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Volume 68 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 62 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

9 Articles
Open Access

Biology of germination of medicinal plant seeds. Part XIXb. Diaspores of Inula helenium L. from Asteraceae family

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 7 - 12

Abstract

Summary

Morphological features of diaspores and seedlings of Inula helenium L. were described. A four-year cycle of monthly germination analysis was carried out. It was found that accessible light and various temperatures (30°C over 8 hours, 20°C over 16 hours) were optimal for the analysis of Inula helenium fruit germination ability. In these conditions, the percentage of germinated achenes was up to 90%. Diaspores stored in unheated room kept their viability even up to seven years after harvest.

Keywords

  • germination
  • diaspores

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Inula helenium
  • kiełkowanie
  • diaspory
Open Access

Effect of gibberellic acid, stratification and salinity on seed germination of Echinacea purpurea cv. Magnus

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 13 - 22

Abstract

Summary

This study was conducted in order to determine the appropriate treatment for breaking dormancy and the effect of salinity on seed germination of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea cv. Magnus), in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, five levels of gibberellic acid (GA3) (0, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg×L−1) with four levels of cold moist stratification period of seeds at 5°C (0, 5, 10 and 15 days) were launched. A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. The statistical analysis showed that concentration of 250 mg×L−1 GA3 with 10 days of cold moist chilling significantly increased the percentage of germination of normal seedlings and reduced the mean time of germination. In the second experiment, the seeds were chilled for 10 days at 5°C and half of them treated with 250 mg×L−1 GA3 for 24 hours. The seeds treated with GA3, and those non-treated were subjected to NaCl for salinity stress. The experiment was conducted using five salinity levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM NaCl) in four replications in a completely randomized design. The results showed that purple coneflower is highly sensitive to salinity in the germination stage. The results also showed that by increasing salinity levels, the percentage of germination and normal seedlings significantly decreased and the mean time to germination increased, compared to the control treatment. But the seeds treated with GA3 showed higher viability and better performance under salinity stress condition.

Keywords

  • purple coneflower
  • chilling
  • GA
  • NaCl

Słowa kluczowe:

  • jeżówka purpurowa
  • chłodna stratyfikacja
  • GA
  • NaCl
Open Access

Variability of southern sweet-grass (Hierochloë australis /Schrad./ Roem. & Schult.) wild growing populations occurring in eastern Poland

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 23 - 36

Abstract

Summary

Southern sweet-grass is a perennial grass distributed through north-eastern Europe. In Poland, this rare, partially protected plant grows wild in well-lit coniferous or mixed forests. Its leaves, rich in coumarin compounds, are used for aromatization of alcohols. Taking into account high demand on this raw material and decrease in the number of southern sweet-grass populations it is recommended to introduce the plant into cultivation systems. In this study 12 populations of southern sweet-grass were selected and assessed in terms of their cultivation usefulness. The presence of associated plant species growing on its natural sites was investigated as well as light irradiance on those stands. The species was found in 3 types of forest communities. Air dry mass of leaves per plant varied in analyzed populations from 1.73 to 11.07 g. They were significantly diversified in the total content of coumarins (0.36–0.96%), flavonoids (0.09–0.26%) and polyphenolic acids (0.13–0.29%). The diversity concerning the content of coumarin, a quality indicator of leaves, was even higher. The content of this compound varied from 52.03 to 275.74 mg/100 g d. m. Among the analyzed populations, the most interesting seem to be population No. 12 (Jedwabno) and population No. 10 (Ruciane) characterized with relatively high mass of leaves and the highest content of the identified active compounds, including coumarin.

