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Volume 66 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

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Volume 62 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Volume 61 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 60 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

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Volume 59 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 61 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

9α-hydroxyparthenolide in Zoegea leptaurea subsp. mesopotamica (Czerep.) Rech. (Asteraceae)

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 7 - 13

Abstract

Summary

From the aerial parts of Zoegea leptaurea subsp. mesopotamica (Czerep.) Rech. (syn Zoegea mesopotamica Czerep.), 9α-hydroxyparthenolide was isolated. This compound was identified by spectral methods (1H NMR and 13C NMR). This research confirmed earlier indications about the presence of 4,5-epoxygermacranolides in the Zoegea L. genus. Thus, distinctive chemistry feature of plants in this taxon has chemotaxonomic implications.

Keywords

  • Zoegea
  • Asteraceae
  • germacranolides
  • 9α-hydroxyparthenolide
  • chemotaxonomy

Słowa kluczowe

  • Zoegea
  • Asteraceae
  • germakranolidy
  • 9α-hydroksypartenolid
  • chemotaksonomia
Open Access

Oil yield and fatty acid profile of seeds of three Salvia species. A comparative study

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 14 - 29

Abstract

Summary

A comparative study of the oil yield and fatty acid composition of three Salvia species seeds collected in different locations has been conducted. Seed oil extraction was made using a Soxhlet-extractor and fatty acid analysis was undertaken using a GC-FID. The effect of the collecting site on oil yield, as well as the content of individual fatty acid and total fatty acid and fatty acid content was significant. Seed oil yield varied from 14.94 to 22.83% and the total fatty acids ranged from 67.36 to 82.49 mg/g DW. α-Linolenic (24.02-49.19%), linoleic (20.13-42.88%), oleic (12.97-17.81%) and palmitic (8.37-16.63%) acids were the most abundant fatty acids in all analyzed samples. α-Linolenic acid was found to be the major fatty acid in S. verbenaca and S. officinalis species, however, S. aegyptiaca was characterized by the prevalence of linoleic acid. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, which were represented in all samples in high amounts (78.16-89.34%), the polyunsaturated fatty acids (α-linolenic and linoleic acids) showed important levels ranging from 63.09 to 74.71%. Seeds of S. verbenaca were the richest in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Keywords

  • fatty acids
  • principal component analysis
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Salvia
  • seed oil

Słowa kluczowe

  • kwasy tłuszczowe
  • analiza składowych głównych
  • wielonienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe
  • Salvia
  • olej z nasion
Open Access

Antidiarrheal activity of fractions from aqueous extract of Detarium senegalense

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 30 - 40

Abstract

Summary

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different fractions of the aqueous crude extract of Detarium senegalense stem bark on castor oil-induced diarrhea. Castor oilinduced diarrhea, gastrointestinal motility and castor oil-induced enteropooling methods were used to evaluate the antidiarrheal effects of the fractions. Castor oil was used to induce diarrhea and the effect of all the fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, methanol and residual aqueous) were evaluated at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The results show that all fractions significantly (p<0.05) decreased the frequency of defecation in rats following the induction of diarrhea with castor oil. Ethyl acetate which produced the highest antidiarrheal activity was further subjected to gastrointestinal motility and castor oil-induced enteropooling tests. In the gastrointestinal motility, two test doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) were administered orally to two groups of rats (n=5), while the third group of rats (control), were treated with normal saline, and the fourth group were treated with diphenoxylate, a conventional anti-diarrheal drug. In the castor oil-induced enteropooling experiment, normal saline was used for the control animals, while 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract was administered to groups two and three, respectively and atropine, a standard drug, was administered to rats in group four. The ethyl acetate fraction significantly (p<0.05) decreased the gastro-intestinal motility, as shown by the extent of movement of the charcoal meal in the treated rats. It also significantly inhibited the fluid accumulation within the intestine. These findings suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction possess antidiarrheal effect, which may be due to the presence of some phytochemical constituents (alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins) in the plant, which may either be working alone or in combination with each other. This study has demonstrated that D. senegalense fractions, especially the ethyl acetate fraction, possess antidiarrheal activity thus supporting the use of the plant in the treatment of diarrheal diseases.

Keywords

  • Detarium senegalense
  • stem bark extract
  • antidiarrheal activity

Słowa kluczowe

  • Detarium senegalense
  • wyciąg z kory pnia
  • właściwości przeciwbiegunkowe
Open Access

Study of antiurolithiatic activity of a formulated herbal suspension.

