Journal & Issues

Volume 72 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 72 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 72 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 72 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 70 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 70 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 70 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 70 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

9 Articles
Open Access

Key risk factors and impact of African swine fever spreading on pig production in Serbia

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 371 - 391

Abstract

Abstract

African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boars and currently represents a major threat to the swine industry worldwide. Disease control is impaired by a lack of an effective vaccine and currently, it is dependent on biosecurity measures in pig production, rapid diagnosis, and stamping out of infected herds. Consequently, this swine disease has considerable social-economic significance on national or even regional level. In 2019 for the first time ASF was detected in the domestic swine population (backyards) in the central region of Serbia. From then on, there have been continuous outbreaks of new cases in the population of domestic and wild boars. Considering domestic pig population, in the majority of cases, ASF was detected in small holdings and backyards. The biosecurity measures are not officially required by veterinary regulation and are only given in a form of recommendations. On the other hand, it is not always possible to implement biosecurity measures that are recognized today as essential for sustainable pig production in the old type of industrial pig facilities. Nowadays, in 2021, it became obvious that the domestic pig cycle, human activities involving pigs, or pig-derived meat products are the dominant driver of virus transmission. Additionally, human activities are frequently a risky connection between domestic pigs and wild boars both directly or indirectly. Traditional, culture-related aspects and facts that politicians failed to recognise ASF as a serious issue that causes great economical losses were found to be very important obstacles in disease control.

Keywords

  • African Swine Fever
  • domestic pig production
  • Serbia
  • wild boar
Open Access

Genotypic correlation between Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from broiler breeders and hatchery flocks

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 392 - 402

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from dust and environmental materials from different flocks located in Turkey’s Western Black Sea region were examined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 59 S. Enteritidis strains isolated from broiler breeder and hatchery flocks, and one S. Enteritidis strain isolated from a stool sample of a farm worker were examined. PFGE analysis revealed two major PFGE groups and nine different macro restriction profiles. It was determined that 85% (51/60) of the strains were close to each other and comprised Group I. All S. Enteritidis strains had the same sequence type (ST): ST11. Isolation of strains with a single genotype suggests that there may be a cross transmission between the flocks.

Keywords

  • multilocus sequence typing
  • phylogeny
  • pulsed field gel electrophoresis
Open Access

Prevalence and distribution of canine neoplastic and non-neoplastic cutaneous lesions in Serbia: a retrospective study of 2432 Cases (2011 – Mid 2021)

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 403 - 416

Abstract

Abstract

Cutaneous lesions, especially skin tumors in dogs, are among the most common lesions in this animal species. The aim of this study was to identify the most common types of canine cutaneous lesions, to determine the absolute and relative frequency of each type of cutaneous lesion, anatomical locations, mean age, as well as gender and breed distribution. The examination included all samples of cutaneous lesions in dogs obtained by surgical biopsy in veterinary clinics and examined at the Laboratory of the Department of Pathology at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade from the 1st January 2011 to the 1st July 2021. In this period (126 months), a total of 2432 samples of cutaneous lesions were examined, of which 1984 (81.58%) were tumors (1037/1984, 52.27% benign and 947/1984, 47.73% malignant) and 448 (18.42%) non-neoplastic cutaneous lesions. The most commonly found cutaneous tumors were: mast cell tumor (17.34% of all tumors), histiocytoma (9.78%), papilloma (7.91%), lipoma (7.81%), squamous cell carcinoma (7.36%), trichoblastoma (4.44%), hepatoid adenoma (4.39%) and malignant melanoma (4.18%). The most common non-neoplastic cutaneous lesions were: follicular cyst(s) (35.04% of all non-neoplastic lesions), pyogranulomatous chronic dermatitis (23.88%), lymphocytic dermatitis (7.37%), hyperkeratosis (4.24%), and granulomatous dermatitis (3.79%). Our results substantially confirm previously reported data regarding cutaneous neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions in dogs, and provide updated information on their frequency, animal age, anatomic location and breed distributions.