Keywords

  • southern sweet-grass
  • populations
  • light
  • coumarins
  • flavonoids
  • polyphenolic acids

Słowa kulczowe:

  • turówka leśna
  • populacje
  • światło
  • kumaryny
  • flawonoidy
  • kwasy polifenolowe
Open Access

Intraspecific variability of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) in respect of developmental and chemical traits

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 37 - 52

Abstract

Summary

The aim of study was to determine the variability of 20 yarrow populations introduced into ex situ conditions, in respect of selected developmental traits as well as content and composition of biologically active compounds (essential oil, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids). Field experiment was established at the Experimental Station, Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants. Morphological observations and harvest of raw material were carried out in the second year of plant vegetation, at the beginning of blooming. Investigated populations differed significantly in respect of developmental features as well as content and composition of identified compounds. The highest differences among the populations concerned fresh mass of herb (0.46–1.79 kg per plant), number of shoots per m2 (64–243) and length of the longest internode (42–158 mm). Total content of essential oil ranged from 0.10 to 1.00%. Among 24 identified compounds β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, terpinene-4-ol, nerolidol and chamazulene were the dominants. According to content of these compounds, three chemotypes were distinguished within investigated populations, i.e.: β-pinene, β-pinene + chamazulene and 1,8-cineole type. Content of tannins ranged from 0.38 to 0.90%. Four flavonoids were identified and apigenin 7-glucoside was present in the highest amount (from 9.87 to 475.21 mg × 100 g−1), while the highest differences between populations concerned the content of luteolin-3',7-diglucoside. Within phenolic acids, three compounds (caffeic acid derivatives) were identified. Rosmarinic acid was the dominant one (75.64–660.54 mg × 100 g−1), while cichoric acid differentiated investigated populations the most.

Keywords

  • yarrow
  • populations
  • chemotypes
  • essential oil
  • phenolic compounds

Słowa kluczowe:

  • krwawnik
  • populacje
  • chemotypy
  • olejek eteryczny
  • związki fenolowe
Open Access

Antiradical activity and amount of phenolic compounds in extracts obtained from some plant raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 53 - 66

Abstract

Summary

Raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids such as yerba mate, guaraná, white and green tea, coffee seeds, chocolate and cacao seed powder and extracts obtained from these raw materials were investigated for their antioxidant features and the amount of phenolic compounds. The level of phenolic compounds was measured with the colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and antioxidant features was determined with the use of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical). Amounts of phenolic compounds were presented in percentages per mass of extracts and mass of raw materials. Antiradical potential was shown as the number of TAUDPPH units per mg of extracts and g of raw materials. The highest number of antiradical units TAUDPPH as well as the amount of phenolic compounds was calculated for white tea and its extracts and lowest for chocolate. The correlation coefficient between the content of phenolics and antiradical features of raw materials is equal to r=0.994.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • free radical scavengers
  • plant extracts
  • plant phenolics
  • methylxanthine alkaloid raw materials
  • antiradical units

Słowa kluczowe:

  • przeciwutleniacze
  • zmiatacze wolnych rodników
  • wyciągi roślinne
  • fenole roślinne
  • surowce zawierające alkaloidy metyloksantynowe
  • jednostki przeciwrodnikowe
Open Access

In vitro propagation of bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L.)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 67 - 76

Abstract

Summary

An efficient method for in vitro propagation of bastard balm by enhanced axillary shoot branching has been developed. The material to establish in vitro culture was shoot tips collected from three-year-old plants in May. The shoots obtained from initial explants were placed on MS/B5 medium containing 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/l BA with 0.01 mg/l NAA or without the auxin. The highest number of shoots per explant was obtained on the medium with 1.0 mg/l BA (3.9 shoots per explant). For the rooting of shoots ½ MS/B5 with IBA (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mg/l) medium was used. The medium without plant growth regulators served as a control. The best root regeneration was observed on the medium without IBA (87.1% of cuttings rooted). IBA used in the medium for shoot rooting affected the morphological traits of obtained microcuttings but not affected their weight. Irrespective of auxin concentration in this medium, obtained microcuttings acclimated in ex vitro conditions very well.

Keywords

  • in vitro
  • axillary shoots
  • MS/B5 medium
  • NAA
  • BA
  • IBA
  • ex vitro adaptation

Słowa kluczowe:

  • in vitro
  • pędy boczne
  • pożywka MS/B5
  • NAA
  • BA
  • IBA
  • adaptacja ex vitro
Open Access

Pesticidal activity of certain plant extracts and their isolates against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 77 - 92

