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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 59 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2449-8343
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
Open Access

Permeation-enhancing properties of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora dry extract

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 5 - 16

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the research on permeation enhancing properties of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora (catnip) dry extract in comparison to oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Progesterone was chosen as a model substance for permeation test. The hydrogels made of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose with progesterone, enhancers and ethanol were applied in the study. The in vitro progesterone penetration test was based on the method proposed by Fürst, using artificial lipophilic membranes which were made of colloxylin and dodecanol. Statistical analyses showed an increase in penetration of progesterone caused by catnip dry extract in comparison to ursolic acid and blank sample. HPLC assay was applied to study the effect of enhancers on progesterone physicochemical properties. The solubility of progesterone was tested in solvent systems corresponding to liquid phases of gels. The statistical increase in progesterone solubility was observed in the presence of dry extract in comparison to the result from ursolic acid-containing sample. The partition coefficient of progesterone was evaluated by standard procedures. The statistically significant reduction of log P values for progesterone was determined in the presence of catnip dry extract

Keywords

  • progesterone
  • catnip
  • lipophilic membranes
  • solubility
  • partition coefficient
  • ursolic acid
  • oleanolic acid

Słowa kluczowe

  • progesteron
  • kocimiętka
  • błony lipofilowe
  • rozpuszczalność
  • współczynnik podziału
  • kwas ursolowy
  • kwas oleanolowy
Open Access

Effect of plant growth regulators and explant types on induction and growth of callus of Primula veris L.

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 17 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

Primula veris L. (Primulaceae) is a well-known medicinal herb. The callus induction response of three explant types: roots, cotyledons, and hypocotyls of four-week-old cowslip seedlings were evaluated. The highest statistically different callus induction rate was 93.6% and was obtained from root explants on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l BA and 5.0 mg/l PIC. Calli also appeared on 83.3% of cotyledon explants on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA and 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D and on 81.0% of root explants on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l KIN and 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. These values were not statistically different. The average time required for callus initiation was 4 to 6 weeks, however, it depended on the explants type. The most suitable condition for callus proliferation and growth was MS medium with 0.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.1 mg/l NAA, and with 1.0 mg/l BA and 2.0 mg/l or 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D. No light conditions proved to be more favourable for cowslip calli induction and growth

Keywords

  • cowslip
  • plant growth regulators
  • callus induction
  • proliferation

Słowakluczowe

  • pierwiosnek lekarski
  • roślinne substancje wzrostowe
  • indukcja kalusa
  • proliferacja
Open Access

Antioxidant activities and polyphenolics content of Flammulina velutipes mushroom extracts

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 26 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

A study was conducted in order to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidative activity of extracts from Flammulina velutipes. Water and ethanolic, methanolic, acetone (70% v/v) extracts were prepared from lyophilized fruiting bodies of mushrooms. Different extraction techniques were used: ultrasonication and stirring by a rotary shaker at ambient temperature and at 50oC, and at boiling point for each solvent. Next, total phenolics by Folin-Ciocalteu method, antioxidant capacity (EC) by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals were analysed in these extracts. It was observed that the extraction method and the kind of solvent influenced the antioxidant activity and concentration of total phenolics in the extracts. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds (7.58±0.17 mg GAE/g extract) were observed for water extract prepared with use of ultrasonification method (at 50oC for 1h). Results showed that water extracts possessed high equivalent capacity (EC) for all applied extraction methods. The highest EC value (9.2±0.18 mM Fe2+/g extract) was observed in water extract prepared by stirring at ambient temperature for 1 h. This extract was characterized by high level of total phenolics. The acetone extracts, prepared by ultrasonic extraction at 50oC for 1 h, at 10 mg/ml showed the highest scavenging activity (57.53±1.18%), although, the value was lower than that of ascorbic acid at 10 mg/ml (60.50±1.32%)

Keywords

  • Flammulina velutipes
  • mushroom extracts
  • total phenols content
  • DPPH
  • FRAP

Słowakluczowe

  • Flammulina velutipes
  • ekstrakty grzybowe
  • polifenole
  • DPPH
  • FRAP
Open Access

Estimation of total phenolics and flavonoidal contents as well as in vitro antioxidant potential of Apium leptophyllum Pers.

