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Volume 71 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

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Volume 69 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Volume 68 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Volume 67 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Volume 66 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles
Open Access

Hormones in Food as a Potential Risk for Human Reproductive and Health Disorders

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 137 - 152

Abstract

Abstract

In the last 60 years, milk, meat, and egg worldwide consumption per capita increased 2-, 3-, and 5-fold, respectively. In the same period, several studies have reported a drop of semen quality and an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and some hormone-related cancers (testicular, prostate, breast, endometrial cancer) in humans. A possible reason for these disruptions is increased exposure to exogenous hormones in food of animal origin. Hormones in food are considered to affect the endocrine system and cell signaling and thus disrupt homeostasis in the consumers. Since food safety assurance is a part of the veterinary service, the risk assessment of hormones in food as potential disruptive compounds is a significant challenge. Numerous cohort and epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses have been performed with respect to find an association between the consumption of food of animal origin and particular health disorders. Additionally, several studies in animal models have been performed to explain the mechanisms of disruptive effects of exogenous hormones. Since contradictory results have been reported, there is no general conclusion about the disruptive effects of exogenous hormones. Further experiments on animals in which long-term treatment with exogenous hormones is performed and further comprehensive endocrinological, toxicological, and human epidemiological studies are needed to confirm or deny the role of exogenous hormones in human health disorders. Moreover, long-term exposure to a combination of several exogenous compounds, such as environmental pollutants and dietary hormones and their additive effects, are also not well known and should be a topic for further studies.

Keywords

  • food of animal origin
  • hormones
  • estrogens
  • health disorders
Open Access

Insight in Leptin Gene Polymorphism and Impact on Milk Traits in Autochtonous Busha Cattle

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 153 - 163

Abstract

Abstract

Leptin, a biomolecule secreted by adipose tissue, enchances productivity in cattle, especially affecting milk traits. The aim of this study was to detect leptin gene polymorphism on exon 3 (A59V locus) and intron 2 (SAU3AI locus) in the endangered population of autochtonous Busha cattle and associations with milk traits. The study included 46 cows: 36 Busha and 10 half-bred. Milk analyses comprised determination of somatic cell counts, fat, protein, lactose, total solids and solids-not-fat (SNF) concentrations and freezing point depression (FPD). Polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP technique. A single A59V genotype (CC) was affirmed, and two SAU3AI genotypes, AA and AB, with frequencies of 78.26% and 21.74%, respectively. Comparing the obtained results for chemical characteristics of milk between cows with AA and AB, no significant differences were found, except for SNF content and FPD values. Cows with AA genotype had significantly lower (p=0.021) average SNF content (8.74%) in milk compared to the average SNF content (9.28%) in those with genotype AB, while cows with genotype AA (−0.54°C) had significantly higher (p=0.004) average FPD values than those with AB genotype (−0.58°C). The absence of BB genotype and significant differences in the investigated functional traits between two SAU3AI genotypes and the absence of A59V polymorphism (presence of only CC genotype) show that the Busha cattle breed, although being an autochtonous low-producing native breed used for meat and milk production, harbours polymorphism on gentic markers characteristic of high production dairy cows.

Keywords

  • Busha cattle
  • leptin polymorphsm
  • milk traits
  • genetic markers
Open Access

A Retrospective Epidemiological Study: The Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in Dogs in the Aegean Region of Turkey

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 164 - 176

Abstract

Abstract

Among tick-borne diseases, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia piroplasm cause important diseases in dogs where the distributions of the pathogen, vector and host overlap. The primary aim of the present study was to detect the prevalence of Babesia spp. and E. canis using PCR and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay in a total of 379 samples comprising stray and owned dogs and to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of the two tests. Overall, 41.4% of dogs were infected with B. vogeli and/or E. canis as single (35.4%) and mixed (6.1%) infections. The majority of Babesia positive dogs (74.1%) were co-infected with E. canis. PCR detected a higher (P= 0.000) number of positivity in some provinces compared to RLB. To the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first molecular evidence for the existence of B. vogeli in the Aegean Region, Turkey. The present study pinpoints the distribution and prevalence of E. canis and B. vogeli in the Aegean region of Turkey as of 2004 and as such establishes a baseline. This is of pivotal importance for future studies aimed to demonstrate changes in the dynamics of E. canis and B. vogeli infections in the region.