Abstract

Summary

Different extracts from seven plant species were assayed against the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) in the laboratory. The plants were extracted sequentially with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl alcohol. The petroleum ether extract of each was fractionated into sap and unsap, then identified by GC chromatography. Also compounds isolated from chloroform and alcohol extracts of Citrullus colocynthis and petroleum ether extract of Nicandra physaloides were tested for their toxicity against the adult beetle. The sensitivity of the adults to various crude extracts revealed great variation in effectiveness. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of Nicandra physaloides proved to be the most toxic in comparison to other extracts tested, while petroleum ether extracts of Curcuma longa proved to be the least effective. All the fatty acid fractions of the seven plant species were toxic to the adult beetles at the tested concentrations. N. physaloides, Schinus terebinthifolius and Dodonaea viscosa resulted in 100% mortality of adults at the highest concentration tested (1.0%). Using 1.0% unsap fraction of Dodonaea viscosa resulted in 100% mortality between the adults. The least percentage mortality between the adult beetles recorded (22%) was for unsap fraction of T. orientalis at concentration of 0.0625% but increased to 80.0% mortality at concentration of 1.0%. The compounds isolated from chloroform and alcohol extracts of C. colocynthis and petroleum ether extract of N. physaloides proved to be highly efficient against C. maculatus adults.

Keywords

  • pesticidal activity
  • Citrullus colocynthis
  • Nicandra physaloides
  • Sichinus terebinthifolius
  • Callistemon lanceolatus
  • Thuja orientalis
  • Dodonaea viscosa
  • Curcuma longa extracts
  • Cowpea beetle
  • Callosobruchus maculatus

Słowa kluczowe:

  • działanie przeciwszkodnikowe
  • wyciągi z Citrullus colocynthis
  • Nicandra physaloides
  • Sichinus terebinthifolius
  • Callistemon lanceolatus
  • Thuja orientalis
  • Dodonaea viscosa
  • Curcuma longa extracts
  • Cowpea beetle
  • strąkowiec czteroplamy (Callosobruchus maculates)
Open Access

In vitro leaves and twigs antimicrobial properties of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 93 - 104

Abstract

Summary

The current study aimed to investigate antimicrobial activity of methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and hot water (leaves and twigs fractions) Psidium guajava L. crude extracts against three bacteria and two fungi pathogens. Antimicrobial activity expressed by disc-diffusion assay (zone of inhibitions - ZIs), activity index (AI) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) that were measured as reported in many investigations. Based upon the estimated ZIs, AI and MICs values, hot water twigs <1 cm diameter extract was the most potent against all tested microorganisms. The MICs value ranged between 4 and 7.2 mg/ml for bacteria, while, it was between 14.5 and 37.3 mg/ml for fungi. Moreover, ethyl acetate had the lowest antimicrobial activity compared to the other tested solvents. From the results obtained herein, it could be concluded that P. guajava serve as antibacterial and antifungal agent.

Keywords

  • activity index
  • antimicrobial activity
  • Psidium guajava L.
  • minimum inhibitory concentrations
  • zone of inhibitions

Słowa kluczowe:

  • indeks aktywności
  • działanie przeciwdrobnoustrojowe
  • Psidium guajava L.
  • najmniejsze stężenie hamujące
  • strefa zahamowania
Open Access

Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) Karst. – health-promoting properties. A review

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 105 - 118

Abstract

Summary

This paper presents the characteristics of the species Ganoderma lucidum in terms of health-promoting properties. This species is rare in Poland, and is subject to strict protection. Reishi is classified as a medicinal mushroom which fruiting bodies are characterized by a content of active substances with diverse positive effects on human health. G. lucidum is particularly rich source of bioactive compounds, which are obtained from fruiting bodies, mycelium and spores of this species. The therapeutic effect of G. lucidum extracts has been demonstrated in many scientific studies. The most important pharmacological and physiological effects include: immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-atherosclerosis, antidiabetic and anti-aging. Reishi has also a beneficial effect on liver cells and the cardiovascular system and protects in case of stomach ulcers. Due to its properties G. lucidum can be used in the prevention and treatment of life-threatening diseases, such as cancer, stroke and heart diseases.