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 41 - 49

Abstract

Summary

Urolithiasis is the process of formation of stone in the urinary tract by crystal nucleation, aggregation and retention in the urinary tract. Traditional medicinal plants have been successfully used to overcome urolithiasis. Hence, herbal formulation containing a mixture of plant extracts was prepared and evaluated for the antiurolithiatic activity. This formulation contained alcoholic extracts of fruit of Tribulus terrestris, root of Boerhavia diffusa and leaves of Azadirachta indica Studies were performed in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model using Cystone as a standard drug. Ethylene glycol increases the level of calcium, oxalate and phosphate which are responsible for urolithiasis. The herbal suspension decreased the level of calcium, oxalate and phosphate significantly at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg when compared to the negative control group. Creatine, uric acid and urea were also decreased significantly at all dose levels. Histopathology has supported these results. The level of LD50 was found to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. Therefore, the prepared formulation has appreciable significant antiurolithiatic activity and is safe for use.

Keywords

  • antiurolithiatic activity
  • Tribulus terrestris
  • Boerhavia diffusa
  • Azadirachta indica
  • herbal suspension

Słowa kluczowe

  • działanie przeciwkamicowe
  • Tribulus terrestris
  • Boerhavia diffusa
  • Azadirachta indica
  • mieszanka ziołowa
Open Access

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antitrypanosomal activity of Annona muricata stem bark extracts.

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 50 - 62

Abstract

Summary

The control of trypanosomosis in animals and humans based on chemotherapy is limited and not ideal, since the agents used are associated with severe side effects, and emergence of relapse and drug resistant parasites. The need for the development of new, cheap and safe compounds stimulated this study. Three concentrations (211, 21.1 and 2.11 mg per ml) of chloroform stem bark extract of Annona muricata were screened for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in vitro. Also, two doses (200 mg per kg and 100 mg per kg) of the extract were evaluated for trypanocidal activity in rats infected with the parasite. Haematological parameters were determined on day 1 post infection and on days 1, 6 and 30-post extract treatment. The extracts inhibited parasite motility and totally eliminated the organisms at the concentrations used in vitro. The extract also showed promising in vivo trypanocidal activity. The observed in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activities may be due to the presence of bioactive compounds present in the extracts as seen in this study. The extract also improved the observed decreases in haematological parameters of the treated rats, which may be due to their ability to decrease parasite load. The observed oral LD50 of 1,725.05 mg per kg of the chloroform A. muricata extract using up and down method is an indication of very low toxicity, implying that the extract could be administered with some degree of safety.

Keywords

  • Annona muricata
  • trypanosomosis
  • extract
  • treatment
  • Trypanosoma brucei brucei

Słowa kluczowe

  • Annona muricata
  • śpiączka afrykańska
  • wyciąg
  • leczenie
  • Trypanosoma brucei brucei
Open Access

Wound healing potential of Capparis spinosa against cutaneous wounds infected by Escherichia coli in a rat model

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 63 - 72

Abstract

Summary

Wound infection has become a major medical problem in recent years. This study was conducted to evaluate the healing activity of Capparis spinosa against surgical wounds infected by Escherichia coli. Twenty male rats were divided into two groups. Excisions were created surgically on the animals’ skin and then infected with E coli. Group 1 was treated with C spinosa while Group 2 was untreated. Wound biopsy specimens were collected on days 5, 10 and 16 and analyzed. Results showed that the hydroxyproline content in treatment group was significantly higher in various post wounding days. Protein content increased gradually in ten days. Results of histopathological studies showed moderate to intense granulation tissue formation in treated group on day 10. The histopathological studies showed, that the new epidermis in treated group was thicker than in control group on day 16 post wounding. The present study has demonstrated that ethanol extract of C spinosa includes properties that accelerate wound healing activities.

Keywords

  • Infected surgical wound
  • Capparis spinosa
  • Escherichia coli

Słowa kluczowe

  • zainfekowana rana pooperacyjna
  • Capparis spinosa
  • Escherichia coli
Open Access

Psychoactive plants used in designer drugs as a threat to public health

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 73 - 86

Abstract

Summary

Based on epidemiologic surveys conducted in 2007-2013, an increase in the consumption of psychoactive substances has been observed. This growth is noticeable in Europe and in Poland. With the ‘designer drugs’ launch on the market, which ingredients were not placed on the list of controlled substances in the Misuse of Drugs Act, a rise in the number and diversity of psychoactive agents and mixtures was noticed, used to achieve a different state of mind. Thus, the threat to the health and lives of people who use them has grown. In this paper, the authors describe the phenomenon of the use of plant psychoactive substances, paying attention to young people who experiment with new narcotics. This article also discusses the mode of action and side effects of plant materials proscribed under the Misuse of Drugs Act in Poland.