Keywords

  • cutaneous lesions
  • dog
  • neoplasm distribution
  • retrospective analysis
  • skin tumors
Open Access

Comparative Multimodal Palliative efficacy of gabapentin and tramadol By Using Two Pain Scoring Systems in Cats Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 417 - 434

Abstract

Abstract

The analgesic efficacy of the gabapentin-tramadol combination was compared with meloxicam-tramadol and tramadol perioperative analgesic regimens in cats brought to the clinic for ovariohysterectomy. Thirty adult cats belonging to comparable demographics (age, body weight), were enrolled into a randomized, blinded study after due consent from their owners into four treatment groups. A Gabapentin-Tramadol group (GT-group, n = 10), Meloxicam-Tramadol group (MT-group, n = 10), and a Tramadol group (T-group, n = 10) were formed. Gabapentin capsules at 50 mg were administered orally 2 hours before surgery while the rest received a placebo dose. Tramadol (2 mg/kg, IM) and meloxicam at (0.2 mg/kg, SC) were injected immediately prior to anesthetic premedication. Anesthetic protocol involved premedication with ketamine and xylazine, while anesthesia was induced using propofol. Inhalant isoflurane anesthesia was used to maintain a surgical plane. GT group scored lower on IVAS as well as CPS than MT group, and T group for up to 8 hours after surgery. The mechanical nociceptive threshold remained higher (98±0) for up to 12 hours postoperatively a nd serum cortisol concentrations remained significantly lower during the 24hr period. The addition of gabapentin to the tramadol regimen significantly improved analgesia and mechanical nociceptive threshold than when used on its own.

Keywords

  • cat
  • composite pain scale
  • gabapentin
  • multimodal analgesia
  • serum cortisol concentrations
Open Access

Characterisation of AmpC / ESBL genes in some pathogen gram-negatives isolated from clinical cases of livestock and companion animals

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 435 - 450

Abstract

Abstract

This study was aimed to search and characterize the AmpC and/or ESBL genes of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical cases of local livestock and companion animals between 2017 and 2019. A total of eight ceftiofur-resistant E. coli (n= 7) and ceftiofur-resistant K. pneumoniae (n= 1) and seven P. aeruginosa were isolated from different cases in local animals. By combination disc method, six E. coli isolates and one K. pneumoniae isolate were found to be ESBL producers. By combination of the disc method and double disc synergy test, no P. aeruginosa isolates were found as ESBL producers. In the agar disc diffusion test (ADDT) performed with cefoxitin and cefoxitin-boronic, only one E. coli was determined as AmpC producer. In ESBL-producing isolates, only the CTX-M class gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequence analysis revealed CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15 variants. An AmpC positive E. coli isolate was found to carry plasmidic ampC gene in cmy-2 variant from CIT family. It was observed that P. aeruginosa isolates did not carry the plasmidic ampC gene. After the chromosomal ampC gene of one P. aeruginosa was amplified by PCR and sequenced, R79Q and T105A mutations in the chromosomal ampC gene was revealed. This showed that overproduction of the ampC enzyme is involved in the resistance to β-lactams in P. aeruginosa isolates in the study.

Keywords

  • β-lactamase
  • dog
  • Enterobacterales
  • ruminant
Open Access

Antibody profiles of avian leukosis virus subgroups A/B and J In layer flocks suspected to have Marek’s disease in Nigeria