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 37 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

At present, major causes of diseases is oxidative stress affecting both metabolic and physiological functions of the body. That is why there is a great need for investigation of nutritious food supplements for counteracting these oxidative stresses. Therefore, the aim of study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Apium leptophyllum Pers. fruits by estimating total phenolic as well as flavonoidal contents and antioxidant values. The collected fruits were extracted separately using different solvents like methanol, ethanol and water. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured from the respective extracts and correlated with their antioxidant values. The antioxidant properties of various fruit extracts (12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 150 μg/ml) were evaluated by DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide scavenging assay and compared with ascorbic acid as a standard. All the extracts of A. leptophyllum were found to be dose dependent inhibition against these free radicals. Among all these extracts, the methanolic one was found better in the scavenging activity and followed dose-dependent manner against DPPH, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, superoxide anions with minimum IC50 values of 97.9, 89.02, 135.37, 127.73 μg/ml, respectively, and also observed more significant (p<0.01) as compared with standard Furthermore, total phenolic and flavonoidal contents were found highest in methanolic extract. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that the methanolic extract of A. leptophyllum may be used as a new potential source of natural nutritional supplement in food or pharmaceutical industries due to rich source of phenolic, flavonoidal contents as well as antioxidant property

Keywords

  • Apium leptophyllum
  • antioxidant value
  • IC50 value
  • total phenolic and flavonoid contents

Słowakluczowe

  • Apium leptophyllum
  • wartość antyoksydacyjna
  • wartość IC50
  • całkowita zawartość fenoli i flawonoidów
Open Access

Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids contents of three herbs used as condiments and additives in pickles products

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 51 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Heracleum lasiopetalum Boiss, Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff., and Echinophora platyloba DC. belong the Apiaceae family. They are Iranian endemic plants. These three herbs have been used as food additives in traditional preparations such as pickles. Antioxidant activity (AA) of methanol extracts (ME) of the plants was evaluated by three assays, including DPPH, FRAP, and TEAC. From all three assays, comparing all the MEs for their IC50 and EC1 values, E. platyloba had the highest AA. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts ranged from 74 to 120 mg TAE/g. The extract of H. lasiopetalum exhibited the highest TPC. The flavonoids content (FC) of the extracts ranged from 7.63 to 14.52 mg RE/g, from which the extract of E. platyloba had the highest flavonoids concentration. A positive correlation between the FC and AA in DPPH assay was found. A significant correlation was also found between the TPC and AA in FRAP assay. These results suggested that the level of AA in these plants varied in a great extent. Our results indicated that extract of E. platyloba could be an important dietary source of flavonoids compounds with high antioxidant capacity. In addition, E. platyloba can be used as an alternative preservative and natural flavor instead of synthetic ones in food industry (especially pickles)

Keywords

  • Echinophora platyloba
  • Heracleum lasiopetalum
  • Kelussia odoratissima
  • antioxidant
  • total phenolic
  • flavonoids

Słowa kluczowe

  • Echinophora platyloba
  • Heracleum lasiopetalum
  • Kelussia odoratissima
  • przeciwutleniacze
  • całkowita zawartość fenoli
  • flawonoidy
Open Access

Effect of flavonoids content on antioxidant activity of commercial cosmetic plant extracts

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 63 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content in 10 commercial cosmetic plant extracts used in cosmetics industry. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts were measured using two methods: FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity). The relationship between flavonoids content and antioxidant capacity of plant extracts were checked. As a result of this research it was found that FRAP and TEAC values of plant extracts significantly depend on the flavonoids content. The highest antioxidant activity, both in FRAP and TEAC assays, was observed for arnica flowers, hawthorn flowers and lungwort herb extracts. These extracts can be used as source of natural antioxidants for the prolongation of the oxidative stability of cosmetic products. Additionally, they can replace synthetic antioxidants

Keywords

  • plant extracts
  • antioxidant activity
  • FRAP
  • TEAC
  • cosmetics

Słowa kluczowe

  • ekstrakty roślinne
  • aktywność przeciwutleniająca
  • FRAP
  • TEAC
  • kosmetyki
Open Access

Anti-inflammatory effects of medicinal plants mixture used by Bedouin people in Saudi Arabia

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 76 - 87

Abstract

Abstract

Due to toxic and adverse side effects of synthetic drugs, traditional herbal medicine has the potential as a source of new bioactive molecules. That is why we investigated this research, searching new anti-inflammatory drugs from plants growing around us. The anti-inflammatory effect of the mixture of different plants used in traditional medicine (Alkanna tinctoria, Rubia tinctorum and Artemisia herba alba) were studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema (oil mixture extract 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg). These material reduces carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats and shows inhibition after 4 h especially at a concentration 200 mg/ kg. Oil mixture extract were investigated by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices revealed the presence of about 17 compounds: artemisol, epiglobulol and α-bisabolol are the main constituents as well as volatile oil and other triterpenes: taraxasterol, stigmasterol, ursan-12-ene, olean-12-ene, betulin, germincol, lupeol acetate and lupeol. Other heterocyclic compounds: moropholine and piperidinol were also identified

