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Volume 68 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

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Volume 67 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Incubation methods for the detection of fungi associated with caraway (Carum carvi L.) seeds

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 9 - 22

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Infestation with fungi may significantly affect the quality of seeds. However, there is no standard method for caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed health testing.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the most efficient method of the detection of fungi associatyed with caraway seeds.

Methods: Seven incubation methods for evaluation of health of these seeds were compared: deep freeze blotter test, blotter test with mannitol, blotter test with polyethylene glycol, agar tests on potato-dextrose-agar (PDA) and on reduced PDA (RPDA) without seed disinfection, and agar tests on PDA and RPDA after seed disinfection. The evaluation was performed after 10 and 14 days of incubation.

Results: Thirty two fungal genera were associated with the seeds. Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp. and Rhizopus nigricans were identified most frequently. Prolongation of incubation time favoured growth of Fusarium spp. and R. nigricans to the highest extent.

Conclusions: The greatest seed infestation with fungi, especially Alternaria spp., was observed in the deep freeze blotter test followed by the blotter test with mannitol. Both of them could be recommended for further study on caraway seed health testing.

Keywords

  • caraway seeds
  • blotter test
  • agar test
  • seed health

Słowa kluczowe:

  • nasiona kminku
  • test bibułowy
  • test agarowy
  • zdrowotność nasion
Open Access

Determination of nicotine levels in the leaves of some Nicotiana tabacum varieties cultivated in Syria

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 23 - 30

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Tobacco is the most widely grown non-food crop in the world. Nicotine is the most abundant volatile alkaloid in tobacco leaves.

Objectives: This work aimed at measuring nicotine levels in the leaves of seven different varieties of Nicotiana tabacum, namely: Virginia, Burlip, Katrina, Shk al-bent, Zegrin, Basma and Burley, cultivated in Syria.

Methods: Nicotine was extracted according to approved method and its concentration was determined by LC/MS/MS in comparison with a standard material dilution series. The percentage of nicotine concentration was calculated manually. Statistical analysis was used to assess the significance of differences among variables and to perform multiple comparisons.

Results: The amount of nicotine in dry weight of tobacco leaves represented 6.7% in Virginia variety, 4.9% in Burlip, 4.84% in Katrina, 4.67% in Shk al-bent, 4% in Zegrin, 3.3% in Basma and <3% in Burley. Significant differences in nicotine concentration were found among the different varieties as determined by LSD test at a level of 0.05.

Conclusion: This study shows the importance of tobacco varieties grown in Syria, particularly Virginia, Burlip, Katrina, as a cheap and wealthy source for nicotine to be used in some industries.

Keywords

  • nicotine
  • Nicotiana tabacum
  • alkaloid
  • leaves
  • LC/MS/MS

Słowa kluczowe:

  • nikotyna
  • Nicotiana tabacum
  • alkaloid
  • liście
  • LC/MS/MS
Open Access

Antibacterial activity of rosemary, caraway and fennel essential oils

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 31 - 39

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Recently, interest in essential oils used in natural medicine, has been increasing. Essential oils are still being tested for their potential uses as an alternative remedies for the treatment of many infectious diseases.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate antibacterial properties of commercial essential oils (rosemary, caraway and fennel) to reduce the number of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Methods: The antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated by agar dilution method.

Results: The result of experiments showed that essential oils contained in microbiological media significantly reduced the number of S. aureus and E. coli cells. The best antibacterial properties possessed caraway oil: 1 mg/g for S. aureus and 10 mg/g for E. coli, weaker rosemary (5 mg/g) and fennel (20 mg/g) oils.

Conclusion: Results confirmed the inhibiting effect of commercial essential oils on S. aureus and E. coli and provide a scientific ground for future research.

Keywords

  • Escherichia coli
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • rosemary
  • caraway
  • fennel

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Escherichia coli
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • rozmaryn lekarski
  • kminek zwyczajny
  • koper włoski
Open Access

Antioxidant activity of Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don (Borage) grown and eaten as food in Ordu, Turkey

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 40 - 51

Abstract

Summary

Introductıon: Instead of synthetic antioxidants, using of natural products with antioxidant activity is demanded.