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 451 - 461

Abstract

Abstract

Previous reports indicate high seroprevalence of avian leukosis virus (ALV) p72 antigen in layer flocks suspected to have Marek’s disease (MD) in Kaduna and Plateau States. However, the specific subgroups responsible for ALV infection in layers in the States are still unknown, hence the need for this study. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the antibody profiles of ALV subgroups A/B and J in layer flocks suspected to have MD in Kaduna and Plateau States. Sera from 7 and 16 layer flocks suspected to have MD in Kaduna and Plateau States respectively, were screened for the presence of antibodies to ALV subgroups A/B and J using IDEXX enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Out of the seven layer flocks screened in Kaduna State, antibodies to ALV subgroup A/B was detected in six of the flocks (85.7%), while antibodies to ALV subgroup J was detected in only one flock (14.3%). Antibodies to both ALV subgroups A/B and J were detected in one flock (14.3%), which suggests co-infection of the two ALV subgroups. Out of the 16 flocks screened in Plateau State, antibodies to ALV subgroup A/B were detected in 15 flocks (93.8%), while antibodies to ALV subgroup J were detected in six flocks (37.5%). Antibodies to both ALV subgroups A/B and J were detected in five flocks (31.3%). The high detection of antibodies to ALV A/B suggests that ALV infection in layers is mostly due to ALV subgroup A or B in the study areas.

Keywords

  • antibodies
  • avian leukosis virus
  • Marek’s disease
Open Access

Assessment of different diagnostic methods for the identification of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows with pathological puerperium and their reliability to conceive

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 462 - 476

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of study was to evaluate different methods for subclinical endometritis (SCE) diagnoses and their accuracy to predict pregnancy. The study was performed on 51 postpartum cross breed dairy cows with pathological puerperium. Artificial insemination (AI) was done in spontaneous estrus. Endometrium samples were taken by cytotape (CT), cervical mucus (CM) samples by Metricheck and smears for crystallization degree were obtained at AI day. Blood serum samples for progesterone (P4) concentration determination were taken at AI day and 17 days later. Cows were examined by ultrasound 35 days after AI to confirm pregnancy. Percent (%) of polymorphnuclear leukocytes (PMNs) taken by CT were expressed by ROC curve (with cut-off point set at 1%). Out of the total of 51 cows involved in the study, 13.73% true positive and 41.17% true negative cows were found (54.90%). The content of CM sampled with Metricheck was altered in 11 cows (21.57%), and one of them was pregnant (1.96%). An average macroscopic CM value for pregnant cows was 0.06±0.24 vs. 0.39±0.79 for non-pregnant (p<0.05). An average value of CM crystallization in pregnant cows was 2.50±1.04 vs. 1.85±1.15 in non-pregnant (p<0.05). P4 concentration was not statistically different at AI day, but was statistically significantly higher 17 days later in pregnant cows (p = 0.002). CT alterations may be a reliable diagnostic tool for SCE diagnosis, while macroscopic CM alterations may be used for CE detection. P4 determination is beneficial in pregnancy diagnosis while CM crystallization degree is helpful in determination of best time for AI.

Keywords

  • cervical mucus
  • cytotape
  • Metricheck
  • subclinical endometritis
  • pregnancy
Open Access

Investigation of the Effects of L-carnitine and magnesium on Oxidative Stress and Cytokines in the Tissue of Experimental diabetic rats

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 477 - 489

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of L-carnitine and magnesium on the levels of tissue malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6) in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats. Eighty male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g) were divided into 8 groups with 10 rats in each group. The groups received the following treatments: Control group; 2 ml distilled water (by gavage); Group 2: 50 mg/kg (b.w.) i.p. streptozotocin; Group 3: 125 mg/kg (b.w.) magnesium; Group 4: 300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine; Group 5: 125 mg/kg (b.w.) magnesium +300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine; Group 6: 50 mg/kg (b.w.) streptozotocin +125 mg/kg (b.w.) magnesium; Group 7: 50 mg/kg (b.w.) streptozotocin +300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine and Group 8: 50 mg/kg (b.w.) streptozotocin +125 mg/ kg (b.w.) magnesium+300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine administered for 4 weeks. Liver and kidney malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 levels did not change in the magnesium, L-carnitine, and magnesium + L-carnitine groups compared to the control. The highest levels of malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 were determined only in the group with diabetes (Group 2). Lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and cytokine levels were significantly reduced in diabetic animals with the administration of magnesium and L-carnitine separately or in combination. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that magnesium and L-carnitine may have antidiabetic effects, especially in combination.

