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Volume 72 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

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Volume 71 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

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Volume 70 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

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Volume 69 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles
Open Access

Morphological Characteristics of Skin Lesions in Cattle Naturally Infected with Lumpy Skin Disease Virus in Serbia

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 369 - 378

Abstract

Abstract

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a disease of cattle and domestic buffaloes caused by Capripoxvirus which can lead to significant economic losses. Until several years ago it was limited to Africa and the Middle East, but recently it was reported in Turkey (2013), Greece (2015), and in 2016 it spread to Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro and Serbia. The aim of this study was to determine the microscopic lesions in the skin of naturally infected animals, highlight their features and compare them to the findings of other authors. Gross lesions in the skin of cattle infected with Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) were manifested in the form of skin nodules which were round, raised, clearly circumscribed, firm and randomly distributed in the whole skin including the vulva and udder. Histopathological lesions included degeneration of epithelial cells, hyperkeratosis, spongiosis, and acanthosis present in 85.88%, 81.18%, 84.71%, and 80.0% of samples, respectively. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were noted in keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum in 56.47% of samples, and in hair follicle cells and sebaceous glands epithelial cells in 45.88% of samples. Cutaneous lesions were in the form of inflammatory infiltrate present in the dermis and subcutis in 97.65% of samples. Since there are only a few literature data in this field, this study expands the knowledge relating to morphological alterations in LSD. Based on the characteristic microscopic lesions described in the present study, histopathology should be considered as a very useful method for the diagnosis of LSD.

Keywords

  • cattle
  • histopathology
  • Lumpy Skin Disease
  • natural infection
Open Access

Influence of Selenium on the Morphology of Immune System Organs in Healthy Broilers

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 379 - 390

Abstract

Abstract

This study aimed to establish the effect of dietary supplementation in broiler chickens of organic and inorganic selenium on the weight and structure of the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Three dietary regimes were studied in Flex and F15 Hubbard chickens: (i) control, (ii) diets containing 0.5 mg organic selenium/kg by selenized yeast, (iii) diets supplemented with 0.5 mg ionic selenium/kg (sodium selenite). The results showed that the feed additives did not affect the relative weight of the immune system organs, i.e. bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen. The organic selenium in the F15 resulted in thinning of the thymic cortex and partial depletion of the lymphoid cells. Moreover, both the organic and inorganic selenium supplementation resulted in depopulation of bursal medulla from lymphocytes in the F15 group. In contrast, in Flex chickens no significant differences in histological structure and morphometric values of lymphoid organs between chickens fed organic and inorganic selenium were found.

Keywords

  • selenium
  • thymus
  • bursa of Fabricius
  • spleen
  • immunology
  • chicken
Open Access

Differentiation of Anatomic Entities in the Dog Stifle Joint Following S10B Plastination: Comparative Colorimetric and Radiological Investigations

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 391 - 401

Abstract

Abstract

The knee joint is not only the most important and complex structure to present during anatomy lectures, but also a significant region for radiologists and orthopedicians. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to evaluate the efficacy of plastinated specimens by measuring colorimetric differentiation and 2) to compare the anatomical structures of the images obtained from computed tomography (CT) and silicone plastination cross-sections and perform three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed models of the specimens. A total of 16 knee joints selected from the 10% formalin fixed/dissected group (n=6), non-fixed/dissected group (n=6) and non-dissected whole knee joint group (n=4) were scanned by CT and plastinated by using the S10B silicone technique. The color changes of the structures were quantitatively determined with the colorimeter device. Plastinated whole knee joints were cut transversally with a band saw and compared with CT images. Finally, 3D reconstruction of the knee joints was performed from CT images with the 3D reconstruction program. There were statistically significant differences between the fixed and non-fixed groups in terms of color changes (p<0.001). The anatomical structures were identified and matched in the cross-sections of plastinates and corresponding CT images. It was observed that plastinated samples were elastic, durable and non-hazardous specimens to use in the veterinary orthopedics and anatomy courses and lectures. It has been found that fixation was useful for the final product morphology. It is thought that the 3D images obtained from this study will support comprehension of the relationships between the bones, muscles, and ligaments.

