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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Estimation of the cardinal temperatures for germination of four Satureja species growing in Iran

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 7 - 21

Abstract

Summary

Introduction Seed germination is a complex physiological process regulated by genetic and environmental factors including temperature, water, oxygen, light and pH. Among them, temperature is one of the most important factors controlling the maximum rate and percentage of diaspore germination. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the cardinal temperatures (Tb, To, Tc) of four Satureja species growing in Iran. Methods: Seeds of Satureja mutica Fish. et C. A. Mey., S. macrantha C. A. Mey., S. sahandica Bornm and S. bachtiarica Bunge were germinated at nine constant temperatures (from 0 to 40°C) with 5°C intervals. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications was applied to determine the cardinal temperatures estimated by three regression models including intersected-lines (ISL), quadratic polynomial (QPN) and five-parameters beta (FPB). Results: The highest germination percentage (GP) occurred at 20°C for S. mutica (86%), S. macrantha (55%), S. sahandica (81%) and S. bachtiarica (89%), but there was no significant difference between 20 and 25°C, except S. sahandica. Germination stopped at 0°C and 40°C. The highest germination rate (GR), the lowest mean germination time (MGT) and time to 50% germination (D50) were obtained at 20-25°C for all species. The GRm for S. bachtiarica was significantly (p≤0.05) higher than for three other species in all temperatures. None of the species did reach to 50% germination at temperatures higher than 30°C. Conclusion: Obtained results revealed the superiority of S. bachtiarica over the other species, v.s. S. macrantha was inferior. FPB and ISL models were most reliable for predicting cardinal temperatures, because of higher R2 value and the lower root mean square error (RMSE). S. macrantha and S. mutica showed the lowest and the highest cardinal temperatures, respectively, in all three models.

Keywords

  • cardinal temperatures
  • germination
  • Satureja
  • regression models

Słowa kluczowe

  • temperatury główne
  • kiełkowanie
  • cząber
  • modele regresji
Open Access

Seed oil composition of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile from Iran

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 22 - 28

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile belongs to the Fabaceae family and the subfamily Mimosoideae; and commonly called Gum arabic tree. As the young pods and seeds are eaten roasted by the people in South Iran. Objective: The oil composition of the mature seeds of A. nilotica collected from natural habitats of the south of Iran were analyzed in order to determine their potential for human or animal consumption. Methods: The extracted oil was analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectroscopy method (GC/MS). Results: The oil content in these edible seeds was found to be 3.4% (v/w) fresh weight. A rare phytosterol, six fatty acids, nine hydrocarbons and one diterpenoid were identified which constituted about 83.5% of the oil. The phytosterol, 26-ethylcholesta-5,25(Z)-dien-3.β-ol (20.8%) as well as essential saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were the main components. Other components were present in amounts lower than 5%. Conclusion: It is concluded that the seed oil could be a new natural source for human nutrition.

Keywords

  • Acacia nilotica
  • seed oil
  • phytosterol
  • fatty acid

Słowa kluczowe

  • Acacia nilotica
  • olej z nasion
  • fitosterol
  • kwas tłuszczowy
Open Access

Antioxidant properties of selected culinary spices

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 29 - 41

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Seasonings added to food enhance its flavor and texture. Some of them can also extend their shelf-lives thanks to the presence of antioxidant compounds. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate twenty eight commercially available spices for the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Methods: Total phenols were estimated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined with DPPH assay. Results: Our results showed that the most of analysed spices are rich in phenolic compounds and demonstrate good antioxidant activity. The total polyphenol content oscillated around 0.9-155.1 mg GAE/g with the lowest value for sesame and the highest for cinnamon. The DPPH radical scavenging ability expressed as % ranged from 4.1% for sesame to 94.9% for cloves. Moreover, a moderate correlation (r=0.63, p<0.05) was reported between antioxidant activity and total phenolics, revealing that phenolic compounds are the important antioxidant components in the examined spices. Conclusion: The study shows also that a lot of spices can serve as food preservatives and, at the same time, have a beneficial effect on human health.