Objectıve: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Trachystemon orientalis (borage) obtained from Ordu.

Methods: The water and ethanol extracts of the borage plant were investigated by using several in vitro antioxidant activity tests such as total antioxidant capacity, O2•−, OH, DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activities, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, FRAP, Fe2+ chelating and reducing power assays in order to make effective comparisons.

Results: Water extract of the T. orientalis had the more phenolic (90 mg GA/g extract) and flavonoid (56.88 mg CT/g extract) contents than ethanol extract. Furthermore, both of the extracts showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities determined by different in vitro models. The highest total antioxidant capacity as ascorbic acid equivalents of 244.50 mg/g extract was also calculated for water extract. Generally, a relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was established. It is also an important finding for an edible food source that the phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidative activities for water extract was higher than the ethanol extract.

Conclusıon: T. orientalis could be used as a food ingredient instead of synthetic antioxidants and all results will contribute to the recent increase in investigations on using natural products in many areas such as food, pharmacy, alternative medicine and natural therapy.

Keywords

  • antioxidant activity
  • phenolic content
  • flavonoid content
  • water extract
  • ethanol extract

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Trachystemon orientalis
  • działanie antyoksydacyjne
  • zawartość fenoli i flawonoidów
  • wyciąg wodny i etanolowy
Open Access

The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of extracts obtained from some moss species in Turkey

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 52 - 65

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Pharmaceutical industry is forced to develop new pharmacologically active molecules. Like other plants, mosses are considered to be potential source of new biologically active compounds.

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of 8 moss species: Hypnum cupressiforme, Homalothecium sericeum, Thuidium delicatulum, Homalothecium lutescens, Homalothecium nitens, Leucodon sciuroides, Ctenidium molluscum, and Eurhynchium striatulum obtained from Turkey.

Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against four Gram (+) and six Gram (−) bacterial strains and three tested fungi. Total phenolic content (TPC), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity assays were applied to determine the antioxidant activity.

Results: All moss extacts were found to be active against all the organisms except Homalothecium nitens. Especially, H. sericeum and E. striatulum showed the best antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: The obtained results show that mosses may be used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial agents to control various human, animal and plant diseases.

Keywords

  • antibacterial
  • antifungal
  • antioxidant
  • Eurhynchium striatulum
  • Homalothecium sericeum

Słowa kluczowe:

  • działanie przeciwbakteryjne
  • przeciwgrzybicze
  • antyoksydacyjne
  • Eurhynchium striatulum
  • Homalothecium sericeum
Open Access

Establishing an efficient explant superficial sterilization protocol for in vitro micropropagation of bear’s garlic (Allium ursinum L.)

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 66 - 77

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Allium ursinum L. has a commercial value due to its high contents of bio-active compounds and mild, garlic-like taste. In vitro culture played an important role in obtaining Allium species with the desired characteristics and in the production of healthy reproductive material.

Objective: Developing an effective method of sterilization bear’s garlic bulbs.

Methods: To obtain sterile shoots of garlic several methods of sterilization involving such factors as ACE, H2O2, HgCl2, and UV-C were tested.

Results: In order to obtain sterile shoots of bear’s garlic, several sterilization procedures were tested. The best procedure was based on a two-step disinfection, where the whole onions were treated with ethanol and H2O2 for 20 min. Thereafter, the isolated apical buds were sterilized in ACE for 10 min, rinsed in double-distilled water and transferred onto MS medium for growing. Up to 95% of the inoculated explants formed shoots, which were sub-cultured on MS with 4 mg dm−3 BAP in order to enable further propagation.

Conclusion: After optimization and stabilization, this procedure may become the basic concept of a proper and reliable propagation method of bear’s garlic on commercial scale.

Keywords

  • bear’s garlic
  • Allium ursinum L.
  • in vitro cultures
  • sterilization procedures
  • UV–C irradiation

Słowa kluczowe:

  • czosnek niedźwiedzi
  • Allium ursinum L.
  • kultury in vitro
  • sterylizacja
  • promieniowanie UV-C
Open Access

Selected excipients and surfactants in oral solid dosage form with extract of Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 78 - 92

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an annual plant grown in many countries all over the world including its different varieties in Poland. Herbal raw material are elongated pods – pericarp. Phaseoli pericarpium decreases the glucose blood level. Phaseoli pericarpium extracts manifest duretic properties, can be used in the treatment of edema, kidney diseases with decreased urinary excretion, nephrolithiasis.

