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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

11 Articles
Open Access

Determinants of growing herbs in polish agriculture

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 5 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

The paper describes basic determinants of the medical plant cultivation in Polish agriculture. The author discussed economic background of the introduction of these plants indicating the role of pharmaceutical industry in herb usage. Then, there is a presentation of results of the survey study carried out among farmers from the Wielkopolska region. Approximately 10% of the farms cultivate medicinal plants but more than 50% declare some interest in this kind of production, what indicates a big potential. Farmers think that herbs are economically attractive crops if the sale is guaranteed and the price is satisfactory. The demand for medicinal plants is developing and expanding for e.g. dietary supplements and other health-promoting products. Therefore, it can be concluded that cultivation of medicinal plants is the prospective direction of agricultural production and an important element of additional income of Polish farmers.

Keywords

  • determinants
  • herbs
  • Polish agriculture

Słowa kluczowe

  • uwarunkowania
  • zioła
  • polskie rolnictwo
Open Access

Chemical constituents of ethanol extract of leaves and molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from vitex trifolia linn.

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 19 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

β-sitosterol and two triterpenoids: ursolic acid acetate and platanic acid have been isolated from ethanolic extract of Vitex trifola leaves. β-sitosterol was previously isolated from the leaves, stem and seeds of Vitex trifolia. Ursolic acid acetate has been isolated for the first time in this plant species. Platanic acid has been reported for the first time in Vitex trifolia and even in the family of this plant: Verbenaceae. These compounds were characterized using spectroscopic methods including 1D-1HNMR, 13CNMR, ESIMS and 2D-NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY) experiments and confirmed by comparison of their NMR data with those from the literature. A preliminary molluscicidal test for ethanol, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of leaves of Vitex trifolia against Biomphalaria alexandrina adult snails showed that ethanol extract of leaves with LC50 value 26.42 mg/l (27.92 mg/l - 24.99 mg/l) was more effective than n-hexane extract with LC50 value 35.48 mg/l (43.81 mg/l - 28.72mg/l) and chloroform extract with LC50 value 46.77 mg/l (53.59 mg/l - 43.81 mg/l) after 24 h exposure.

Keywords

  • Vitex trifolia
  • Verbanaceae
  • β-sitosterol
  • ursolic acid acetate
  • platanic acid
  • 2D-NMR
  • molluscicidal activity
Open Access

Antiviral and cytotoxic activities of anthraquinones isolated from cassia roxburghii linn. leaves

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 33 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

The cytotoxic activity of petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Cassia roxburghii Linn. against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cell lines resulted with IC50=34.9 and 38.04 μg/ml, respectively, while against HepG-2 showed no activity. A bioassay guided-fractionation approach was conducted to isolate and identify the active cytotoxic principles. Further chromatographic separation and purification of the petroleum ether extract resulted in the isolation of two anthraquinones identified as aloe-emodin acetate and aloe-emodin, along with stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and palmitic acid. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performend using 1D, 2D-NMR and HR-MS. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of aloe-emodin acetate and aloe-emodin were evaluated and resulted with IC50=153.30 and 70.02 μg/ml against HCT-116 and with 93.20 and 53.20 μg/ml against MCF-7, respectively, while against HepG-2 showed no activity. Moreover, the antiviral activity of the two isolated anthraquinones was tested against influenza virus-A, and resulted with IC50=10.23 as well as 2.00 and with CC50=1.32 and 0.47 μg/ml, respectively.

Keywords

  • Cassia roxburghii Linn.
  • Fabaceae/Leguminosae
  • anthraquinones
  • antiviral activity
  • cytotoxic activity
  • SAR

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cassia roxburghii Linn.
  • Fabaceae/Leguminosae
  • antrachinony
  • aktywność antywirusowa
  • aktywność cytotoksyczna
  • SAR
Open Access

Effect of camellia sinensis extract on the expression level of transcription factors and cytochrome p450 genes coding phase i drug-metabolizing enzymes