Keywords

  • spices
  • phenolics
  • antioxidant activity
  • reactive oxygen species (ROS)

Słowa kluczowe

  • przyprawy
  • fenole
  • aktywność przeciwutleniająca
  • reaktywne formy tlenu ROS
Open Access

Impact of Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba extracts on expression level of transcriptional factors and xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 42 - 54

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Despite widespread use of Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba, the data on the safety as well as herb-drug interactions are very limited. Therefore, we postulate that P. ginseng and G. biloba may modulate the activity and content of cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the biotransformation of diverse xenobiotic substances. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the influence of herbal remedies on the expression level of CYP enzymes and transcriptional factors. Methods: Male Wistar rats were given standardized Panax ginseng (30 mg/kg p.o.) or standardized Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by realtime PCR method. Results: Our results showed a decrease of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) mRNA level after P. ginseng extract treatment. The CYP2C6 (homologue to human CYP2C9) expression was also reduced. Additionally, after 10 days of the treatment with P. ginseng an increase of CYP1A1 (homologue to human CYP1A1) and CYP1A2 (homologue to human CYP1A2) expression was observed. Moreover, G. biloba extract also caused an increase of expression level for CYP1A1, CYP2C6, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that herbal extracts can modulate the expression of transcriptional factors and CYP enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and chemical carcinogenesis.

Keywords

  • cytochrom P450
  • expression
  • herbal extracts
  • real-time PCR
  • drug metabolism
  • chemical carcinogenesis

Słowa kluczowe

  • cytochrom P450
  • ekspresja
  • ekstrakty roślinne
  • real-time PCR
  • metabolizm leków
  • chemiczna karcynogeneza
Open Access

Antimicrobial activity of leaf and flowering cones of Abies cilicica ssp. cilicica (Pinaceae) crude extracts

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 55 - 65

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Abies cilicica ssp. cilicica is an endemic species grown naturally in Syria. This taxon could be a potential and promising source of antimicrobial activity. Objective: Methanolic, ethanolic and acetonic extracts of leaf (LE) and flowering cones (FE) of A. cilicica ssp. cilicica plant were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against 3 bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) pathogens. Methods: A. cilicica antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disc-diffusion method (zone of inhibitions-ZIs), activity index (AI) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (Microdilution broth susceptibility assay). Similarly, ciprofloxacin (10 mg/ml) and nystatin (5 μg/ml) antibiotics were used as a standard for the antimicrobial activity of bacteria and fungi isolates, respectively. Results: Data revealed that the acetone FE with highest ZIs and lowest MICs showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens, while, ethanol LE was the lowest potent extract against all tested microorganisms. P. vulgaris bacteria was considered as the most sensitive isolate by showing the lowest MICs value of 0.52 μg/ml, whereas, A. niger fungus was pronounced as the most tolerant isolate by expressing the highest MICs value of 26.67 μg/ml. Conclusion: The current investigation proved the potential activity of A. cilicica extracts as an antibacterial and an antifungal source grown naturally in Syria.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial activity
  • Abies cilicica
  • minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)

Słowa kluczowe

  • właściwości przeciwdrobnoustrojowe
  • Abies cilicica
  • minimalne stężenie hamujące (MICs)
Open Access

Inhibition of glycoxidative modification of proteins by some substances of natural origin

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 66 - 82

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are the main products of glycoxidative modification in diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the natural substance with the strongest antiglycoxidative properties among dietary supplements or medicines available without prescription in Poland. Methods: Bovine serum albumin (BSA), vitamin C (VC), aminoguanidine (A), quercetin (Q) and green tea (GT) were tested in vitro in comparison to controls in glycation, oxidation and glycoxidation processes. The decreased AGE and AOPP concentrations were measured as markers of these processes. Results: AGE level was reduced by 72% by VC and at least by 43% by all examined substances in the glycation process. AOPP was reduced by 99% by VC and at least by 40% by all examined substances in the oxidation process. Formation of AGE/AOPP was inhibited by 61% by Q and by 97% by A, and at least 49/88% by all examined substances, respectively. This lowering of AGE/AOPP level was statistically significant (p<0.001) for all test substances in comparison to the positive control C(+). Conclusion: All examined substances are able to inhibit glycative, oxidative and glycoxidative modification of proteins in different degrees depending on their concentration.