Keywords

  • designer drugs
  • plant materials
  • drugs
  • adolescents

Słowa kluczowe

  • dopalacze
  • surowce roślinne
  • substancje psychoaktywne
  • młodzież
7 Articles
Open Access

9α-hydroxyparthenolide in Zoegea leptaurea subsp. mesopotamica (Czerep.) Rech. (Asteraceae)

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 7 - 13

Abstract

Summary

From the aerial parts of Zoegea leptaurea subsp. mesopotamica (Czerep.) Rech. (syn Zoegea mesopotamica Czerep.), 9α-hydroxyparthenolide was isolated. This compound was identified by spectral methods (1H NMR and 13C NMR). This research confirmed earlier indications about the presence of 4,5-epoxygermacranolides in the Zoegea L. genus. Thus, distinctive chemistry feature of plants in this taxon has chemotaxonomic implications.

Keywords

  • Zoegea
  • Asteraceae
  • germacranolides
  • 9α-hydroxyparthenolide
  • chemotaxonomy

Słowa kluczowe

  • Zoegea
  • Asteraceae
  • germakranolidy
  • 9α-hydroksypartenolid
  • chemotaksonomia
Open Access

Oil yield and fatty acid profile of seeds of three Salvia species. A comparative study

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 14 - 29

Abstract

Summary

A comparative study of the oil yield and fatty acid composition of three Salvia species seeds collected in different locations has been conducted. Seed oil extraction was made using a Soxhlet-extractor and fatty acid analysis was undertaken using a GC-FID. The effect of the collecting site on oil yield, as well as the content of individual fatty acid and total fatty acid and fatty acid content was significant. Seed oil yield varied from 14.94 to 22.83% and the total fatty acids ranged from 67.36 to 82.49 mg/g DW. α-Linolenic (24.02-49.19%), linoleic (20.13-42.88%), oleic (12.97-17.81%) and palmitic (8.37-16.63%) acids were the most abundant fatty acids in all analyzed samples. α-Linolenic acid was found to be the major fatty acid in S. verbenaca and S. officinalis species, however, S. aegyptiaca was characterized by the prevalence of linoleic acid. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, which were represented in all samples in high amounts (78.16-89.34%), the polyunsaturated fatty acids (α-linolenic and linoleic acids) showed important levels ranging from 63.09 to 74.71%. Seeds of S. verbenaca were the richest in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Keywords

  • fatty acids
  • principal component analysis
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Salvia
  • seed oil

Słowa kluczowe

  • kwasy tłuszczowe
  • analiza składowych głównych
  • wielonienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe
  • Salvia
  • olej z nasion
Open Access

Antidiarrheal activity of fractions from aqueous extract of Detarium senegalense

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 30 - 40

Abstract

Summary

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different fractions of the aqueous crude extract of Detarium senegalense stem bark on castor oil-induced diarrhea. Castor oilinduced diarrhea, gastrointestinal motility and castor oil-induced enteropooling methods were used to evaluate the antidiarrheal effects of the fractions. Castor oil was used to induce diarrhea and the effect of all the fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, methanol and residual aqueous) were evaluated at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The results show that all fractions significantly (p<0.05) decreased the frequency of defecation in rats following the induction of diarrhea with castor oil. Ethyl acetate which produced the highest antidiarrheal activity was further subjected to gastrointestinal motility and castor oil-induced enteropooling tests. In the gastrointestinal motility, two test doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) were administered orally to two groups of rats (n=5), while the third group of rats (control), were treated with normal saline, and the fourth group were treated with diphenoxylate, a conventional anti-diarrheal drug. In the castor oil-induced enteropooling experiment, normal saline was used for the control animals, while 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract was administered to groups two and three, respectively and atropine, a standard drug, was administered to rats in group four. The ethyl acetate fraction significantly (p<0.05) decreased the gastro-intestinal motility, as shown by the extent of movement of the charcoal meal in the treated rats. It also significantly inhibited the fluid accumulation within the intestine. These findings suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction possess antidiarrheal effect, which may be due to the presence of some phytochemical constituents (alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins) in the plant, which may either be working alone or in combination with each other. This study has demonstrated that D. senegalense fractions, especially the ethyl acetate fraction, possess antidiarrheal activity thus supporting the use of the plant in the treatment of diarrheal diseases.

Keywords

  • Detarium senegalense
  • stem bark extract
  • antidiarrheal activity

Słowa kluczowe

  • Detarium senegalense
  • wyciąg z kory pnia
  • właściwości przeciwbiegunkowe
Open Access

Study of antiurolithiatic activity of a formulated herbal suspension.