Keywords

  • colorimetric analysis
  • computed tomography
  • cross-sectional anatomy
  • knee
  • three-dimensional reconstruction
Open Access

Duplex PCR for Detection of Aleutian Disease Virus from Biological and Environmental Samples

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 402 - 413

Abstract

Abstract

Aleutian disease is one of the most serious disease entities affecting mink farms. The disease causes significant economic losses in mink breeding countries. The aim of the study was to optimize a diagnostic test based on duplex PCR to enable detection of Aleutian disease virus in biological and environmental samples.

Blood (n = 40) and spleen (n = 40) samples from animals with suspected infection, and swabs from cages in which infected animals were kept (n = 20) were used for analysis. DNA was isolated from the samples, followed by optimization of the duplex PCR reaction targeting sequences coding NS1 and VP2 proteins. The qPCR method was used to determine the sensitivity of the reaction. The specificity of the analysis was confirmed by the sequencing results.

Optimized duplex PCR enabled detection of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) genetic material in biological and environmental samples. Testing of the sensitivity of the method indicated clear amplification for both primer pairs at 102 copies of viral DNA in a reaction. Sequencing confirmed the specificity of the reaction, which in the case of both primer pairs indicated an over 90% agreement between the isolates and the variants of the virus from the databases.

The use of duplex PCR to detect two regions of the AMDV genome may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the method and significantly expand the possibilities of further analysis based on sequencing.

Keywords

  • Aleutian disease
  • diagnostics
  • duplex PCR
  • optimization
Open Access

Ascaridia Galli Infection in Laying Hens and the Results of in Vitro Efficacy of Levamisole, Piperazine and Carvacrol, Whether is Necessary to Change the Deworming Protocols?

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 414 - 425

Abstract

Abstract

We present a case of Ascaridia galli infection in laying hens on a farm in central Serbia. During the rearing period on litter, ascaridosis was diagnosed at 15 weeks of age by routine parasitological fecal examination. Pullets were treated with flubendazole for one week, and two weeks later the hens were moved to battery cages. The production results were within technological standards until the 23rd week and the medical health status was without any clinical symptoms. After that period weight loss began, the egg production dropped to 70% and eggs were of poor quality. Subsequently, severe feather pecking and an increase of mortality were reported. The postmortal examination showed severe anemia and several gross lesions in the liver, intestines, lungs, and kidneys. Different sizes of A. galli were found in the lumen of the duodenum and jejunum. Gross changes of the intestinal mucosa were present, such as a thickened intestinal wall with hemorrhagic spots, inflammation and necrotic patches. Histopathological examination showed marked changes in the intestines, liver and kidneys. All visible live parasites were collected and stored in Earle’s balanced salts, and females were used for in vitro susceptibility testing. Median lethal concentration (LC50) of piperazine, levamisole and carvacrol for A. galli was 119.7μM, 2.71μM and 3.26μM, were applied, respectively. Based on our results, it is likely that reinfection occurred after completed dehelmintization. In relation to the new circumstances and the regulation for laying hen welfare the deworming protocol should be changed in order to ensure successful dehelmintization. In order to prevent reinfection the treatment must be done at the end of the rearing period and thus be maximally effective.

Keywords

  • levamisole
  • piperazine
  • carvacrol
  • laying hens
Open Access

Chromosome Aberrations Produced by Mestranol in Human Lymphocyte Cultures

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 426 - 433

Abstract

Abstract

In this investigation, the genotoxic properties of mestranol were examined in vitro. Human lymphocyte cultures were exposed for 72 h to mestranol at concentrations of 7.5, 15 and 30 µg/g. The genotoxic effects of the chemosterilant were assessed by numerical and structural chromosome aberrations.

Mestranol induced certain genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes. There was a dose-dependent significant (p<0.01) increase in the number of numerical aberrations in comparison to the control, but without significant differences (p>0.05) between the doses applied. Further, structural aberrations increased significantly (p<0.01) in the presence of mestranol, being most frequent in cultures exposed to the highest mestranol dose.