Objectives: To investigate the usefullness of selected excipients as carriers of dry extract from Phaseolus vulgaris pericarp.

Methods: The method of direct tableting was used. In the further stage, the obtained tablets were subjected to appropriate tests. The first stage of the study evaluates Prosolv SMCC 50, PROSOLV EASYtab, EMDEX, Carmellose calcium and PRUV. These were used to manufacture 4 batches of tablets. In the second stage, an oral solid dosage was manufactured on the basis of the formulation composition of batch 1 tablets (Phaseoli pericarpium extract, Prosolv SMCC 50, PRUV). Then, different surfactants (cholesterol oxyethylate nTE = 30, cholesterol oxyethylate nTE = 40, Rofam nTE = 50), were successively added to this formulation, to obtain 3 batches of tablets. All 7 batches were manufactured in the Erweka tableting machine. Then, they were subjected to morphological tests and physicochemical evaluation. The release of active substances to 3 selected acceptor fluids (water, artificial gastric juice, artificial intestinal juice) was measured in accordance with the requirements of the general and specific monographs in European Pharmacopoeia 7.

Results: The manufactured tablets had a smooth uniform surface with no stains, spalls or mechanical damage and yellow color originating from the extract. The obtained tablets, with surfactants in their composition, demonstrated pharmaceutical availability slightly higher than batch 1 tablets without surfactants.

Conclusions: Excipients applied in appropriate proportions appear to be useful in the manufacturing of uncoated tablets containing extract of Phaseoli pericarpium.

Keywords

  • Phaseolus vulgaris
  • direct tableting
  • surfactants
  • excipients

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Phaseolus vulgaris
  • bezpośrednie tabletkowanie
  • surfaktanty
  • substancje pomocnicze
7 Articles
Open Access

Incubation methods for the detection of fungi associated with caraway (Carum carvi L.) seeds

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 9 - 22

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Infestation with fungi may significantly affect the quality of seeds. However, there is no standard method for caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed health testing.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the most efficient method of the detection of fungi associatyed with caraway seeds.

Methods: Seven incubation methods for evaluation of health of these seeds were compared: deep freeze blotter test, blotter test with mannitol, blotter test with polyethylene glycol, agar tests on potato-dextrose-agar (PDA) and on reduced PDA (RPDA) without seed disinfection, and agar tests on PDA and RPDA after seed disinfection. The evaluation was performed after 10 and 14 days of incubation.

Results: Thirty two fungal genera were associated with the seeds. Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp. and Rhizopus nigricans were identified most frequently. Prolongation of incubation time favoured growth of Fusarium spp. and R. nigricans to the highest extent.

Conclusions: The greatest seed infestation with fungi, especially Alternaria spp., was observed in the deep freeze blotter test followed by the blotter test with mannitol. Both of them could be recommended for further study on caraway seed health testing.

Keywords

  • caraway seeds
  • blotter test
  • agar test
  • seed health

Słowa kluczowe:

  • nasiona kminku
  • test bibułowy
  • test agarowy
  • zdrowotność nasion
Open Access

Determination of nicotine levels in the leaves of some Nicotiana tabacum varieties cultivated in Syria

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 23 - 30

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Tobacco is the most widely grown non-food crop in the world. Nicotine is the most abundant volatile alkaloid in tobacco leaves.

Objectives: This work aimed at measuring nicotine levels in the leaves of seven different varieties of Nicotiana tabacum, namely: Virginia, Burlip, Katrina, Shk al-bent, Zegrin, Basma and Burley, cultivated in Syria.

Methods: Nicotine was extracted according to approved method and its concentration was determined by LC/MS/MS in comparison with a standard material dilution series. The percentage of nicotine concentration was calculated manually. Statistical analysis was used to assess the significance of differences among variables and to perform multiple comparisons.