Keywords

  • anti-inflammatory
  • α-bisabolol
  • caryphyllene oxide
  • Alkanna tinctoria
  • Rubia tinctorum
  • Artemisia herba alba
  • carrageenan-induced paw oedema method

Słowa kluczowe

  • działanie przeciwzapalne
  • α-bisabolol
  • tlenek kariofilenu
  • Alkanna tinctoria
  • Rubia tinctorum
  • Artemisia herba alba
  • test obrzęku łapy szczura indukowanego karageniną
Open Access

Physico-chemical properties of Rhododendron honey produced in Turkey

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 88 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

Rhododendron honey is a monofloral honey and it is collected from the flowers of Rhododendron species widely spreading over many countries, mainly in America, Turkey, Indonesia, Australia. It is belived that Rhododendron honey treats several disorders and is used traditionally as an alternative medicine. The determination of the chemical characteristics of the Rhododendron honey is essential for public health. In this research, the physicochemical characteristics of Rhododendron, chestnut and flower honey samples collected from beekeepers in Turkey were determined and compared. Physico-chemical parameters such as moisture, acidity, sucrose, invert sugar, fructose/glucose, conductivity, diastase and hydroxymethylfurfural were analysed in each honey sample. According to the results obtained, no differences were found in physico-chemical properties of Rhododendron, honey samples, except from moisture and acidity compared with those of chestnut and flower honeys. In order to differentiate Rhododendron honeys, new methods should be developed. This honey should be reintroduced to medicine and used in pharmaceutical industry

Keywords

  • Honey
  • physico-chemical analysis
  • Rhododendron
  • chestnut
  • flower
  • Turkey

Słowa kluczowe

  • miód
  • analiza fizykochemiczna
  • rododendron
  • kasztanowiec
  • kwiat
  • Turcja
8 Articles
Open Access

Permeation-enhancing properties of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora dry extract

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 5 - 16

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the research on permeation enhancing properties of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora (catnip) dry extract in comparison to oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Progesterone was chosen as a model substance for permeation test. The hydrogels made of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose with progesterone, enhancers and ethanol were applied in the study. The in vitro progesterone penetration test was based on the method proposed by Fürst, using artificial lipophilic membranes which were made of colloxylin and dodecanol. Statistical analyses showed an increase in penetration of progesterone caused by catnip dry extract in comparison to ursolic acid and blank sample. HPLC assay was applied to study the effect of enhancers on progesterone physicochemical properties. The solubility of progesterone was tested in solvent systems corresponding to liquid phases of gels. The statistical increase in progesterone solubility was observed in the presence of dry extract in comparison to the result from ursolic acid-containing sample. The partition coefficient of progesterone was evaluated by standard procedures. The statistically significant reduction of log P values for progesterone was determined in the presence of catnip dry extract

Keywords

  • progesterone
  • catnip
  • lipophilic membranes
  • solubility
  • partition coefficient
  • ursolic acid
  • oleanolic acid

Słowa kluczowe

  • progesteron
  • kocimiętka
  • błony lipofilowe
  • rozpuszczalność
  • współczynnik podziału
  • kwas ursolowy
  • kwas oleanolowy
Open Access

Effect of plant growth regulators and explant types on induction and growth of callus of Primula veris L.

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 17 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

Primula veris L. (Primulaceae) is a well-known medicinal herb. The callus induction response of three explant types: roots, cotyledons, and hypocotyls of four-week-old cowslip seedlings were evaluated. The highest statistically different callus induction rate was 93.6% and was obtained from root explants on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l BA and 5.0 mg/l PIC. Calli also appeared on 83.3% of cotyledon explants on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA and 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D and on 81.0% of root explants on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l KIN and 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. These values were not statistically different. The average time required for callus initiation was 4 to 6 weeks, however, it depended on the explants type. The most suitable condition for callus proliferation and growth was MS medium with 0.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.1 mg/l NAA, and with 1.0 mg/l BA and 2.0 mg/l or 3.5 mg/l 2,4-D. No light conditions proved to be more favourable for cowslip calli induction and growth