The frequency of Robertsonian translocations increased significantly only in cultures treated with mestranol at concentration of 30 µg/g in comparison both with the control (p<0.01) and the lowest chemosterilant dose (p<0.01).

There were significant differences (p<0.01) in the levels of chromosome gaps and fragments compared to Robertsonian translocations, whilst the frequencies between gaps and fragments were not significantly different (p>0.05).

Keywords

  • mestranol
  • cytogenetics
  • genotoxicity
  • human lymphocytes
Open Access

Effect of Season on Hematologic, Biochemical, and Hormonal Analytes in Rams of Two Breeds

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 434 - 442

Abstract

Abstract

Clinicopathological investigations are essential for the evaluation of the health status of ruminants. Apart from species-specific reference intervals, the effect of common biological factors should be considered for an accurate interpretation of laboratory data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of season on hematologic and biochemical analytes, and serum total thyroxine and cortisol in adult rams of two breeds. Four blood samples (one every season) were collected from each ram. Complete blood count was performed on the Advia 120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA), while the differential leukocyte count was manually conducted. Biochemical and hormonal analyses were performed on Flexor E (Vital Scientific, The Netherlands), AVL 9180 (Roche Diagnostics, Belgium), and Immulite 1000 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA), respectively. Linear mixed effects models (R language) were employed for statistical analyses. Forty-three (26 Chios, 17 Florina), adult, clinically healthy rams were included. Statistically significant (p<0.05), mostly breed-independent seasonal differences were observed in almost all of the analytes. However, when assessing these differences in view of the respective reference intervals, only a few of them were considered biologically important. Specifically, mild hyperglycemia and mild decrease in the concentration of total calcium and inorganic phosphorus were detected in winter, while a mild increase in thyroxine concentration (autumn) and creatine kinase activity (spring and summer) was also noted. In conclusion, seasonal effects should be considered when evaluating laboratory results in rams; however, season does not appear to have an essential effect on the clinicopathological profile of rams reared in the Mediterranean region.

Keywords

  • biochemistry
  • endocrinology
  • hematology
  • reference interval
  • sheep
  • variation
Open Access

First Occurence of African Swine Fever in Serbia

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 443 - 449

Abstract

Abstract

Until July 30th, 2019 when the first case of African swine fever (ASF) was confirmed, Serbia was a country free from ASF. After the owner reported atypical illness and death of a sow, the local veterinarian submitted the organ samples to the National Reference Laboratory for Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and African Swine Fever within the Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia in Belgrade. Observed gross lesions included splenomegaly, serous edema of the wall of the gallbladder and hemorrhages in the enlarged portal lymph nodes, petechial hemorrhages on the kidney and epicardium, and petechial and echymotic hemorrhages on the mucosa of the urinary bladder. Results of real-time PCR confirmed that the cause of illness and death of the swine was African swine fever virus. The samples were sent for confirmation to the EU Reference Laboratory where it was confirmed that Serbian domestic pig virus isolates based on p72 belong to genotype II. In total, 270 pigs from 18 affected holdings were killed in the infected zones. According to the on-record data, mortality was 6.89%, whereas lethality reached 64.5%. Currently, an extensive surveillance program is being conducted, aiming to force passive surveillance. ASF in wild boar has not been confirmed so far.

Keywords

  • African swine fever
  • backyard
  • domestic pigs
  • Serbia
Open Access

Penile Foreign Bodies in Dogs: A Retrospective Study

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 450 - 460

Abstract

Abstract

Hematuria, or preputial hemorrhagic discharge, is an extremely common clinical sign; it can be associated with a wide range of diseases, including, even if only rarely, penile foreign bodies.

The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the diagnosis and therapy involving migration from the preputial ostium or penile urethra of a foreign body (awn grass) embedded in the connective tissue surrounding the penis, or in deeper inguinal tissues, in dogs with hematuria or preputial hemorrhagic discharge.

In the selected cases, signaling, history, clinical signs, results of laboratory exams, endoscopic and ultrasonographic evaluation, and the technique used for foreign body removal were evaluated.