Results: The amount of nicotine in dry weight of tobacco leaves represented 6.7% in Virginia variety, 4.9% in Burlip, 4.84% in Katrina, 4.67% in Shk al-bent, 4% in Zegrin, 3.3% in Basma and <3% in Burley. Significant differences in nicotine concentration were found among the different varieties as determined by LSD test at a level of 0.05.

Conclusion: This study shows the importance of tobacco varieties grown in Syria, particularly Virginia, Burlip, Katrina, as a cheap and wealthy source for nicotine to be used in some industries.

Keywords

  • nicotine
  • Nicotiana tabacum
  • alkaloid
  • leaves
  • LC/MS/MS

Słowa kluczowe:

  • nikotyna
  • Nicotiana tabacum
  • alkaloid
  • liście
  • LC/MS/MS
Open Access

Antibacterial activity of rosemary, caraway and fennel essential oils

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 31 - 39

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Recently, interest in essential oils used in natural medicine, has been increasing. Essential oils are still being tested for their potential uses as an alternative remedies for the treatment of many infectious diseases.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate antibacterial properties of commercial essential oils (rosemary, caraway and fennel) to reduce the number of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Methods: The antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated by agar dilution method.

Results: The result of experiments showed that essential oils contained in microbiological media significantly reduced the number of S. aureus and E. coli cells. The best antibacterial properties possessed caraway oil: 1 mg/g for S. aureus and 10 mg/g for E. coli, weaker rosemary (5 mg/g) and fennel (20 mg/g) oils.

Conclusion: Results confirmed the inhibiting effect of commercial essential oils on S. aureus and E. coli and provide a scientific ground for future research.

Keywords

  • Escherichia coli
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • rosemary
  • caraway
  • fennel

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Escherichia coli
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • rozmaryn lekarski
  • kminek zwyczajny
  • koper włoski
Open Access

Antioxidant activity of Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don (Borage) grown and eaten as food in Ordu, Turkey

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 40 - 51

Abstract

Summary

Introductıon: Instead of synthetic antioxidants, using of natural products with antioxidant activity is demanded.

Objectıve: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Trachystemon orientalis (borage) obtained from Ordu.

Methods: The water and ethanol extracts of the borage plant were investigated by using several in vitro antioxidant activity tests such as total antioxidant capacity, O2•−, OH, DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activities, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, FRAP, Fe2+ chelating and reducing power assays in order to make effective comparisons.

Results: Water extract of the T. orientalis had the more phenolic (90 mg GA/g extract) and flavonoid (56.88 mg CT/g extract) contents than ethanol extract. Furthermore, both of the extracts showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities determined by different in vitro models. The highest total antioxidant capacity as ascorbic acid equivalents of 244.50 mg/g extract was also calculated for water extract. Generally, a relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was established. It is also an important finding for an edible food source that the phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidative activities for water extract was higher than the ethanol extract.

Conclusıon: T. orientalis could be used as a food ingredient instead of synthetic antioxidants and all results will contribute to the recent increase in investigations on using natural products in many areas such as food, pharmacy, alternative medicine and natural therapy.

Keywords

  • antioxidant activity
  • phenolic content
  • flavonoid content
  • water extract
  • ethanol extract

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Trachystemon orientalis
  • działanie antyoksydacyjne
  • zawartość fenoli i flawonoidów
  • wyciąg wodny i etanolowy
Open Access

The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of extracts obtained from some moss species in Turkey

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 52 - 65

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: Pharmaceutical industry is forced to develop new pharmacologically active molecules. Like other plants, mosses are considered to be potential source of new biologically active compounds.

Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of 8 moss species: Hypnum cupressiforme, Homalothecium sericeum, Thuidium delicatulum, Homalothecium lutescens, Homalothecium nitens, Leucodon sciuroides, Ctenidium molluscum, and Eurhynchium striatulum obtained from Turkey.

Methods: The antimicrobial activity of extracts was investigated against four Gram (+) and six Gram (−) bacterial strains and three tested fungi. Total phenolic content (TPC), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity assays were applied to determine the antioxidant activity.

Results: All moss extacts were found to be active against all the organisms except Homalothecium nitens. Especially, H. sericeum and E. striatulum showed the best antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: The obtained results show that mosses may be used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial agents to control various human, animal and plant diseases.