Keywords

  • cowslip
  • plant growth regulators
  • callus induction
  • proliferation

Słowakluczowe

  • pierwiosnek lekarski
  • roślinne substancje wzrostowe
  • indukcja kalusa
  • proliferacja
Open Access

Antioxidant activities and polyphenolics content of Flammulina velutipes mushroom extracts

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 26 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

A study was conducted in order to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidative activity of extracts from Flammulina velutipes. Water and ethanolic, methanolic, acetone (70% v/v) extracts were prepared from lyophilized fruiting bodies of mushrooms. Different extraction techniques were used: ultrasonication and stirring by a rotary shaker at ambient temperature and at 50oC, and at boiling point for each solvent. Next, total phenolics by Folin-Ciocalteu method, antioxidant capacity (EC) by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals were analysed in these extracts. It was observed that the extraction method and the kind of solvent influenced the antioxidant activity and concentration of total phenolics in the extracts. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds (7.58±0.17 mg GAE/g extract) were observed for water extract prepared with use of ultrasonification method (at 50oC for 1h). Results showed that water extracts possessed high equivalent capacity (EC) for all applied extraction methods. The highest EC value (9.2±0.18 mM Fe2+/g extract) was observed in water extract prepared by stirring at ambient temperature for 1 h. This extract was characterized by high level of total phenolics. The acetone extracts, prepared by ultrasonic extraction at 50oC for 1 h, at 10 mg/ml showed the highest scavenging activity (57.53±1.18%), although, the value was lower than that of ascorbic acid at 10 mg/ml (60.50±1.32%)

Keywords

  • Flammulina velutipes
  • mushroom extracts
  • total phenols content
  • DPPH
  • FRAP

Słowakluczowe

  • Flammulina velutipes
  • ekstrakty grzybowe
  • polifenole
  • DPPH
  • FRAP
Open Access

Estimation of total phenolics and flavonoidal contents as well as in vitro antioxidant potential of Apium leptophyllum Pers.

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 37 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

At present, major causes of diseases is oxidative stress affecting both metabolic and physiological functions of the body. That is why there is a great need for investigation of nutritious food supplements for counteracting these oxidative stresses. Therefore, the aim of study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Apium leptophyllum Pers. fruits by estimating total phenolic as well as flavonoidal contents and antioxidant values. The collected fruits were extracted separately using different solvents like methanol, ethanol and water. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured from the respective extracts and correlated with their antioxidant values. The antioxidant properties of various fruit extracts (12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 150 μg/ml) were evaluated by DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide scavenging assay and compared with ascorbic acid as a standard. All the extracts of A. leptophyllum were found to be dose dependent inhibition against these free radicals. Among all these extracts, the methanolic one was found better in the scavenging activity and followed dose-dependent manner against DPPH, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, superoxide anions with minimum IC50 values of 97.9, 89.02, 135.37, 127.73 μg/ml, respectively, and also observed more significant (p<0.01) as compared with standard Furthermore, total phenolic and flavonoidal contents were found highest in methanolic extract. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that the methanolic extract of A. leptophyllum may be used as a new potential source of natural nutritional supplement in food or pharmaceutical industries due to rich source of phenolic, flavonoidal contents as well as antioxidant property

Keywords

  • Apium leptophyllum
  • antioxidant value
  • IC50 value
  • total phenolic and flavonoid contents

Słowakluczowe

  • Apium leptophyllum
  • wartość antyoksydacyjna
  • wartość IC50
  • całkowita zawartość fenoli i flawonoidów
Open Access

Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids contents of three herbs used as condiments and additives in pickles products

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 51 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Heracleum lasiopetalum Boiss, Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff., and Echinophora platyloba DC. belong the Apiaceae family. They are Iranian endemic plants. These three herbs have been used as food additives in traditional preparations such as pickles. Antioxidant activity (AA) of methanol extracts (ME) of the plants was evaluated by three assays, including DPPH, FRAP, and TEAC. From all three assays, comparing all the MEs for their IC50 and EC1 values, E. platyloba had the highest AA. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts ranged from 74 to 120 mg TAE/g. The extract of H. lasiopetalum exhibited the highest TPC. The flavonoids content (FC) of the extracts ranged from 7.63 to 14.52 mg RE/g, from which the extract of E. platyloba had the highest flavonoids concentration. A positive correlation between the FC and AA in DPPH assay was found. A significant correlation was also found between the TPC and AA in FRAP assay. These results suggested that the level of AA in these plants varied in a great extent. Our results indicated that extract of E. platyloba could be an important dietary source of flavonoids compounds with high antioxidant capacity. In addition, E. platyloba can be used as an alternative preservative and natural flavor instead of synthetic ones in food industry (especially pickles)