Keywords

  • protein oxidative modification
  • protein glycation modification
  • protein glycoxidation modification
  • AGE
  • AOPP
  • inhibition by natural origin substances
  • in vitro study

Słowa kluczowe

  • modyfikacje utleniające białek
  • modyfikacje glikujące białek
  • modyfikacje glikooksydacyjne białek
  • AGE
  • AOPP
  • inhibitory pochodzenia naturalnego
  • badania in vitro
6 Articles
Open Access

Estimation of the cardinal temperatures for germination of four Satureja species growing in Iran

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 7 - 21

Abstract

Summary

Introduction Seed germination is a complex physiological process regulated by genetic and environmental factors including temperature, water, oxygen, light and pH. Among them, temperature is one of the most important factors controlling the maximum rate and percentage of diaspore germination. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the cardinal temperatures (Tb, To, Tc) of four Satureja species growing in Iran. Methods: Seeds of Satureja mutica Fish. et C. A. Mey., S. macrantha C. A. Mey., S. sahandica Bornm and S. bachtiarica Bunge were germinated at nine constant temperatures (from 0 to 40°C) with 5°C intervals. A factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications was applied to determine the cardinal temperatures estimated by three regression models including intersected-lines (ISL), quadratic polynomial (QPN) and five-parameters beta (FPB). Results: The highest germination percentage (GP) occurred at 20°C for S. mutica (86%), S. macrantha (55%), S. sahandica (81%) and S. bachtiarica (89%), but there was no significant difference between 20 and 25°C, except S. sahandica. Germination stopped at 0°C and 40°C. The highest germination rate (GR), the lowest mean germination time (MGT) and time to 50% germination (D50) were obtained at 20-25°C for all species. The GRm for S. bachtiarica was significantly (p≤0.05) higher than for three other species in all temperatures. None of the species did reach to 50% germination at temperatures higher than 30°C. Conclusion: Obtained results revealed the superiority of S. bachtiarica over the other species, v.s. S. macrantha was inferior. FPB and ISL models were most reliable for predicting cardinal temperatures, because of higher R2 value and the lower root mean square error (RMSE). S. macrantha and S. mutica showed the lowest and the highest cardinal temperatures, respectively, in all three models.

Keywords

  • cardinal temperatures
  • germination
  • Satureja
  • regression models

Słowa kluczowe

  • temperatury główne
  • kiełkowanie
  • cząber
  • modele regresji
Open Access

Seed oil composition of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile from Iran

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 22 - 28

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile belongs to the Fabaceae family and the subfamily Mimosoideae; and commonly called Gum arabic tree. As the young pods and seeds are eaten roasted by the people in South Iran. Objective: The oil composition of the mature seeds of A. nilotica collected from natural habitats of the south of Iran were analyzed in order to determine their potential for human or animal consumption. Methods: The extracted oil was analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectroscopy method (GC/MS). Results: The oil content in these edible seeds was found to be 3.4% (v/w) fresh weight. A rare phytosterol, six fatty acids, nine hydrocarbons and one diterpenoid were identified which constituted about 83.5% of the oil. The phytosterol, 26-ethylcholesta-5,25(Z)-dien-3.β-ol (20.8%) as well as essential saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were the main components. Other components were present in amounts lower than 5%. Conclusion: It is concluded that the seed oil could be a new natural source for human nutrition.

Keywords

  • Acacia nilotica
  • seed oil
  • phytosterol
  • fatty acid

Słowa kluczowe

  • Acacia nilotica
  • olej z nasion
  • fitosterol
  • kwas tłuszczowy
Open Access

Antioxidant properties of selected culinary spices

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 29 - 41

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Seasonings added to food enhance its flavor and texture. Some of them can also extend their shelf-lives thanks to the presence of antioxidant compounds. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate twenty eight commercially available spices for the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Methods: Total phenols were estimated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined with DPPH assay. Results: Our results showed that the most of analysed spices are rich in phenolic compounds and demonstrate good antioxidant activity. The total polyphenol content oscillated around 0.9-155.1 mg GAE/g with the lowest value for sesame and the highest for cinnamon. The DPPH radical scavenging ability expressed as % ranged from 4.1% for sesame to 94.9% for cloves. Moreover, a moderate correlation (r=0.63, p<0.05) was reported between antioxidant activity and total phenolics, revealing that phenolic compounds are the important antioxidant components in the examined spices. Conclusion: The study shows also that a lot of spices can serve as food preservatives and, at the same time, have a beneficial effect on human health.