Dogs with hemorrhagic discharge consequent to a penile foreign body represented 2% of the entire population considered. At physical examination, the most common features were the presence of swelling of the glans and hyperemia associated with a penile fistula (4/6 dogs), and pain during penile exteriorization (3/6 dogs). Laboratory results showed mild neutrophilic leukocytosis in 2/3 dogs and reticulocytosis in 1/3 dogs. Endoscopy, performed in 2/6 dogs, did not reveal any alterations associated with passage of the foreign body. Ultrasonography was useful in reaching a definitive diagnosis, identifying the position of the grass awn in 6/6 cases and permitting its removal in all dogs using an ultrasound-guided technique.

This case report suggested that penile foreign bodies are a rare, but possible, cause of hematuria or hemorrhagic discharge in male dogs, and that ultrasonography is a useful technique in the making of a differential diagnosis and removal of foreign bodies.

Keywords

  • hematuria
  • preputial discharge
  • grass awn
  • endoscopy
  • ultrasound
Open Access

Pericardial Patch as a Palliative Treatment in Three Dogs Affected by Unresectable Cardiac Tumor

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 461 - 468

Abstract

Abstract

This report is aimed at describing a pericardial patch for unresectable cardiac tumors as a palliative technique to prevent pleural effusion.

Each dog underwent the same diagnostic protocol including a cardiological assessment, hematology and biochemistry profile, urinary test, abdominal and heart ultrasonography and chest radiographs. Computed tomography was always performed in order to exclude any potential metastatic lesions. All dogs underwent open pericardiectomy: the pericardium was opened and transposed on the mass according to its shape. Biopsy of the mass was always performed. Histopathological evaluation of the masses described two HAS and one chemodectoma. Chemotherapy protocol includes doxorubicin that was weekly administered. Dogs with HSA survived 65 and 85 days respectively without pleural effusion, while the dog with chemodectoma died after six months for reasons unrelated to the tumor.

No evidence of pleural effusion was observed during the heart recheck, monthly performed.

Pericardial patch is a potential choice as a palliative treatment for unresectable cardiac tumors. No pleural effusion was seen in three dogs affected by unresectable cardiac tumors.

Keywords

  • Pericardial patch
  • cardiac tumor
  • dog
10 Articles
Open Access

Morphological Characteristics of Skin Lesions in Cattle Naturally Infected with Lumpy Skin Disease Virus in Serbia

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 369 - 378

Abstract

Abstract

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a disease of cattle and domestic buffaloes caused by Capripoxvirus which can lead to significant economic losses. Until several years ago it was limited to Africa and the Middle East, but recently it was reported in Turkey (2013), Greece (2015), and in 2016 it spread to Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro and Serbia. The aim of this study was to determine the microscopic lesions in the skin of naturally infected animals, highlight their features and compare them to the findings of other authors. Gross lesions in the skin of cattle infected with Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) were manifested in the form of skin nodules which were round, raised, clearly circumscribed, firm and randomly distributed in the whole skin including the vulva and udder. Histopathological lesions included degeneration of epithelial cells, hyperkeratosis, spongiosis, and acanthosis present in 85.88%, 81.18%, 84.71%, and 80.0% of samples, respectively. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were noted in keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum in 56.47% of samples, and in hair follicle cells and sebaceous glands epithelial cells in 45.88% of samples. Cutaneous lesions were in the form of inflammatory infiltrate present in the dermis and subcutis in 97.65% of samples. Since there are only a few literature data in this field, this study expands the knowledge relating to morphological alterations in LSD. Based on the characteristic microscopic lesions described in the present study, histopathology should be considered as a very useful method for the diagnosis of LSD.

Keywords

  • cattle
  • histopathology
  • Lumpy Skin Disease
  • natural infection
Open Access

Influence of Selenium on the Morphology of Immune System Organs in Healthy Broilers

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 379 - 390

Abstract

Abstract

This study aimed to establish the effect of dietary supplementation in broiler chickens of organic and inorganic selenium on the weight and structure of the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Three dietary regimes were studied in Flex and F15 Hubbard chickens: (i) control, (ii) diets containing 0.5 mg organic selenium/kg by selenized yeast, (iii) diets supplemented with 0.5 mg ionic selenium/kg (sodium selenite). The results showed that the feed additives did not affect the relative weight of the immune system organs, i.e. bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen. The organic selenium in the F15 resulted in thinning of the thymic cortex and partial depletion of the lymphoid cells. Moreover, both the organic and inorganic selenium supplementation resulted in depopulation of bursal medulla from lymphocytes in the F15 group. In contrast, in Flex chickens no significant differences in histological structure and morphometric values of lymphoid organs between chickens fed organic and inorganic selenium were found.