Keywords

  • Echinophora platyloba
  • Heracleum lasiopetalum
  • Kelussia odoratissima
  • antioxidant
  • total phenolic
  • flavonoids

Słowa kluczowe

  • Echinophora platyloba
  • Heracleum lasiopetalum
  • Kelussia odoratissima
  • przeciwutleniacze
  • całkowita zawartość fenoli
  • flawonoidy
Open Access

Effect of flavonoids content on antioxidant activity of commercial cosmetic plant extracts

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 63 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content in 10 commercial cosmetic plant extracts used in cosmetics industry. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts were measured using two methods: FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity). The relationship between flavonoids content and antioxidant capacity of plant extracts were checked. As a result of this research it was found that FRAP and TEAC values of plant extracts significantly depend on the flavonoids content. The highest antioxidant activity, both in FRAP and TEAC assays, was observed for arnica flowers, hawthorn flowers and lungwort herb extracts. These extracts can be used as source of natural antioxidants for the prolongation of the oxidative stability of cosmetic products. Additionally, they can replace synthetic antioxidants

Keywords

  • plant extracts
  • antioxidant activity
  • FRAP
  • TEAC
  • cosmetics

Słowa kluczowe

  • ekstrakty roślinne
  • aktywność przeciwutleniająca
  • FRAP
  • TEAC
  • kosmetyki
Open Access

Anti-inflammatory effects of medicinal plants mixture used by Bedouin people in Saudi Arabia

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 76 - 87

Abstract

Abstract

Due to toxic and adverse side effects of synthetic drugs, traditional herbal medicine has the potential as a source of new bioactive molecules. That is why we investigated this research, searching new anti-inflammatory drugs from plants growing around us. The anti-inflammatory effect of the mixture of different plants used in traditional medicine (Alkanna tinctoria, Rubia tinctorum and Artemisia herba alba) were studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema (oil mixture extract 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg). These material reduces carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats and shows inhibition after 4 h especially at a concentration 200 mg/ kg. Oil mixture extract were investigated by capillary GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices revealed the presence of about 17 compounds: artemisol, epiglobulol and α-bisabolol are the main constituents as well as volatile oil and other triterpenes: taraxasterol, stigmasterol, ursan-12-ene, olean-12-ene, betulin, germincol, lupeol acetate and lupeol. Other heterocyclic compounds: moropholine and piperidinol were also identified

Keywords

  • anti-inflammatory
  • α-bisabolol
  • caryphyllene oxide
  • Alkanna tinctoria
  • Rubia tinctorum
  • Artemisia herba alba
  • carrageenan-induced paw oedema method

Słowa kluczowe

  • działanie przeciwzapalne
  • α-bisabolol
  • tlenek kariofilenu
  • Alkanna tinctoria
  • Rubia tinctorum
  • Artemisia herba alba
  • test obrzęku łapy szczura indukowanego karageniną
Open Access

Physico-chemical properties of Rhododendron honey produced in Turkey

Published Online: 04 Apr 2014
Page range: 88 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

Rhododendron honey is a monofloral honey and it is collected from the flowers of Rhododendron species widely spreading over many countries, mainly in America, Turkey, Indonesia, Australia. It is belived that Rhododendron honey treats several disorders and is used traditionally as an alternative medicine. The determination of the chemical characteristics of the Rhododendron honey is essential for public health. In this research, the physicochemical characteristics of Rhododendron, chestnut and flower honey samples collected from beekeepers in Turkey were determined and compared. Physico-chemical parameters such as moisture, acidity, sucrose, invert sugar, fructose/glucose, conductivity, diastase and hydroxymethylfurfural were analysed in each honey sample. According to the results obtained, no differences were found in physico-chemical properties of Rhododendron, honey samples, except from moisture and acidity compared with those of chestnut and flower honeys. In order to differentiate Rhododendron honeys, new methods should be developed. This honey should be reintroduced to medicine and used in pharmaceutical industry

Keywords

  • Honey
  • physico-chemical analysis
  • Rhododendron
  • chestnut
  • flower
  • Turkey

Słowa kluczowe

  • miód
  • analiza fizykochemiczna
  • rododendron
  • kasztanowiec
  • kwiat
  • Turcja

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