Keywords

  • spices
  • phenolics
  • antioxidant activity
  • reactive oxygen species (ROS)

Słowa kluczowe

  • przyprawy
  • fenole
  • aktywność przeciwutleniająca
  • reaktywne formy tlenu ROS
Open Access

Impact of Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba extracts on expression level of transcriptional factors and xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 42 - 54

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Despite widespread use of Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba, the data on the safety as well as herb-drug interactions are very limited. Therefore, we postulate that P. ginseng and G. biloba may modulate the activity and content of cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the biotransformation of diverse xenobiotic substances. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the influence of herbal remedies on the expression level of CYP enzymes and transcriptional factors. Methods: Male Wistar rats were given standardized Panax ginseng (30 mg/kg p.o.) or standardized Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by realtime PCR method. Results: Our results showed a decrease of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) mRNA level after P. ginseng extract treatment. The CYP2C6 (homologue to human CYP2C9) expression was also reduced. Additionally, after 10 days of the treatment with P. ginseng an increase of CYP1A1 (homologue to human CYP1A1) and CYP1A2 (homologue to human CYP1A2) expression was observed. Moreover, G. biloba extract also caused an increase of expression level for CYP1A1, CYP2C6, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that herbal extracts can modulate the expression of transcriptional factors and CYP enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and chemical carcinogenesis.

Keywords

  • cytochrom P450
  • expression
  • herbal extracts
  • real-time PCR
  • drug metabolism
  • chemical carcinogenesis

Słowa kluczowe

  • cytochrom P450
  • ekspresja
  • ekstrakty roślinne
  • real-time PCR
  • metabolizm leków
  • chemiczna karcynogeneza
Open Access

Antimicrobial activity of leaf and flowering cones of Abies cilicica ssp. cilicica (Pinaceae) crude extracts

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 55 - 65

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Abies cilicica ssp. cilicica is an endemic species grown naturally in Syria. This taxon could be a potential and promising source of antimicrobial activity. Objective: Methanolic, ethanolic and acetonic extracts of leaf (LE) and flowering cones (FE) of A. cilicica ssp. cilicica plant were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against 3 bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) pathogens. Methods: A. cilicica antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disc-diffusion method (zone of inhibitions-ZIs), activity index (AI) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (Microdilution broth susceptibility assay). Similarly, ciprofloxacin (10 mg/ml) and nystatin (5 μg/ml) antibiotics were used as a standard for the antimicrobial activity of bacteria and fungi isolates, respectively. Results: Data revealed that the acetone FE with highest ZIs and lowest MICs showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens, while, ethanol LE was the lowest potent extract against all tested microorganisms. P. vulgaris bacteria was considered as the most sensitive isolate by showing the lowest MICs value of 0.52 μg/ml, whereas, A. niger fungus was pronounced as the most tolerant isolate by expressing the highest MICs value of 26.67 μg/ml. Conclusion: The current investigation proved the potential activity of A. cilicica extracts as an antibacterial and an antifungal source grown naturally in Syria.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial activity
  • Abies cilicica
  • minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs)

Słowa kluczowe

  • właściwości przeciwdrobnoustrojowe
  • Abies cilicica
  • minimalne stężenie hamujące (MICs)
Open Access

Inhibition of glycoxidative modification of proteins by some substances of natural origin

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 66 - 82

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are the main products of glycoxidative modification in diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the natural substance with the strongest antiglycoxidative properties among dietary supplements or medicines available without prescription in Poland. Methods: Bovine serum albumin (BSA), vitamin C (VC), aminoguanidine (A), quercetin (Q) and green tea (GT) were tested in vitro in comparison to controls in glycation, oxidation and glycoxidation processes. The decreased AGE and AOPP concentrations were measured as markers of these processes. Results: AGE level was reduced by 72% by VC and at least by 43% by all examined substances in the glycation process. AOPP was reduced by 99% by VC and at least by 40% by all examined substances in the oxidation process. Formation of AGE/AOPP was inhibited by 61% by Q and by 97% by A, and at least 49/88% by all examined substances, respectively. This lowering of AGE/AOPP level was statistically significant (p<0.001) for all test substances in comparison to the positive control C(+). Conclusion: All examined substances are able to inhibit glycative, oxidative and glycoxidative modification of proteins in different degrees depending on their concentration.

Keywords

  • protein oxidative modification
  • protein glycation modification
  • protein glycoxidation modification
  • AGE
  • AOPP
  • inhibition by natural origin substances
  • in vitro study

Słowa kluczowe

  • modyfikacje utleniające białek
  • modyfikacje glikujące białek
  • modyfikacje glikooksydacyjne białek
  • AGE
  • AOPP
  • inhibitory pochodzenia naturalnego
  • badania in vitro

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