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 41 - 49

Abstract

Summary

Urolithiasis is the process of formation of stone in the urinary tract by crystal nucleation, aggregation and retention in the urinary tract. Traditional medicinal plants have been successfully used to overcome urolithiasis. Hence, herbal formulation containing a mixture of plant extracts was prepared and evaluated for the antiurolithiatic activity. This formulation contained alcoholic extracts of fruit of Tribulus terrestris, root of Boerhavia diffusa and leaves of Azadirachta indica Studies were performed in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model using Cystone as a standard drug. Ethylene glycol increases the level of calcium, oxalate and phosphate which are responsible for urolithiasis. The herbal suspension decreased the level of calcium, oxalate and phosphate significantly at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg when compared to the negative control group. Creatine, uric acid and urea were also decreased significantly at all dose levels. Histopathology has supported these results. The level of LD50 was found to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. Therefore, the prepared formulation has appreciable significant antiurolithiatic activity and is safe for use.

Keywords

  • antiurolithiatic activity
  • Tribulus terrestris
  • Boerhavia diffusa
  • Azadirachta indica
  • herbal suspension

Słowa kluczowe

  • działanie przeciwkamicowe
  • Tribulus terrestris
  • Boerhavia diffusa
  • Azadirachta indica
  • mieszanka ziołowa
Open Access

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antitrypanosomal activity of Annona muricata stem bark extracts.

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 50 - 62

Abstract

Summary

The control of trypanosomosis in animals and humans based on chemotherapy is limited and not ideal, since the agents used are associated with severe side effects, and emergence of relapse and drug resistant parasites. The need for the development of new, cheap and safe compounds stimulated this study. Three concentrations (211, 21.1 and 2.11 mg per ml) of chloroform stem bark extract of Annona muricata were screened for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in vitro. Also, two doses (200 mg per kg and 100 mg per kg) of the extract were evaluated for trypanocidal activity in rats infected with the parasite. Haematological parameters were determined on day 1 post infection and on days 1, 6 and 30-post extract treatment. The extracts inhibited parasite motility and totally eliminated the organisms at the concentrations used in vitro. The extract also showed promising in vivo trypanocidal activity. The observed in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activities may be due to the presence of bioactive compounds present in the extracts as seen in this study. The extract also improved the observed decreases in haematological parameters of the treated rats, which may be due to their ability to decrease parasite load. The observed oral LD50 of 1,725.05 mg per kg of the chloroform A. muricata extract using up and down method is an indication of very low toxicity, implying that the extract could be administered with some degree of safety.

Keywords

  • Annona muricata
  • trypanosomosis
  • extract
  • treatment
  • Trypanosoma brucei brucei

Słowa kluczowe

  • Annona muricata
  • śpiączka afrykańska
  • wyciąg
  • leczenie
  • Trypanosoma brucei brucei
Open Access

Wound healing potential of Capparis spinosa against cutaneous wounds infected by Escherichia coli in a rat model

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 63 - 72

Abstract

Summary

Wound infection has become a major medical problem in recent years. This study was conducted to evaluate the healing activity of Capparis spinosa against surgical wounds infected by Escherichia coli. Twenty male rats were divided into two groups. Excisions were created surgically on the animals’ skin and then infected with E coli. Group 1 was treated with C spinosa while Group 2 was untreated. Wound biopsy specimens were collected on days 5, 10 and 16 and analyzed. Results showed that the hydroxyproline content in treatment group was significantly higher in various post wounding days. Protein content increased gradually in ten days. Results of histopathological studies showed moderate to intense granulation tissue formation in treated group on day 10. The histopathological studies showed, that the new epidermis in treated group was thicker than in control group on day 16 post wounding. The present study has demonstrated that ethanol extract of C spinosa includes properties that accelerate wound healing activities.

Keywords

  • Infected surgical wound
  • Capparis spinosa
  • Escherichia coli

Słowa kluczowe

  • zainfekowana rana pooperacyjna
  • Capparis spinosa
  • Escherichia coli
Open Access

Psychoactive plants used in designer drugs as a threat to public health

Published Online: 05 Jun 2015
Page range: 73 - 86

Abstract

Summary

Based on epidemiologic surveys conducted in 2007-2013, an increase in the consumption of psychoactive substances has been observed. This growth is noticeable in Europe and in Poland. With the ‘designer drugs’ launch on the market, which ingredients were not placed on the list of controlled substances in the Misuse of Drugs Act, a rise in the number and diversity of psychoactive agents and mixtures was noticed, used to achieve a different state of mind. Thus, the threat to the health and lives of people who use them has grown. In this paper, the authors describe the phenomenon of the use of plant psychoactive substances, paying attention to young people who experiment with new narcotics. This article also discusses the mode of action and side effects of plant materials proscribed under the Misuse of Drugs Act in Poland.

Keywords

  • designer drugs
  • plant materials
  • drugs
  • adolescents

Słowa kluczowe

  • dopalacze
  • surowce roślinne
  • substancje psychoaktywne
  • młodzież

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