Keywords

  • Cytokines
  • diabetes
  • L-carnitine
  • magnesium
  • oxidative stress
Open Access

Pathoanatomical findings of a green turtle (Chelonia mydas) victim of collision with a motorboat

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 490 - 499

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we report the trauma suffered by a green turtle (Chelonia mydas), caused by a collision with a motorboat, and describe the case ante and post-mortem. An adult female green turtle was rescued alive on December 2, 2016 at Ponta Negra beach, municipality of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The rescued animal was sent to the Marine Fauna Rehabilitation Center (PCCB-UERN), municipality of Areia Branca (RN), in Brazil. Physical examination revealed an excellent body score, noisy breathing, moderate dehydration, absence of hind limb and cloacal reflexes when stimulated by pressure, and two traumatic injuries characteristic of a collision with a motorboat. After three days of supportive treatment, the animal died and was immediately sent for necropsy. The animal had a complete fracture of the vertebral bodies (dorsal elements D9 and D10) and spinal cord section. The entire gastrointestinal tract had food content, in addition to sharp injuries in the colon caused by the bone fragments of the fractured carapace. The lungs were congested, hemorrhagic with frothy and bloody secretion, and interstitial bronchiole fibrosis. There was also present some fibrin and a large number of leukocyte cells, consisting mainly of macrophages. The liver was enlarged, with rounded edges and thickening of the capsule, multifocal areas of hepatocellular necrosis, and dissociation of the hepatocyte cords. The collision resulted in the exposure of the coelomic cavity and spinal cord, causing the animal intense pain, paralysis of the hind limbs and cloaca, septicemia, and consequently, death.

Keywords

  • Cheloniidae
  • propeller
  • Testudines
  • trauma
9 Articles
Open Access

Key risk factors and impact of African swine fever spreading on pig production in Serbia

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 371 - 391

Abstract

Abstract

African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease of domestic pigs and wild boars and currently represents a major threat to the swine industry worldwide. Disease control is impaired by a lack of an effective vaccine and currently, it is dependent on biosecurity measures in pig production, rapid diagnosis, and stamping out of infected herds. Consequently, this swine disease has considerable social-economic significance on national or even regional level. In 2019 for the first time ASF was detected in the domestic swine population (backyards) in the central region of Serbia. From then on, there have been continuous outbreaks of new cases in the population of domestic and wild boars. Considering domestic pig population, in the majority of cases, ASF was detected in small holdings and backyards. The biosecurity measures are not officially required by veterinary regulation and are only given in a form of recommendations. On the other hand, it is not always possible to implement biosecurity measures that are recognized today as essential for sustainable pig production in the old type of industrial pig facilities. Nowadays, in 2021, it became obvious that the domestic pig cycle, human activities involving pigs, or pig-derived meat products are the dominant driver of virus transmission. Additionally, human activities are frequently a risky connection between domestic pigs and wild boars both directly or indirectly. Traditional, culture-related aspects and facts that politicians failed to recognise ASF as a serious issue that causes great economical losses were found to be very important obstacles in disease control.

Keywords

  • African Swine Fever
  • domestic pig production
  • Serbia
  • wild boar
Open Access

Genotypic correlation between Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from broiler breeders and hatchery flocks

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 392 - 402

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from dust and environmental materials from different flocks located in Turkey’s Western Black Sea region were examined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 59 S. Enteritidis strains isolated from broiler breeder and hatchery flocks, and one S. Enteritidis strain isolated from a stool sample of a farm worker were examined. PFGE analysis revealed two major PFGE groups and nine different macro restriction profiles. It was determined that 85% (51/60) of the strains were close to each other and comprised Group I. All S. Enteritidis strains had the same sequence type (ST): ST11. Isolation of strains with a single genotype suggests that there may be a cross transmission between the flocks.