Keywords

  • selenium
  • thymus
  • bursa of Fabricius
  • spleen
  • immunology
  • chicken
Open Access

Differentiation of Anatomic Entities in the Dog Stifle Joint Following S10B Plastination: Comparative Colorimetric and Radiological Investigations

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 391 - 401

Abstract

Abstract

The knee joint is not only the most important and complex structure to present during anatomy lectures, but also a significant region for radiologists and orthopedicians. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to evaluate the efficacy of plastinated specimens by measuring colorimetric differentiation and 2) to compare the anatomical structures of the images obtained from computed tomography (CT) and silicone plastination cross-sections and perform three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed models of the specimens. A total of 16 knee joints selected from the 10% formalin fixed/dissected group (n=6), non-fixed/dissected group (n=6) and non-dissected whole knee joint group (n=4) were scanned by CT and plastinated by using the S10B silicone technique. The color changes of the structures were quantitatively determined with the colorimeter device. Plastinated whole knee joints were cut transversally with a band saw and compared with CT images. Finally, 3D reconstruction of the knee joints was performed from CT images with the 3D reconstruction program. There were statistically significant differences between the fixed and non-fixed groups in terms of color changes (p<0.001). The anatomical structures were identified and matched in the cross-sections of plastinates and corresponding CT images. It was observed that plastinated samples were elastic, durable and non-hazardous specimens to use in the veterinary orthopedics and anatomy courses and lectures. It has been found that fixation was useful for the final product morphology. It is thought that the 3D images obtained from this study will support comprehension of the relationships between the bones, muscles, and ligaments.

Keywords

  • colorimetric analysis
  • computed tomography
  • cross-sectional anatomy
  • knee
  • three-dimensional reconstruction
Open Access

Duplex PCR for Detection of Aleutian Disease Virus from Biological and Environmental Samples

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 402 - 413

Abstract

Abstract

Aleutian disease is one of the most serious disease entities affecting mink farms. The disease causes significant economic losses in mink breeding countries. The aim of the study was to optimize a diagnostic test based on duplex PCR to enable detection of Aleutian disease virus in biological and environmental samples.

Blood (n = 40) and spleen (n = 40) samples from animals with suspected infection, and swabs from cages in which infected animals were kept (n = 20) were used for analysis. DNA was isolated from the samples, followed by optimization of the duplex PCR reaction targeting sequences coding NS1 and VP2 proteins. The qPCR method was used to determine the sensitivity of the reaction. The specificity of the analysis was confirmed by the sequencing results.

Optimized duplex PCR enabled detection of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) genetic material in biological and environmental samples. Testing of the sensitivity of the method indicated clear amplification for both primer pairs at 102 copies of viral DNA in a reaction. Sequencing confirmed the specificity of the reaction, which in the case of both primer pairs indicated an over 90% agreement between the isolates and the variants of the virus from the databases.

The use of duplex PCR to detect two regions of the AMDV genome may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the method and significantly expand the possibilities of further analysis based on sequencing.

Keywords

  • Aleutian disease
  • diagnostics
  • duplex PCR
  • optimization
Open Access

Ascaridia Galli Infection in Laying Hens and the Results of in Vitro Efficacy of Levamisole, Piperazine and Carvacrol, Whether is Necessary to Change the Deworming Protocols?