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 45 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is widely used as a popular beverage and dietary supplement that can significantly reduce the risk of many diseases. Despite the widespread use of green tea, the data regarding the safety as well as herb-drug interactions are limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the influence of standardized green tea extract (GTE) containing 61% catechins and 0.1% caffeine on the expression level of rat CYP genes and the corresponding transcription factors expression by realtime PCR. The findings showed that GTE resulted in a significant decrease of CYP2C6 expression level by 68% (p<0.001). In case of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2, the mRNA levels were also reduced by extract but in a lesser degree compared to CYP2C6. Simultaneously the significant increase in the mRNA level of CAR, RXR and GR factors was observed by 54% (p<0.05), 79% (p<0.001) and 23% (p<0.05), respectively after 10 days of green tea extract administration. In addition, there was noted a small increase of CYP1A1 expression level by 21% (p>0.05) was noted. No statistically significant differences were observed for CYP1A2 and CYP2D1/2. In the same study we observed an increase in amount of ARNT gene transcript by 27% (p<0.05) in the long-term use. However, green tea extract showed the ability to stimulate HNF-1α both after 3 and 10 days of treatment by 30% (p<0.05) and 80% (p<0.001), respectively. In contrast, no change was observed in the concentration of HNF-4α cDNA. These results suggest that GTE may change the expression of CYP enzymes, especially CYP2C6 (homologue to human CYP2C9) and may participate in clinically significant interactions with drugs metabolized by these enzymes.

Keywords

  • CYP enzymes
  • Camellia sinensis
  • induction
  • inhibition
  • expression level

Słowa kluczowe

  • enzymy CYP
  • Camellia sinensis
  • indukcja
  • inhibicja
  • poziom ekspresji
Open Access

SRC kinase mrna transcription changes in testosterone-induced rat ventral prostate lobes under the influence of epilobium angustifolium extract

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 60 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of standardized crude aqueous Epilobium angustifolium L. extract [100 mg/kg/day, p.o.] on the expression level of SRC kinase mRNA - a representatives of non-genomics xenobiotics signaling pathway in prostate ventral lobes of testosterone-induced, castrated rats. We have shown that in all analyzed groups induced by testosterone an elevation of SRC kinase mRNA transcription was observed, in comparison to control animals (not receiving the testosterone), (p<0.05). Finasteride in rats induced by testosterone caused the strongest inhibition of SRC mRNA transcription (p<0.05). In rats receiving testosterone and the plant extract a ca. 90% decrease of mRNA level was observed vs. testosterone-induced animals (p<0.05), while in testosterone-induced animals receiving concomitantly E. angustifolium extract and finasteride the observed reduction reached 87.3% (p<0.05).

We did not observed, however, any positive feedback between studied plant extract and finasteride in the inhibitory activity (p<0.05). Further experimental studies should be performed in order to the understanding the molecular basis of interactions, the efficacy and safety of tested plant extract.

Keywords

  • hormonally induced prostate hyperplasia
  • rats
  • BPH
  • Epilobium angustifolium
  • SRC kinase
  • androgen receptor non-genomics signaling pathway

Słowa kluczowe

  • indukowany hormonalnie rozrost prostaty
  • szczury
  • BPH
  • Epilobium angustifolium
  • kinaza SRC
  • niegenomowy szlak sygnalizcji wewnątrzkomórkowej zależnej od receptora androgenowego
Open Access

Influence of epilobium angustifolium extract on 5α-reductase type 2 and mapk3 kinase gene expression in rats prostates

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 72 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of standardized Epilobium angustifolium L. extract [100 mg/kg/day, p.o.] on the expression level of 5α-reductase type 2 (Srd5ar2) mRNA and Mapk3 mRNA a representative of non-genomic xenobiotics signaling pathway. It was shown that plant extract from the E. angustifolium showed a slight tendency to reduce prostate weight in hormonally induced animals (p>0.05) and in testosterone induced animals receiving both, extract and finasteride (p<0.05). Finasteride in rats induced by testosterone caused a smaller decrease in the level of mRNA 5α-steroid reductase 2 (SRd5ar2), than in rats treated with the hormone and studied plant extracts. In general, an increase in the amount of MAPK3 mRNAs in testosterone-induced groups of rats receiving tested plant extract with or without finasteride was observed, while the expression of type 2 5α-steroid reductase decreased (p<0.05). Further experimental studies should be performed in order to understand the molecular basis of interactions, the efficacy and safety of tested plant extracts.