Keywords

  • antibacterial
  • antifungal
  • antioxidant
  • Eurhynchium striatulum
  • Homalothecium sericeum

Słowa kluczowe:

  • działanie przeciwbakteryjne
  • przeciwgrzybicze
  • antyoksydacyjne
  • Eurhynchium striatulum
  • Homalothecium sericeum
Open Access

Establishing an efficient explant superficial sterilization protocol for in vitro micropropagation of bear’s garlic (Allium ursinum L.)

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 66 - 77

Abstract

Summary

Introduction:Allium ursinum L. has a commercial value due to its high contents of bio-active compounds and mild, garlic-like taste. In vitro culture played an important role in obtaining Allium species with the desired characteristics and in the production of healthy reproductive material.

Objective: Developing an effective method of sterilization bear’s garlic bulbs.

Methods: To obtain sterile shoots of garlic several methods of sterilization involving such factors as ACE, H2O2, HgCl2, and UV-C were tested.

Results: In order to obtain sterile shoots of bear’s garlic, several sterilization procedures were tested. The best procedure was based on a two-step disinfection, where the whole onions were treated with ethanol and H2O2 for 20 min. Thereafter, the isolated apical buds were sterilized in ACE for 10 min, rinsed in double-distilled water and transferred onto MS medium for growing. Up to 95% of the inoculated explants formed shoots, which were sub-cultured on MS with 4 mg dm−3 BAP in order to enable further propagation.

Conclusion: After optimization and stabilization, this procedure may become the basic concept of a proper and reliable propagation method of bear’s garlic on commercial scale.

Keywords

  • bear’s garlic
  • Allium ursinum L.
  • in vitro cultures
  • sterilization procedures
  • UV–C irradiation

Słowa kluczowe:

  • czosnek niedźwiedzi
  • Allium ursinum L.
  • kultury in vitro
  • sterylizacja
  • promieniowanie UV-C
Open Access

Selected excipients and surfactants in oral solid dosage form with extract of Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Published Online: 06 Jan 2016
Page range: 78 - 92

Abstract

Summary

Introduction: The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an annual plant grown in many countries all over the world including its different varieties in Poland. Herbal raw material are elongated pods – pericarp. Phaseoli pericarpium decreases the glucose blood level. Phaseoli pericarpium extracts manifest duretic properties, can be used in the treatment of edema, kidney diseases with decreased urinary excretion, nephrolithiasis.

Objectives: To investigate the usefullness of selected excipients as carriers of dry extract from Phaseolus vulgaris pericarp.

Methods: The method of direct tableting was used. In the further stage, the obtained tablets were subjected to appropriate tests. The first stage of the study evaluates Prosolv SMCC 50, PROSOLV EASYtab, EMDEX, Carmellose calcium and PRUV. These were used to manufacture 4 batches of tablets. In the second stage, an oral solid dosage was manufactured on the basis of the formulation composition of batch 1 tablets (Phaseoli pericarpium extract, Prosolv SMCC 50, PRUV). Then, different surfactants (cholesterol oxyethylate nTE = 30, cholesterol oxyethylate nTE = 40, Rofam nTE = 50), were successively added to this formulation, to obtain 3 batches of tablets. All 7 batches were manufactured in the Erweka tableting machine. Then, they were subjected to morphological tests and physicochemical evaluation. The release of active substances to 3 selected acceptor fluids (water, artificial gastric juice, artificial intestinal juice) was measured in accordance with the requirements of the general and specific monographs in European Pharmacopoeia 7.

Results: The manufactured tablets had a smooth uniform surface with no stains, spalls or mechanical damage and yellow color originating from the extract. The obtained tablets, with surfactants in their composition, demonstrated pharmaceutical availability slightly higher than batch 1 tablets without surfactants.

Conclusions: Excipients applied in appropriate proportions appear to be useful in the manufacturing of uncoated tablets containing extract of Phaseoli pericarpium.

Keywords

  • Phaseolus vulgaris
  • direct tableting
  • surfactants
  • excipients

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Phaseolus vulgaris
  • bezpośrednie tabletkowanie
  • surfaktanty
  • substancje pomocnicze

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