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 414 - 425

Abstract

Abstract

We present a case of Ascaridia galli infection in laying hens on a farm in central Serbia. During the rearing period on litter, ascaridosis was diagnosed at 15 weeks of age by routine parasitological fecal examination. Pullets were treated with flubendazole for one week, and two weeks later the hens were moved to battery cages. The production results were within technological standards until the 23rd week and the medical health status was without any clinical symptoms. After that period weight loss began, the egg production dropped to 70% and eggs were of poor quality. Subsequently, severe feather pecking and an increase of mortality were reported. The postmortal examination showed severe anemia and several gross lesions in the liver, intestines, lungs, and kidneys. Different sizes of A. galli were found in the lumen of the duodenum and jejunum. Gross changes of the intestinal mucosa were present, such as a thickened intestinal wall with hemorrhagic spots, inflammation and necrotic patches. Histopathological examination showed marked changes in the intestines, liver and kidneys. All visible live parasites were collected and stored in Earle’s balanced salts, and females were used for in vitro susceptibility testing. Median lethal concentration (LC50) of piperazine, levamisole and carvacrol for A. galli was 119.7μM, 2.71μM and 3.26μM, were applied, respectively. Based on our results, it is likely that reinfection occurred after completed dehelmintization. In relation to the new circumstances and the regulation for laying hen welfare the deworming protocol should be changed in order to ensure successful dehelmintization. In order to prevent reinfection the treatment must be done at the end of the rearing period and thus be maximally effective.

Keywords

  • levamisole
  • piperazine
  • carvacrol
  • laying hens
Open Access

Chromosome Aberrations Produced by Mestranol in Human Lymphocyte Cultures

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 426 - 433

Abstract

Abstract

In this investigation, the genotoxic properties of mestranol were examined in vitro. Human lymphocyte cultures were exposed for 72 h to mestranol at concentrations of 7.5, 15 and 30 µg/g. The genotoxic effects of the chemosterilant were assessed by numerical and structural chromosome aberrations.

Mestranol induced certain genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes. There was a dose-dependent significant (p<0.01) increase in the number of numerical aberrations in comparison to the control, but without significant differences (p>0.05) between the doses applied. Further, structural aberrations increased significantly (p<0.01) in the presence of mestranol, being most frequent in cultures exposed to the highest mestranol dose.

The frequency of Robertsonian translocations increased significantly only in cultures treated with mestranol at concentration of 30 µg/g in comparison both with the control (p<0.01) and the lowest chemosterilant dose (p<0.01).

There were significant differences (p<0.01) in the levels of chromosome gaps and fragments compared to Robertsonian translocations, whilst the frequencies between gaps and fragments were not significantly different (p>0.05).

Keywords

  • mestranol
  • cytogenetics
  • genotoxicity
  • human lymphocytes
Open Access

Effect of Season on Hematologic, Biochemical, and Hormonal Analytes in Rams of Two Breeds

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 434 - 442

Abstract

Abstract

Clinicopathological investigations are essential for the evaluation of the health status of ruminants. Apart from species-specific reference intervals, the effect of common biological factors should be considered for an accurate interpretation of laboratory data. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of season on hematologic and biochemical analytes, and serum total thyroxine and cortisol in adult rams of two breeds. Four blood samples (one every season) were collected from each ram. Complete blood count was performed on the Advia 120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA), while the differential leukocyte count was manually conducted. Biochemical and hormonal analyses were performed on Flexor E (Vital Scientific, The Netherlands), AVL 9180 (Roche Diagnostics, Belgium), and Immulite 1000 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA), respectively. Linear mixed effects models (R language) were employed for statistical analyses. Forty-three (26 Chios, 17 Florina), adult, clinically healthy rams were included. Statistically significant (p<0.05), mostly breed-independent seasonal differences were observed in almost all of the analytes. However, when assessing these differences in view of the respective reference intervals, only a few of them were considered biologically important. Specifically, mild hyperglycemia and mild decrease in the concentration of total calcium and inorganic phosphorus were detected in winter, while a mild increase in thyroxine concentration (autumn) and creatine kinase activity (spring and summer) was also noted. In conclusion, seasonal effects should be considered when evaluating laboratory results in rams; however, season does not appear to have an essential effect on the clinicopathological profile of rams reared in the Mediterranean region.