Keywords

  • multilocus sequence typing
  • phylogeny
  • pulsed field gel electrophoresis
Open Access

Prevalence and distribution of canine neoplastic and non-neoplastic cutaneous lesions in Serbia: a retrospective study of 2432 Cases (2011 – Mid 2021)

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 403 - 416

Abstract

Abstract

Cutaneous lesions, especially skin tumors in dogs, are among the most common lesions in this animal species. The aim of this study was to identify the most common types of canine cutaneous lesions, to determine the absolute and relative frequency of each type of cutaneous lesion, anatomical locations, mean age, as well as gender and breed distribution. The examination included all samples of cutaneous lesions in dogs obtained by surgical biopsy in veterinary clinics and examined at the Laboratory of the Department of Pathology at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade from the 1st January 2011 to the 1st July 2021. In this period (126 months), a total of 2432 samples of cutaneous lesions were examined, of which 1984 (81.58%) were tumors (1037/1984, 52.27% benign and 947/1984, 47.73% malignant) and 448 (18.42%) non-neoplastic cutaneous lesions. The most commonly found cutaneous tumors were: mast cell tumor (17.34% of all tumors), histiocytoma (9.78%), papilloma (7.91%), lipoma (7.81%), squamous cell carcinoma (7.36%), trichoblastoma (4.44%), hepatoid adenoma (4.39%) and malignant melanoma (4.18%). The most common non-neoplastic cutaneous lesions were: follicular cyst(s) (35.04% of all non-neoplastic lesions), pyogranulomatous chronic dermatitis (23.88%), lymphocytic dermatitis (7.37%), hyperkeratosis (4.24%), and granulomatous dermatitis (3.79%). Our results substantially confirm previously reported data regarding cutaneous neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions in dogs, and provide updated information on their frequency, animal age, anatomic location and breed distributions.

Keywords

  • cutaneous lesions
  • dog
  • neoplasm distribution
  • retrospective analysis
  • skin tumors
Open Access

Comparative Multimodal Palliative efficacy of gabapentin and tramadol By Using Two Pain Scoring Systems in Cats Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 417 - 434

Abstract

Abstract

The analgesic efficacy of the gabapentin-tramadol combination was compared with meloxicam-tramadol and tramadol perioperative analgesic regimens in cats brought to the clinic for ovariohysterectomy. Thirty adult cats belonging to comparable demographics (age, body weight), were enrolled into a randomized, blinded study after due consent from their owners into four treatment groups. A Gabapentin-Tramadol group (GT-group, n = 10), Meloxicam-Tramadol group (MT-group, n = 10), and a Tramadol group (T-group, n = 10) were formed. Gabapentin capsules at 50 mg were administered orally 2 hours before surgery while the rest received a placebo dose. Tramadol (2 mg/kg, IM) and meloxicam at (0.2 mg/kg, SC) were injected immediately prior to anesthetic premedication. Anesthetic protocol involved premedication with ketamine and xylazine, while anesthesia was induced using propofol. Inhalant isoflurane anesthesia was used to maintain a surgical plane. GT group scored lower on IVAS as well as CPS than MT group, and T group for up to 8 hours after surgery. The mechanical nociceptive threshold remained higher (98±0) for up to 12 hours postoperatively a nd serum cortisol concentrations remained significantly lower during the 24hr period. The addition of gabapentin to the tramadol regimen significantly improved analgesia and mechanical nociceptive threshold than when used on its own.