Keywords

  • hormonally-induced prostate hyperplasia
  • rats
  • BPH
  • Epilobium angustifolium
  • gene expression
  • androgen receptor non-genomics signaling pathway

Słowa kluczowe

  • indukowany hormonalnie rozrost prostaty
  • szczury
  • BPH
  • Epilobium angustifolium
  • ekspresja genów
  • niegenomowy szlak sygnalizcji wewnątrzkomórkowej zależnej od receptora androgenowego
Open Access

Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits of foeniculum vulgare miller on larvae of khapra beetle (trogoderma granarium everts)

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 86 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of current study was to determine the chemical constituents and fumigant toxicity of essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from dry fruit of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller). The chemical composition of the essential oil was assessed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Constituents of the oil were determined as α-pinene (1.6%) and limonene (3.3%), fenchone (27.3%), estragol (3.9%), and (E)-anethole (61.1%). The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil was tested on larvae of the stored product insect Trogoderma granarium Everts. The mortality of larvae was tested at different concentrations ranging from 31.2 to 531.2 μl/l air and at different exposure times (24 and 48 h). Probit analysis showed that LC50 and LC90 following a 48 h-exposure period for essential oil were 38.4 and 84.6 μl/l, respectively. These results showed that the essential oil from F. vulgare may be applicable to the management of populations of stored-product insects.

Keywords

  • Foeniculum vulgare
  • Apiaceae
  • essential oil vapours
  • Trogoderma granarium
  • fumigant toxicity
  • (E)-anethole
  • fenchone

Słowa kluczowe

  • Foeniculum vulgare
  • Apiaceae
  • opary olejku eterycznego
  • Trogoderma granarium
  • toksyczność oparów
  • (E)-anetol
  • fenchon
Open Access

Development of organic cultivation of medicinal plants in the north india

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 97 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Out of 750,000 known plants in the world, a major part are medicinal and aromatic plants - a source of raw material for folk and documented systems of medicines worldwide. The folk and documented medicine in India use about 6,000 plants, although, less than 50 species have been scientifically studied and cultivated to any sizeable extent. The main factor behind the slow pace of domestication of medicinal plants is the absence of knowledge on cultivation practices and lack of suitable technology. About 90% of the medicinal plants for trade are harvested from the wild and the demand for traditional medicinal plants is increasing rapidly. Continuous exploitation of several medicinal plant species from the wild has resulted in their population decline. Hence, an effective strategy is needed for their sustainable utilization and conservation. Cultivation is the most effective way of conservation. Cultivation can also ensure production of standardized raw materials. Thereby, enhances the quality of the manufactured products. The methods and techniques of modern chemical agriculture cannot be adopted for the cultivation of medicinal plants as they should be free from harmful residues. Pesticides and other harmful chemicals have been detected in some herbal products. Hence, to ensure a safe, residue-free and reliable material for use in herbal drug industry, there is an urgent need to adopt strategies for cultivation of medicinal plants that are consistent with principles of good agricultural practices.

Keywords

  • Herbal drugs
  • herbal medicine
  • traditional medicine
  • conservation
  • organic farming

Słowa kluczowe

  • leki ziołowe
  • leczenie ziołami
  • medycyna tradycyjna
  • przechowywanie
  • ekologiczna uprawa
Open Access

Phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical studies of petasites hybridus (l.) P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. A review /

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 108 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