Keywords

  • Reishi
  • medicinal mushrooms
  • bioactive compounds
  • polysaccharides
  • triterpenoids

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Reishi
  • grzyby lecznicze
  • substancje bioaktywne
  • polisacharydy
  • triterpenoidy
9 Articles
Open Access

Biology of germination of medicinal plant seeds. Part XIXb. Diaspores of Inula helenium L. from Asteraceae family

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 7 - 12

Abstract

Summary

Morphological features of diaspores and seedlings of Inula helenium L. were described. A four-year cycle of monthly germination analysis was carried out. It was found that accessible light and various temperatures (30°C over 8 hours, 20°C over 16 hours) were optimal for the analysis of Inula helenium fruit germination ability. In these conditions, the percentage of germinated achenes was up to 90%. Diaspores stored in unheated room kept their viability even up to seven years after harvest.

Keywords

  • germination
  • diaspores

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Inula helenium
  • kiełkowanie
  • diaspory
Open Access

Effect of gibberellic acid, stratification and salinity on seed germination of Echinacea purpurea cv. Magnus

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 13 - 22

Abstract

Summary

This study was conducted in order to determine the appropriate treatment for breaking dormancy and the effect of salinity on seed germination of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea cv. Magnus), in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, five levels of gibberellic acid (GA3) (0, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg×L−1) with four levels of cold moist stratification period of seeds at 5°C (0, 5, 10 and 15 days) were launched. A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. The statistical analysis showed that concentration of 250 mg×L−1 GA3 with 10 days of cold moist chilling significantly increased the percentage of germination of normal seedlings and reduced the mean time of germination. In the second experiment, the seeds were chilled for 10 days at 5°C and half of them treated with 250 mg×L−1 GA3 for 24 hours. The seeds treated with GA3, and those non-treated were subjected to NaCl for salinity stress. The experiment was conducted using five salinity levels (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM NaCl) in four replications in a completely randomized design. The results showed that purple coneflower is highly sensitive to salinity in the germination stage. The results also showed that by increasing salinity levels, the percentage of germination and normal seedlings significantly decreased and the mean time to germination increased, compared to the control treatment. But the seeds treated with GA3 showed higher viability and better performance under salinity stress condition.

Keywords

  • purple coneflower
  • chilling
  • GA
  • NaCl

Słowa kluczowe:

  • jeżówka purpurowa
  • chłodna stratyfikacja
  • GA
  • NaCl
Open Access

Variability of southern sweet-grass (Hierochloë australis /Schrad./ Roem. & Schult.) wild growing populations occurring in eastern Poland

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 23 - 36

Abstract

Summary

Southern sweet-grass is a perennial grass distributed through north-eastern Europe. In Poland, this rare, partially protected plant grows wild in well-lit coniferous or mixed forests. Its leaves, rich in coumarin compounds, are used for aromatization of alcohols. Taking into account high demand on this raw material and decrease in the number of southern sweet-grass populations it is recommended to introduce the plant into cultivation systems. In this study 12 populations of southern sweet-grass were selected and assessed in terms of their cultivation usefulness. The presence of associated plant species growing on its natural sites was investigated as well as light irradiance on those stands. The species was found in 3 types of forest communities. Air dry mass of leaves per plant varied in analyzed populations from 1.73 to 11.07 g. They were significantly diversified in the total content of coumarins (0.36–0.96%), flavonoids (0.09–0.26%) and polyphenolic acids (0.13–0.29%). The diversity concerning the content of coumarin, a quality indicator of leaves, was even higher. The content of this compound varied from 52.03 to 275.74 mg/100 g d. m. Among the analyzed populations, the most interesting seem to be population No. 12 (Jedwabno) and population No. 10 (Ruciane) characterized with relatively high mass of leaves and the highest content of the identified active compounds, including coumarin.

Keywords

  • southern sweet-grass
  • populations
  • light
  • coumarins
  • flavonoids
  • polyphenolic acids

Słowa kulczowe:

  • turówka leśna
  • populacje
  • światło
  • kumaryny
  • flawonoidy
  • kwasy polifenolowe
Open Access

Intraspecific variability of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l.) in respect of developmental and chemical traits