Keywords

  • cat
  • composite pain scale
  • gabapentin
  • multimodal analgesia
  • serum cortisol concentrations
Open Access

Characterisation of AmpC / ESBL genes in some pathogen gram-negatives isolated from clinical cases of livestock and companion animals

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 435 - 450

Abstract

Abstract

This study was aimed to search and characterize the AmpC and/or ESBL genes of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical cases of local livestock and companion animals between 2017 and 2019. A total of eight ceftiofur-resistant E. coli (n= 7) and ceftiofur-resistant K. pneumoniae (n= 1) and seven P. aeruginosa were isolated from different cases in local animals. By combination disc method, six E. coli isolates and one K. pneumoniae isolate were found to be ESBL producers. By combination of the disc method and double disc synergy test, no P. aeruginosa isolates were found as ESBL producers. In the agar disc diffusion test (ADDT) performed with cefoxitin and cefoxitin-boronic, only one E. coli was determined as AmpC producer. In ESBL-producing isolates, only the CTX-M class gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequence analysis revealed CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15 variants. An AmpC positive E. coli isolate was found to carry plasmidic ampC gene in cmy-2 variant from CIT family. It was observed that P. aeruginosa isolates did not carry the plasmidic ampC gene. After the chromosomal ampC gene of one P. aeruginosa was amplified by PCR and sequenced, R79Q and T105A mutations in the chromosomal ampC gene was revealed. This showed that overproduction of the ampC enzyme is involved in the resistance to β-lactams in P. aeruginosa isolates in the study.

Keywords

  • β-lactamase
  • dog
  • Enterobacterales
  • ruminant
Open Access

Antibody profiles of avian leukosis virus subgroups A/B and J In layer flocks suspected to have Marek’s disease in Nigeria

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 451 - 461

Abstract

Abstract

Previous reports indicate high seroprevalence of avian leukosis virus (ALV) p72 antigen in layer flocks suspected to have Marek’s disease (MD) in Kaduna and Plateau States. However, the specific subgroups responsible for ALV infection in layers in the States are still unknown, hence the need for this study. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the antibody profiles of ALV subgroups A/B and J in layer flocks suspected to have MD in Kaduna and Plateau States. Sera from 7 and 16 layer flocks suspected to have MD in Kaduna and Plateau States respectively, were screened for the presence of antibodies to ALV subgroups A/B and J using IDEXX enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Out of the seven layer flocks screened in Kaduna State, antibodies to ALV subgroup A/B was detected in six of the flocks (85.7%), while antibodies to ALV subgroup J was detected in only one flock (14.3%). Antibodies to both ALV subgroups A/B and J were detected in one flock (14.3%), which suggests co-infection of the two ALV subgroups. Out of the 16 flocks screened in Plateau State, antibodies to ALV subgroup A/B were detected in 15 flocks (93.8%), while antibodies to ALV subgroup J were detected in six flocks (37.5%). Antibodies to both ALV subgroups A/B and J were detected in five flocks (31.3%). The high detection of antibodies to ALV A/B suggests that ALV infection in layers is mostly due to ALV subgroup A or B in the study areas.

Keywords

  • antibodies
  • avian leukosis virus
  • Marek’s disease
Open Access

Assessment of different diagnostic methods for the identification of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows with pathological puerperium and their reliability to conceive

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 462 - 476

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of study was to evaluate different methods for subclinical endometritis (SCE) diagnoses and their accuracy to predict pregnancy. The study was performed on 51 postpartum cross breed dairy cows with pathological puerperium. Artificial insemination (AI) was done in spontaneous estrus. Endometrium samples were taken by cytotape (CT), cervical mucus (CM) samples by Metricheck and smears for crystallization degree were obtained at AI day. Blood serum samples for progesterone (P4) concentration determination were taken at AI day and 17 days later. Cows were examined by ultrasound 35 days after AI to confirm pregnancy. Percent (%) of polymorphnuclear leukocytes (PMNs) taken by CT were expressed by ROC curve (with cut-off point set at 1%). Out of the total of 51 cows involved in the study, 13.73% true positive and 41.17% true negative cows were found (54.90%). The content of CM sampled with Metricheck was altered in 11 cows (21.57%), and one of them was pregnant (1.96%). An average macroscopic CM value for pregnant cows was 0.06±0.24 vs. 0.39±0.79 for non-pregnant (p<0.05). An average value of CM crystallization in pregnant cows was 2.50±1.04 vs. 1.85±1.15 in non-pregnant (p<0.05). P4 concentration was not statistically different at AI day, but was statistically significantly higher 17 days later in pregnant cows (p = 0.002). CT alterations may be a reliable diagnostic tool for SCE diagnosis, while macroscopic CM alterations may be used for CE detection. P4 determination is beneficial in pregnancy diagnosis while CM crystallization degree is helpful in determination of best time for AI.