Preparations from rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. (common butterbur) have a long history of use in folk medicine in treatment of several diseases as anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic drugs. Extracts from this species are of interest to researchers in the field of phytopharmacology due to their biologically active compounds, particularly two eremophilane sesquiterpenes (petasin and isopetasin), which are contained not only in rhizomes and roots, but also in leaves. Moreover, P. hybridusa contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which showed hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Hence, special extracts devoid of alkaloids obtained by sub- and super-critic carbon dioxide extraction were used in the preclinical, clinical studies and phytotherapy. Our review aims to provide a literature survey of pharmacological as well as clinical trials of P. hybridus, carried out in 2000-2013. Also several studies of other species used in non-European countries have been included. Besides, the botanical description of Petasites genus and phytochemical characteristic of P. hybridus and toxicological studies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as well as chemical profile of patented commercial extracts from rhizomes, roots and leaves of this species used in European phytotherapy have been performed. In this review, attention has also been paid to the promising and potential application of special extracts of P. hybridus not only in the prevention of migraine, treatment of allergic rhinitis symptoms, asthma and hypertension, but also in prevention and slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases developing with the inflammatory process in the CNS as a new therapeutic strategy. In fact, there is already an evidence of promising properties of P. hybridus extracts and sesquiterpens - decrease in the prostaglandins and leukotrienes release, inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity, as well as antagonism of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. In order to explain the new mechanisms of action of P. hybridus extracts in the CNS and their future application in phytotherapy of diseases with neuroinflammatory process, further studies should be performed.

Keywords

  • butterbur
  • extracts
  • sesquiterpenes
  • pyrrolizidine alkaloids
  • pharmacological studies
  • clinical trials
  • migraine
  • allergic rhinitis
  • safety
  • toxicology
  • phytochemistry

Słowa kluczowe

  • Petasites hybridus
  • ekstrakty
  • seskwiterpeny
  • alkaloidy pirolizydynowe
  • badania farmakologiczne
  • badania kliniczne
  • migrena
  • katar sienny
  • bezpieczeństwo
  • toksykologia
  • fitochemia
Open Access

The effect of herbal materials on the p-glycoprotein activity and function

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 129 - 141

Abstract

Abstract

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1) gene is ATP-dependent transporting protein which is localizated in the cell membrane. P-gp is expressed mainly in organs with the secretory functions and its physiological role concerns tissue protection against xenobiotics. P-glycoprotein is involved in the permeability barriers of the blood-brain, blood-placenta directly protecting these organs. It participates in the transport of many drugs and other xenobiotics affecting their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The high P-gp activity in the cell membranes of cancer tissue is a major cause of lack of effectiveness of chemotherapy. Hence, the methods which could increase the sensibility of these pathological cells to cytostatics are still being searched. In the experimental studies it was shown that natural plant substances may have an effect on the expression level and activity of P-glycoprotein. Hypericum perforatum, Ginkgo biloba and Camellia sinensis increase P-gp activity while curcumin from Curcuma longa, piperine and silymarin inhibit this protein. Taking into account a wide substrate spectrum of P-gp, application of our knowledge on interactions of herbals and synthetic drugs should be considered in order to improve drug impact on different tissues.

Keywords

  • P-glycoprotein
  • multidrug resistance
  • herbal materials
  • drug transporter

Słowa kluczowe

  • glikoproteina P
  • oporność wielolekowa
  • surowce roślinne
  • transporter leku
Open Access

Application of essential oils as natural cosmetic preservatives

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 142 - 156

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, safety of chemical preservatives has been questioned by a big number of consumers. Traditionally used preservatives often cause skin irritation and lead to allergenic reactions. Growing demands for more natural and preservative-free cosmetics promoted an idea of the replacement of synthetic preservatives with essential oils (EOs) of antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial effect of essential oil depends on content, concentration and interactions between the main active compounds. Effective preservatives should be characterized by a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity at a minimum concentration. Formulations containing both types of preservatives: essential oil and a synthetic one have been tested and proposed as a compromise that allows for reducing concentration of both components due to their synergistic activity. Although most essential oils are regarded as safe, some of them may cause risk of contact allergy or phototoxic reaction. A well balanced risk-benefit assessment of essential oils is one of the great challenges for scientists or health policy authorities. This paper presents current state of knowledge on essential oils focused on their antimicrobial properties, the assessment of their efficacy and safety as cosmetic preservatives.

