ABTS
  • FRAP
  • phytochemical analysis
  • alkaloids
  • flavonoids
  • statistical analysis
Open Access

The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Muscari neglectum flower ethanol extract

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 39 - 48

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Muscari neglectum has been used as food in some countries.

Objective: The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of M. neglectum were the subject of the study.

Methods: In this study, the total phenolic, flavonoid, monomeric anthocyanin contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of M. neglectum flowers ethanol extract were determined by different methods against some food poisoning microorganisms.

Results: Total phenolic, flavonoids and anthocyanin contents of the extract were 18.2, 0.94 and 0.11%, respectively. The IC50 for M. neglectum was higher than that of BHT. M. neglectum extract showed no inhibition zone (IZ) against Staphylococcus aureus and had small IZ against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli had the higher IZ than the others. The lower MIC and MLC values were for C. albicans, followed by Sh. flexneri and E. coli. S. aureus had the higher MIC and MLC values than the others.

Conclusion: Therefore, the M. neglectum flower extract can be used as a natural preservative and coloring agent in foods as replacement of synthetic ones.

Keywords

  • Muscari neglectum
  • flower
  • preservatives
  • food
  • phenolics
  • anthocyanins
Open Access

Solubility and solubilizing capabilities of aqueous solutions of Extractum Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum in light of selected values of general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 49 - 65

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The general Hildebrand-Scatchard theory of solubility supplemented by Fedors’ solubility parameter δ12$- \delta ^{{1 \over 2}} $ was used to estimate the real solubility by −log x2 (log of the mole fraction) of phytochemicals contained in Ext. Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum. Surface activity of aqueous solution of extracts was determined and quantified – solubilizing capabilities of solutions of cexp. ≥cmc in relation to cholesterol particle size of Ø=1.00 mm, as well as of ketoprofen were defined.

Objective: The calculated value −log x2 collated with the polarity of extraction medium εM allows to estimate the optimal solubility of phytochemicals that determine the viscosity of the aqueous extract of dandelion and above all its surface activity and the ability to solubilize lipophilic therapeutic agents (ketoprofen).

Methods: Viscosity of water model solutions of dandelion extracts and exhibition solutions after the effective micellar solubilization of cholesterol and ketoprofen was measured using Ubbelohde viscometer in accordance with the Polish Standard. The surface tension of aqueous solutions of extract and exhibition solutions after solubilization of cholesterol and ketoprofen was measured according to the Polish Standard with stalagmometric method.

Results: The calculated factual solubility, and mainly the determined and calculated hydrodynamic size mean, that despite the complex structure of the micelle, it solubilizes cholesterol (granulometric grain of diameter Ø=1.00 mm) and ketoprofen (state of technological fragmentation) in equilibrium conditions. Equilibrium solubilization of ketoprofen also occurs in an environment of model gastric juice (0.1 mol HCl).

Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that after the administration (and/or dietary supplementation) with Ext. Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum, the physiological parameters of gastric juice would not be measured and its presence (phytosurfactant) in the body of the duodenum (bile A) increases abilities of solubilizing lipophilic therapeutic agents and cholesterol accounting for its use in the treatment of liver diseases and cholesterol gall bladder stones.

Keywords

  • Taraxacum officinale
  • dry extract
  • solubility
  • solubilizing capability
Open Access

Formulation and profile of pharmaceutical availability from a model oral solid form of a drug of phytochemicals contained in dry Taraxacum officinale extract

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 66 - 81

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale coll.), also called the common dandelion grows wild throughout Europe, Asia and the Americas. It is a perennial plant of the family of Asteraceae, having powerful healing properties. The entire plant – flowers, roots and leaves – is the medicinal raw material.

Objective: The aim of this study was to manufacture model tablets of pharmacopoeial disintegration time by direct compression of dry titrated extract of dandelion with selected excipients.

Methods: Tablets were obtained by direct compression using reciprocating tableting machine (Erweka). Morphological parameters – hardness, friability, disintegration time in pharmacopoeial acceptor fluids were investigated using Erweka equipment. Their actual surface area was also calculated. There was also tested the rate of dissolution of phytochemicals from model tablets in the presence of excipients in pharmacopoeial acceptor fluids (V=1.0 dm3) by the method of a basket in Erweka apparatus. Spectrophotometric determinations were performed.

Results: It results from the morphological studies of model tablets containing Ext. Taraxaci e radix cum herba aqu. siccum that they are characterized by comparable surface and friability at varying hardness, the latter depending on the applied excipients. This is reflected in the effective disintegration time in model acceptor fluids consistent with pharmacopoeial requirements.

Conclusions: The used excipients enabled to produce model tablets containing dry extract of dandelion by direct compression. The obtained results demonstrated that microcrystalline Prosolv-type cellulose, Vivapur 200 and Emdex were compatible with the structure of the extract of dandelion. They allow to manufacture a model solid oral dosage forms of the desired morphological parameters and effective disintegration time complying with the pharmacopoeial requirements.

Keywords

  • Taraxacum officinale
  • direct compression
  • solubilization
  • solubility of phytochemicals
  • pharmaceutical availability
Open Access

Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller)

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 82 - 96

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM) is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the essential oils of thyme and myrtle. In addition to evaluating the insecticidal activity of carvacrol and eucalyptol against the different life stages of potato tuber moth using a fumigation bioassays.

Methods: Thyme and myrtle oils were extracted from wild Thymus syriacus Boiss. and wild Myrtus communis L. by hydrodistillation. Fumigation experiments were conducted on potato tuber moth of different stages of development (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults), using standard methods. The potato tuber moth was treated for different periods using different concentrations of the essential oils. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied on the mortality percentages data to estimate the significance of differences between treatments at p<0.05. Probit analysis was used to estimate the LC50, LC90 and LT50.

Results: Adult stage was the most sensitive to essential oils vapours with LC50 value of 0.5 μl/l air. Whereas, pupal stages were the most tolerant. The essential oil of thyme possessed the strongest fumigant toxicity against eggs with a LC50 value of 6.1 μl/l air. The two monoterpens showed varied fumigant toxicity against adult stage. Carvacrol achieved 100% mortality at 0.125 μl/l air after 6 h, and 0.025 μl/l air after 48h exposure with LT50 period of 0.5 h.

Conclusion: The present work demonstrated that T. syriacus essential oil is a promising natural fumigant against the different developmental stages of PTM.

Keywords

  • Phthorimaea operculella
  • essential oil
  • myrtle
  • thymus
  • carvacrol
  • eucalyptol
Open Access

Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

Published Online: 25 Jan 2017
Page range: 97 - 106

Abstract

Summary

Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

Keywords

  • herbal substances
  • Union food law
  • dietary supplements
  • novel food ingredients

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