Keywords

  • cervical mucus
  • cytotape
  • Metricheck
  • subclinical endometritis
  • pregnancy
Open Access

Investigation of the Effects of L-carnitine and magnesium on Oxidative Stress and Cytokines in the Tissue of Experimental diabetic rats

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 477 - 489

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of L-carnitine and magnesium on the levels of tissue malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6) in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats. Eighty male Wistar albino rats (200-250 g) were divided into 8 groups with 10 rats in each group. The groups received the following treatments: Control group; 2 ml distilled water (by gavage); Group 2: 50 mg/kg (b.w.) i.p. streptozotocin; Group 3: 125 mg/kg (b.w.) magnesium; Group 4: 300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine; Group 5: 125 mg/kg (b.w.) magnesium +300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine; Group 6: 50 mg/kg (b.w.) streptozotocin +125 mg/kg (b.w.) magnesium; Group 7: 50 mg/kg (b.w.) streptozotocin +300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine and Group 8: 50 mg/kg (b.w.) streptozotocin +125 mg/ kg (b.w.) magnesium+300 mg/kg (b.w.) L-carnitine administered for 4 weeks. Liver and kidney malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 levels did not change in the magnesium, L-carnitine, and magnesium + L-carnitine groups compared to the control. The highest levels of malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 were determined only in the group with diabetes (Group 2). Lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and cytokine levels were significantly reduced in diabetic animals with the administration of magnesium and L-carnitine separately or in combination. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that magnesium and L-carnitine may have antidiabetic effects, especially in combination.

Keywords

  • Cytokines
  • diabetes
  • L-carnitine
  • magnesium
  • oxidative stress
Open Access

Pathoanatomical findings of a green turtle (Chelonia mydas) victim of collision with a motorboat

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 490 - 499

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper we report the trauma suffered by a green turtle (Chelonia mydas), caused by a collision with a motorboat, and describe the case ante and post-mortem. An adult female green turtle was rescued alive on December 2, 2016 at Ponta Negra beach, municipality of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The rescued animal was sent to the Marine Fauna Rehabilitation Center (PCCB-UERN), municipality of Areia Branca (RN), in Brazil. Physical examination revealed an excellent body score, noisy breathing, moderate dehydration, absence of hind limb and cloacal reflexes when stimulated by pressure, and two traumatic injuries characteristic of a collision with a motorboat. After three days of supportive treatment, the animal died and was immediately sent for necropsy. The animal had a complete fracture of the vertebral bodies (dorsal elements D9 and D10) and spinal cord section. The entire gastrointestinal tract had food content, in addition to sharp injuries in the colon caused by the bone fragments of the fractured carapace. The lungs were congested, hemorrhagic with frothy and bloody secretion, and interstitial bronchiole fibrosis. There was also present some fibrin and a large number of leukocyte cells, consisting mainly of macrophages. The liver was enlarged, with rounded edges and thickening of the capsule, multifocal areas of hepatocellular necrosis, and dissociation of the hepatocyte cords. The collision resulted in the exposure of the coelomic cavity and spinal cord, causing the animal intense pain, paralysis of the hind limbs and cloaca, septicemia, and consequently, death.

Keywords

  • Cheloniidae
  • propeller
  • Testudines
  • trauma

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