Keywords

  • essential oils
  • preservatives
  • antimicrobial activity
  • MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration)
  • challenge test

Słowa kluczowe

  • olejki eteryczne
  • aktywność przeciwdrobnoustrojowa
  • MIC (minimalne stężenie hamujące)
  • challenge test
11 Articles
Open Access

Determinants of growing herbs in polish agriculture

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 5 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

The paper describes basic determinants of the medical plant cultivation in Polish agriculture. The author discussed economic background of the introduction of these plants indicating the role of pharmaceutical industry in herb usage. Then, there is a presentation of results of the survey study carried out among farmers from the Wielkopolska region. Approximately 10% of the farms cultivate medicinal plants but more than 50% declare some interest in this kind of production, what indicates a big potential. Farmers think that herbs are economically attractive crops if the sale is guaranteed and the price is satisfactory. The demand for medicinal plants is developing and expanding for e.g. dietary supplements and other health-promoting products. Therefore, it can be concluded that cultivation of medicinal plants is the prospective direction of agricultural production and an important element of additional income of Polish farmers.

Keywords

  • determinants
  • herbs
  • Polish agriculture

Słowa kluczowe

  • uwarunkowania
  • zioła
  • polskie rolnictwo
Open Access

Chemical constituents of ethanol extract of leaves and molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from vitex trifolia linn.

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 19 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

β-sitosterol and two triterpenoids: ursolic acid acetate and platanic acid have been isolated from ethanolic extract of Vitex trifola leaves. β-sitosterol was previously isolated from the leaves, stem and seeds of Vitex trifolia. Ursolic acid acetate has been isolated for the first time in this plant species. Platanic acid has been reported for the first time in Vitex trifolia and even in the family of this plant: Verbenaceae. These compounds were characterized using spectroscopic methods including 1D-1HNMR, 13CNMR, ESIMS and 2D-NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY) experiments and confirmed by comparison of their NMR data with those from the literature. A preliminary molluscicidal test for ethanol, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of leaves of Vitex trifolia against Biomphalaria alexandrina adult snails showed that ethanol extract of leaves with LC50 value 26.42 mg/l (27.92 mg/l - 24.99 mg/l) was more effective than n-hexane extract with LC50 value 35.48 mg/l (43.81 mg/l - 28.72mg/l) and chloroform extract with LC50 value 46.77 mg/l (53.59 mg/l - 43.81 mg/l) after 24 h exposure.

Keywords

  • Vitex trifolia
  • Verbanaceae
  • β-sitosterol
  • ursolic acid acetate
  • platanic acid
  • 2D-NMR
  • molluscicidal activity
Open Access

Antiviral and cytotoxic activities of anthraquinones isolated from cassia roxburghii linn. leaves

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 33 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

The cytotoxic activity of petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Cassia roxburghii Linn. against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cell lines resulted with IC50=34.9 and 38.04 μg/ml, respectively, while against HepG-2 showed no activity. A bioassay guided-fractionation approach was conducted to isolate and identify the active cytotoxic principles. Further chromatographic separation and purification of the petroleum ether extract resulted in the isolation of two anthraquinones identified as aloe-emodin acetate and aloe-emodin, along with stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and palmitic acid. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performend using 1D, 2D-NMR and HR-MS. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of aloe-emodin acetate and aloe-emodin were evaluated and resulted with IC50=153.30 and 70.02 μg/ml against HCT-116 and with 93.20 and 53.20 μg/ml against MCF-7, respectively, while against HepG-2 showed no activity. Moreover, the antiviral activity of the two isolated anthraquinones was tested against influenza virus-A, and resulted with IC50=10.23 as well as 2.00 and with CC50=1.32 and 0.47 μg/ml, respectively.

Keywords

  • Cassia roxburghii Linn.
  • Fabaceae/Leguminosae
  • anthraquinones
  • antiviral activity
  • cytotoxic activity
  • SAR

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cassia roxburghii Linn.
  • Fabaceae/Leguminosae
  • antrachinony
  • aktywność antywirusowa
  • aktywność cytotoksyczna
  • SAR
Open Access

Effect of camellia sinensis extract on the expression level of transcription factors and cytochrome p450 genes coding phase i drug-metabolizing enzymes