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 37 - 52

Abstract

Summary

The aim of study was to determine the variability of 20 yarrow populations introduced into ex situ conditions, in respect of selected developmental traits as well as content and composition of biologically active compounds (essential oil, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids). Field experiment was established at the Experimental Station, Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants. Morphological observations and harvest of raw material were carried out in the second year of plant vegetation, at the beginning of blooming. Investigated populations differed significantly in respect of developmental features as well as content and composition of identified compounds. The highest differences among the populations concerned fresh mass of herb (0.46–1.79 kg per plant), number of shoots per m2 (64–243) and length of the longest internode (42–158 mm). Total content of essential oil ranged from 0.10 to 1.00%. Among 24 identified compounds β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, terpinene-4-ol, nerolidol and chamazulene were the dominants. According to content of these compounds, three chemotypes were distinguished within investigated populations, i.e.: β-pinene, β-pinene + chamazulene and 1,8-cineole type. Content of tannins ranged from 0.38 to 0.90%. Four flavonoids were identified and apigenin 7-glucoside was present in the highest amount (from 9.87 to 475.21 mg × 100 g−1), while the highest differences between populations concerned the content of luteolin-3',7-diglucoside. Within phenolic acids, three compounds (caffeic acid derivatives) were identified. Rosmarinic acid was the dominant one (75.64–660.54 mg × 100 g−1), while cichoric acid differentiated investigated populations the most.

Keywords

  • yarrow
  • populations
  • chemotypes
  • essential oil
  • phenolic compounds

Słowa kluczowe:

  • krwawnik
  • populacje
  • chemotypy
  • olejek eteryczny
  • związki fenolowe
Open Access

Antiradical activity and amount of phenolic compounds in extracts obtained from some plant raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 53 - 66

Abstract

Summary

Raw materials containing methylxanthine alkaloids such as yerba mate, guaraná, white and green tea, coffee seeds, chocolate and cacao seed powder and extracts obtained from these raw materials were investigated for their antioxidant features and the amount of phenolic compounds. The level of phenolic compounds was measured with the colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent and antioxidant features was determined with the use of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical). Amounts of phenolic compounds were presented in percentages per mass of extracts and mass of raw materials. Antiradical potential was shown as the number of TAUDPPH units per mg of extracts and g of raw materials. The highest number of antiradical units TAUDPPH as well as the amount of phenolic compounds was calculated for white tea and its extracts and lowest for chocolate. The correlation coefficient between the content of phenolics and antiradical features of raw materials is equal to r=0.994.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • free radical scavengers
  • plant extracts
  • plant phenolics
  • methylxanthine alkaloid raw materials
  • antiradical units

Słowa kluczowe:

  • przeciwutleniacze
  • zmiatacze wolnych rodników
  • wyciągi roślinne
  • fenole roślinne
  • surowce zawierające alkaloidy metyloksantynowe
  • jednostki przeciwrodnikowe
Open Access

In vitro propagation of bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L.)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 67 - 76

Abstract

Summary

An efficient method for in vitro propagation of bastard balm by enhanced axillary shoot branching has been developed. The material to establish in vitro culture was shoot tips collected from three-year-old plants in May. The shoots obtained from initial explants were placed on MS/B5 medium containing 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/l BA with 0.01 mg/l NAA or without the auxin. The highest number of shoots per explant was obtained on the medium with 1.0 mg/l BA (3.9 shoots per explant). For the rooting of shoots ½ MS/B5 with IBA (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mg/l) medium was used. The medium without plant growth regulators served as a control. The best root regeneration was observed on the medium without IBA (87.1% of cuttings rooted). IBA used in the medium for shoot rooting affected the morphological traits of obtained microcuttings but not affected their weight. Irrespective of auxin concentration in this medium, obtained microcuttings acclimated in ex vitro conditions very well.

Keywords

  • in vitro
  • axillary shoots
  • MS/B5 medium
  • NAA
  • BA
  • IBA
  • ex vitro adaptation

Słowa kluczowe:

  • in vitro
  • pędy boczne
  • pożywka MS/B5
  • NAA
  • BA
  • IBA
  • adaptacja ex vitro
Open Access

Pesticidal activity of certain plant extracts and their isolates against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 77 - 92