Keywords

  • biochemistry
  • endocrinology
  • hematology
  • reference interval
  • sheep
  • variation
Open Access

First Occurence of African Swine Fever in Serbia

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 443 - 449

Abstract

Abstract

Until July 30th, 2019 when the first case of African swine fever (ASF) was confirmed, Serbia was a country free from ASF. After the owner reported atypical illness and death of a sow, the local veterinarian submitted the organ samples to the National Reference Laboratory for Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and African Swine Fever within the Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia in Belgrade. Observed gross lesions included splenomegaly, serous edema of the wall of the gallbladder and hemorrhages in the enlarged portal lymph nodes, petechial hemorrhages on the kidney and epicardium, and petechial and echymotic hemorrhages on the mucosa of the urinary bladder. Results of real-time PCR confirmed that the cause of illness and death of the swine was African swine fever virus. The samples were sent for confirmation to the EU Reference Laboratory where it was confirmed that Serbian domestic pig virus isolates based on p72 belong to genotype II. In total, 270 pigs from 18 affected holdings were killed in the infected zones. According to the on-record data, mortality was 6.89%, whereas lethality reached 64.5%. Currently, an extensive surveillance program is being conducted, aiming to force passive surveillance. ASF in wild boar has not been confirmed so far.

Keywords

  • African swine fever
  • backyard
  • domestic pigs
  • Serbia
Open Access

Penile Foreign Bodies in Dogs: A Retrospective Study

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 450 - 460

Abstract

Abstract

Hematuria, or preputial hemorrhagic discharge, is an extremely common clinical sign; it can be associated with a wide range of diseases, including, even if only rarely, penile foreign bodies.

The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the diagnosis and therapy involving migration from the preputial ostium or penile urethra of a foreign body (awn grass) embedded in the connective tissue surrounding the penis, or in deeper inguinal tissues, in dogs with hematuria or preputial hemorrhagic discharge.

In the selected cases, signaling, history, clinical signs, results of laboratory exams, endoscopic and ultrasonographic evaluation, and the technique used for foreign body removal were evaluated.

Dogs with hemorrhagic discharge consequent to a penile foreign body represented 2% of the entire population considered. At physical examination, the most common features were the presence of swelling of the glans and hyperemia associated with a penile fistula (4/6 dogs), and pain during penile exteriorization (3/6 dogs). Laboratory results showed mild neutrophilic leukocytosis in 2/3 dogs and reticulocytosis in 1/3 dogs. Endoscopy, performed in 2/6 dogs, did not reveal any alterations associated with passage of the foreign body. Ultrasonography was useful in reaching a definitive diagnosis, identifying the position of the grass awn in 6/6 cases and permitting its removal in all dogs using an ultrasound-guided technique.

This case report suggested that penile foreign bodies are a rare, but possible, cause of hematuria or hemorrhagic discharge in male dogs, and that ultrasonography is a useful technique in the making of a differential diagnosis and removal of foreign bodies.

Keywords

  • hematuria
  • preputial discharge
  • grass awn
  • endoscopy
  • ultrasound
Open Access

Pericardial Patch as a Palliative Treatment in Three Dogs Affected by Unresectable Cardiac Tumor

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Page range: 461 - 468

Abstract

Abstract

This report is aimed at describing a pericardial patch for unresectable cardiac tumors as a palliative technique to prevent pleural effusion.

Each dog underwent the same diagnostic protocol including a cardiological assessment, hematology and biochemistry profile, urinary test, abdominal and heart ultrasonography and chest radiographs. Computed tomography was always performed in order to exclude any potential metastatic lesions. All dogs underwent open pericardiectomy: the pericardium was opened and transposed on the mass according to its shape. Biopsy of the mass was always performed. Histopathological evaluation of the masses described two HAS and one chemodectoma. Chemotherapy protocol includes doxorubicin that was weekly administered. Dogs with HSA survived 65 and 85 days respectively without pleural effusion, while the dog with chemodectoma died after six months for reasons unrelated to the tumor.

No evidence of pleural effusion was observed during the heart recheck, monthly performed.

Pericardial patch is a potential choice as a palliative treatment for unresectable cardiac tumors. No pleural effusion was seen in three dogs affected by unresectable cardiac tumors.

Keywords

  • Pericardial patch
  • cardiac tumor
  • dog

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