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 45 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is widely used as a popular beverage and dietary supplement that can significantly reduce the risk of many diseases. Despite the widespread use of green tea, the data regarding the safety as well as herb-drug interactions are limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the influence of standardized green tea extract (GTE) containing 61% catechins and 0.1% caffeine on the expression level of rat CYP genes and the corresponding transcription factors expression by realtime PCR. The findings showed that GTE resulted in a significant decrease of CYP2C6 expression level by 68% (p<0.001). In case of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2, the mRNA levels were also reduced by extract but in a lesser degree compared to CYP2C6. Simultaneously the significant increase in the mRNA level of CAR, RXR and GR factors was observed by 54% (p<0.05), 79% (p<0.001) and 23% (p<0.05), respectively after 10 days of green tea extract administration. In addition, there was noted a small increase of CYP1A1 expression level by 21% (p>0.05) was noted. No statistically significant differences were observed for CYP1A2 and CYP2D1/2. In the same study we observed an increase in amount of ARNT gene transcript by 27% (p<0.05) in the long-term use. However, green tea extract showed the ability to stimulate HNF-1α both after 3 and 10 days of treatment by 30% (p<0.05) and 80% (p<0.001), respectively. In contrast, no change was observed in the concentration of HNF-4α cDNA. These results suggest that GTE may change the expression of CYP enzymes, especially CYP2C6 (homologue to human CYP2C9) and may participate in clinically significant interactions with drugs metabolized by these enzymes.

Keywords

  • CYP enzymes
  • Camellia sinensis
  • induction
  • inhibition
  • expression level

Słowa kluczowe

  • enzymy CYP
  • Camellia sinensis
  • indukcja
  • inhibicja
  • poziom ekspresji
Open Access

SRC kinase mrna transcription changes in testosterone-induced rat ventral prostate lobes under the influence of epilobium angustifolium extract

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 60 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of standardized crude aqueous Epilobium angustifolium L. extract [100 mg/kg/day, p.o.] on the expression level of SRC kinase mRNA - a representatives of non-genomics xenobiotics signaling pathway in prostate ventral lobes of testosterone-induced, castrated rats. We have shown that in all analyzed groups induced by testosterone an elevation of SRC kinase mRNA transcription was observed, in comparison to control animals (not receiving the testosterone), (p<0.05). Finasteride in rats induced by testosterone caused the strongest inhibition of SRC mRNA transcription (p<0.05). In rats receiving testosterone and the plant extract a ca. 90% decrease of mRNA level was observed vs. testosterone-induced animals (p<0.05), while in testosterone-induced animals receiving concomitantly E. angustifolium extract and finasteride the observed reduction reached 87.3% (p<0.05).

We did not observed, however, any positive feedback between studied plant extract and finasteride in the inhibitory activity (p<0.05). Further experimental studies should be performed in order to the understanding the molecular basis of interactions, the efficacy and safety of tested plant extract.

Keywords

  • hormonally induced prostate hyperplasia
  • rats
  • BPH
  • Epilobium angustifolium
  • SRC kinase
  • androgen receptor non-genomics signaling pathway

Słowa kluczowe

  • indukowany hormonalnie rozrost prostaty
  • szczury
  • BPH
  • Epilobium angustifolium
  • kinaza SRC
  • niegenomowy szlak sygnalizcji wewnątrzkomórkowej zależnej od receptora androgenowego
Open Access

Influence of epilobium angustifolium extract on 5α-reductase type 2 and mapk3 kinase gene expression in rats prostates

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 72 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of standardized Epilobium angustifolium L. extract [100 mg/kg/day, p.o.] on the expression level of 5α-reductase type 2 (Srd5ar2) mRNA and Mapk3 mRNA a representative of non-genomic xenobiotics signaling pathway. It was shown that plant extract from the E. angustifolium showed a slight tendency to reduce prostate weight in hormonally induced animals (p>0.05) and in testosterone induced animals receiving both, extract and finasteride (p<0.05). Finasteride in rats induced by testosterone caused a smaller decrease in the level of mRNA 5α-steroid reductase 2 (SRd5ar2), than in rats treated with the hormone and studied plant extracts. In general, an increase in the amount of MAPK3 mRNAs in testosterone-induced groups of rats receiving tested plant extract with or without finasteride was observed, while the expression of type 2 5α-steroid reductase decreased (p<0.05). Further experimental studies should be performed in order to understand the molecular basis of interactions, the efficacy and safety of tested plant extracts.