Abstract

Summary

Different extracts from seven plant species were assayed against the cowpea beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) in the laboratory. The plants were extracted sequentially with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl alcohol. The petroleum ether extract of each was fractionated into sap and unsap, then identified by GC chromatography. Also compounds isolated from chloroform and alcohol extracts of Citrullus colocynthis and petroleum ether extract of Nicandra physaloides were tested for their toxicity against the adult beetle. The sensitivity of the adults to various crude extracts revealed great variation in effectiveness. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of Nicandra physaloides proved to be the most toxic in comparison to other extracts tested, while petroleum ether extracts of Curcuma longa proved to be the least effective. All the fatty acid fractions of the seven plant species were toxic to the adult beetles at the tested concentrations. N. physaloides, Schinus terebinthifolius and Dodonaea viscosa resulted in 100% mortality of adults at the highest concentration tested (1.0%). Using 1.0% unsap fraction of Dodonaea viscosa resulted in 100% mortality between the adults. The least percentage mortality between the adult beetles recorded (22%) was for unsap fraction of T. orientalis at concentration of 0.0625% but increased to 80.0% mortality at concentration of 1.0%. The compounds isolated from chloroform and alcohol extracts of C. colocynthis and petroleum ether extract of N. physaloides proved to be highly efficient against C. maculatus adults.

Keywords

  • pesticidal activity
  • Citrullus colocynthis
  • Nicandra physaloides
  • Sichinus terebinthifolius
  • Callistemon lanceolatus
  • Thuja orientalis
  • Dodonaea viscosa
  • Curcuma longa extracts
  • Cowpea beetle
  • Callosobruchus maculatus

Słowa kluczowe:

  • działanie przeciwszkodnikowe
  • wyciągi z Citrullus colocynthis
  • Nicandra physaloides
  • Sichinus terebinthifolius
  • Callistemon lanceolatus
  • Thuja orientalis
  • Dodonaea viscosa
  • Curcuma longa extracts
  • Cowpea beetle
  • strąkowiec czteroplamy (Callosobruchus maculates)
Open Access

In vitro leaves and twigs antimicrobial properties of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 93 - 104

Abstract

Summary

The current study aimed to investigate antimicrobial activity of methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and hot water (leaves and twigs fractions) Psidium guajava L. crude extracts against three bacteria and two fungi pathogens. Antimicrobial activity expressed by disc-diffusion assay (zone of inhibitions - ZIs), activity index (AI) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) that were measured as reported in many investigations. Based upon the estimated ZIs, AI and MICs values, hot water twigs <1 cm diameter extract was the most potent against all tested microorganisms. The MICs value ranged between 4 and 7.2 mg/ml for bacteria, while, it was between 14.5 and 37.3 mg/ml for fungi. Moreover, ethyl acetate had the lowest antimicrobial activity compared to the other tested solvents. From the results obtained herein, it could be concluded that P. guajava serve as antibacterial and antifungal agent.

Keywords

  • activity index
  • antimicrobial activity
  • Psidium guajava L.
  • minimum inhibitory concentrations
  • zone of inhibitions

Słowa kluczowe:

  • indeks aktywności
  • działanie przeciwdrobnoustrojowe
  • Psidium guajava L.
  • najmniejsze stężenie hamujące
  • strefa zahamowania
Open Access

Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) Karst. – health-promoting properties. A review

Published Online: 23 Sep 2015
Page range: 105 - 118

Abstract

Summary

This paper presents the characteristics of the species Ganoderma lucidum in terms of health-promoting properties. This species is rare in Poland, and is subject to strict protection. Reishi is classified as a medicinal mushroom which fruiting bodies are characterized by a content of active substances with diverse positive effects on human health. G. lucidum is particularly rich source of bioactive compounds, which are obtained from fruiting bodies, mycelium and spores of this species. The therapeutic effect of G. lucidum extracts has been demonstrated in many scientific studies. The most important pharmacological and physiological effects include: immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-atherosclerosis, antidiabetic and anti-aging. Reishi has also a beneficial effect on liver cells and the cardiovascular system and protects in case of stomach ulcers. Due to its properties G. lucidum can be used in the prevention and treatment of life-threatening diseases, such as cancer, stroke and heart diseases.

Keywords

  • Reishi
  • medicinal mushrooms
  • bioactive compounds
  • polysaccharides
  • triterpenoids

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Reishi
  • grzyby lecznicze
  • substancje bioaktywne
  • polisacharydy
  • triterpenoidy

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