Keywords

  • hormonally-induced prostate hyperplasia
  • rats
  • BPH
  • Epilobium angustifolium
  • gene expression
  • androgen receptor non-genomics signaling pathway

Słowa kluczowe

  • indukowany hormonalnie rozrost prostaty
  • szczury
  • BPH
  • Epilobium angustifolium
  • ekspresja genów
  • niegenomowy szlak sygnalizcji wewnątrzkomórkowej zależnej od receptora androgenowego
Open Access

Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits of foeniculum vulgare miller on larvae of khapra beetle (trogoderma granarium everts)

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 86 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of current study was to determine the chemical constituents and fumigant toxicity of essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from dry fruit of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller). The chemical composition of the essential oil was assessed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Constituents of the oil were determined as α-pinene (1.6%) and limonene (3.3%), fenchone (27.3%), estragol (3.9%), and (E)-anethole (61.1%). The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil was tested on larvae of the stored product insect Trogoderma granarium Everts. The mortality of larvae was tested at different concentrations ranging from 31.2 to 531.2 μl/l air and at different exposure times (24 and 48 h). Probit analysis showed that LC50 and LC90 following a 48 h-exposure period for essential oil were 38.4 and 84.6 μl/l, respectively. These results showed that the essential oil from F. vulgare may be applicable to the management of populations of stored-product insects.

Keywords

  • Foeniculum vulgare
  • Apiaceae
  • essential oil vapours
  • Trogoderma granarium
  • fumigant toxicity
  • (E)-anethole
  • fenchone

Słowa kluczowe

  • Foeniculum vulgare
  • Apiaceae
  • opary olejku eterycznego
  • Trogoderma granarium
  • toksyczność oparów
  • (E)-anetol
  • fenchon
Open Access

Development of organic cultivation of medicinal plants in the north india

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 97 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Out of 750,000 known plants in the world, a major part are medicinal and aromatic plants - a source of raw material for folk and documented systems of medicines worldwide. The folk and documented medicine in India use about 6,000 plants, although, less than 50 species have been scientifically studied and cultivated to any sizeable extent. The main factor behind the slow pace of domestication of medicinal plants is the absence of knowledge on cultivation practices and lack of suitable technology. About 90% of the medicinal plants for trade are harvested from the wild and the demand for traditional medicinal plants is increasing rapidly. Continuous exploitation of several medicinal plant species from the wild has resulted in their population decline. Hence, an effective strategy is needed for their sustainable utilization and conservation. Cultivation is the most effective way of conservation. Cultivation can also ensure production of standardized raw materials. Thereby, enhances the quality of the manufactured products. The methods and techniques of modern chemical agriculture cannot be adopted for the cultivation of medicinal plants as they should be free from harmful residues. Pesticides and other harmful chemicals have been detected in some herbal products. Hence, to ensure a safe, residue-free and reliable material for use in herbal drug industry, there is an urgent need to adopt strategies for cultivation of medicinal plants that are consistent with principles of good agricultural practices.

Keywords

  • Herbal drugs
  • herbal medicine
  • traditional medicine
  • conservation
  • organic farming

Słowa kluczowe

  • leki ziołowe
  • leczenie ziołami
  • medycyna tradycyjna
  • przechowywanie
  • ekologiczna uprawa
Open Access

Phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical studies of petasites hybridus (l.) P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. A review /

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 108 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

Preparations from rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. (common butterbur) have a long history of use in folk medicine in treatment of several diseases as anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic drugs. Extracts from this species are of interest to researchers in the field of phytopharmacology due to their biologically active compounds, particularly two eremophilane sesquiterpenes (petasin and isopetasin), which are contained not only in rhizomes and roots, but also in leaves. Moreover, P. hybridusa contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which showed hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Hence, special extracts devoid of alkaloids obtained by sub- and super-critic carbon dioxide extraction were used in the preclinical, clinical studies and phytotherapy. Our review aims to provide a literature survey of pharmacological as well as clinical trials of P. hybridus, carried out in 2000-2013. Also several studies of other species used in non-European countries have been included. Besides, the botanical description of Petasites genus and phytochemical characteristic of P. hybridus and toxicological studies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as well as chemical profile of patented commercial extracts from rhizomes, roots and leaves of this species used in European phytotherapy have been performed. In this review, attention has also been paid to the promising and potential application of special extracts of P. hybridus not only in the prevention of migraine, treatment of allergic rhinitis symptoms, asthma and hypertension, but also in prevention and slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases developing with the inflammatory process in the CNS as a new therapeutic strategy. In fact, there is already an evidence of promising properties of P. hybridus extracts and sesquiterpens - decrease in the prostaglandins and leukotrienes release, inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity, as well as antagonism of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. In order to explain the new mechanisms of action of P. hybridus extracts in the CNS and their future application in phytotherapy of diseases with neuroinflammatory process, further studies should be performed.

Keywords

  • butterbur
  • extracts
  • sesquiterpenes
  • pyrrolizidine alkaloids
  • pharmacological studies
  • clinical trials
  • migraine
  • allergic rhinitis
  • safety
  • toxicology
  • phytochemistry

Słowa kluczowe

  • Petasites hybridus
  • ekstrakty
  • seskwiterpeny
  • alkaloidy pirolizydynowe
  • badania farmakologiczne
  • badania kliniczne
  • migrena
  • katar sienny
  • bezpieczeństwo
  • toksykologia
  • fitochemia
Open Access

The effect of herbal materials on the p-glycoprotein activity and function

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 129 - 141

Abstract

Abstract

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1) gene is ATP-dependent transporting protein which is localizated in the cell membrane. P-gp is expressed mainly in organs with the secretory functions and its physiological role concerns tissue protection against xenobiotics. P-glycoprotein is involved in the permeability barriers of the blood-brain, blood-placenta directly protecting these organs. It participates in the transport of many drugs and other xenobiotics affecting their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The high P-gp activity in the cell membranes of cancer tissue is a major cause of lack of effectiveness of chemotherapy. Hence, the methods which could increase the sensibility of these pathological cells to cytostatics are still being searched. In the experimental studies it was shown that natural plant substances may have an effect on the expression level and activity of P-glycoprotein. Hypericum perforatum, Ginkgo biloba and Camellia sinensis increase P-gp activity while curcumin from Curcuma longa, piperine and silymarin inhibit this protein. Taking into account a wide substrate spectrum of P-gp, application of our knowledge on interactions of herbals and synthetic drugs should be considered in order to improve drug impact on different tissues.

Keywords

  • P-glycoprotein
  • multidrug resistance
  • herbal materials
  • drug transporter

Słowa kluczowe

  • glikoproteina P
  • oporność wielolekowa
  • surowce roślinne
  • transporter leku
Open Access

Application of essential oils as natural cosmetic preservatives

Published Online: 09 Apr 2014
Page range: 142 - 156

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, safety of chemical preservatives has been questioned by a big number of consumers. Traditionally used preservatives often cause skin irritation and lead to allergenic reactions. Growing demands for more natural and preservative-free cosmetics promoted an idea of the replacement of synthetic preservatives with essential oils (EOs) of antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial effect of essential oil depends on content, concentration and interactions between the main active compounds. Effective preservatives should be characterized by a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity at a minimum concentration. Formulations containing both types of preservatives: essential oil and a synthetic one have been tested and proposed as a compromise that allows for reducing concentration of both components due to their synergistic activity. Although most essential oils are regarded as safe, some of them may cause risk of contact allergy or phototoxic reaction. A well balanced risk-benefit assessment of essential oils is one of the great challenges for scientists or health policy authorities. This paper presents current state of knowledge on essential oils focused on their antimicrobial properties, the assessment of their efficacy and safety as cosmetic preservatives.

Keywords

  • essential oils
  • preservatives
  • antimicrobial activity
  • MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration)
  • challenge test

Słowa kluczowe

  • olejki eteryczne
  • aktywność przeciwdrobnoustrojowa
  • MIC (minimalne stężenie hamujące)
  • challenge test

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