Keywords

  • Babesia
  • Ehrlichia
Open Access

Investigation of the Effects of Artemisinin on Testis and Kidney Injury Induced by Doxorubicin

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 177 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

Artemisinin, an antimalarial drug, has anticancer activity and possesses protective effects against several tissue injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of artemisinin on doxorubicin-induced renal and testicular toxicity in rats. Doxorubicin was administered to rats at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) as a single intraperitoneal injection. Application of artemisinin was by using oral gavage feeding needle for 14 days at different specified doses (7 mg/kg and 35 mg/kg b.w.). At the end of the experiments, kidney and testis samples were collected and used for histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. At histopathological examination, while hyperemia was the marked finding in kidney and testis of rats treated with doxorubicin only, no evidence of structural abnormalities showed in other groups. Immunohistochemical examination of the testes and kidneys demonstrated significantly increased expression of caspase-3, TNF-α, iNOS and NF-κB in rats treated with doxorubicin only. Artemisinin decreased the doxorubicin-induced overexpression of NF-κB, iNOS, TNFα and caspase-3 in these tissues of rats. Artemisinin can protect the kidney and testis against doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity and testotoxicity, probably through a decrease of caspase-3, TNF-α, iNOS and NF-κB expressions. It may be concluded that artemisinin has a potential for clinical use in the treatment of kidney and testis damage induced by doxorubicin. Further researches are required to determine the appropriate combination of artemisinin with doxorubicin.

Keywords

  • Artemisinin
  • Doxorubicin
  • Kidney
  • Rat
  • Testis
Open Access

Accuracy and Reliability of Measurements Obtained from 3-Dimensional Rabbit Mandible Model: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 192 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular morphometric measurements of male and female rabbits using three-dimensional digital model and real bone measurements. Ten (5 female, 5 male) rabbits with no bone deformities were used in the study. Three-dimensional models were produced from two-dimensional microcomputed tomography images of the rabbit’s mandible. Biometric data were obtained by using the same measuring points over both three-dimensional models and real bone samples. There was only a significant main effect of gender for the greatest length of the mandible, length from aboral border of the alveolus of third molar teeth to infradentale, length of the diastema, height of the vertical ramus (measured in projection), distance from the incisor to the oral border of mental foramen, distance from aboral border of mental foramen to caudal border of mandible, distance between retroalveolar foramen and caudal border of mandible. For these measurements, calculated data for females are significantly higher than the males (p<0.05). It was found to be statistically significant between methods only for the length of the cheek tooth row and height of the vertical ramus values (p<0.05). In this study, it was understood that 3D morphometric measurements for bone tissue could be used with accuracy and reliability especially in anatomy and orthodontics areas as an alternative to traditional measurements made with a digital caliper.

Keywords

  • Mandible
  • Micro computed tomography
  • Morphometry
  • Rabbit
  • Three-dimensional reconstruction
Open Access

Comparative Pathomorphological, Mycological and Molecular Examination of Turkey Poults with Different Immunological Status Experimentally Infected with Aspergillus fumigatus

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 201 - 217

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the pathological, mycological and molecular findings in turkey poults with different immunological status experimentally infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. The investigation was carried out 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after intratracheal inoculation of 5.056×107 spores of A. fumigatus to 14-day-old turkey poults in group G-1, as well as to turkey poults in group G-2 which were treated prior to infection with dexamethasone. A. fumigatus was isolated on day 1 p.i. in both groups, but the number of positive samples was bigger in group G-1. A. fumigatus was isolated from the respiratory organs of group G-1as early as on day 1 and 3 p.i. in 4 out of 12 examined specimens (33%). On day 7 p.i. A. fumigatus was possible to isolate from the respiratory organs of 50% of infected birds, on day 14 in 83.33% and on day 21 p.i. A. fumigatus was isolated in 6 out of 6 sacrificed turkey poults (100%). In dexamethasone-treated group A. fumigatus isolates from the respiratory organs on day 1 and 3 p.i. were same as in group G-1, whereas on days 7 and 14 p.i. the number of turkey poults positive to A. fumigatus increased in comparison with the untreated G-1 group. The histopathological lesions in turkey poults treated with dexamethasone developed earlier, were more intensive and extensive. The mycological and nested PCR results revealed a higher number of samples positive for the presence of A. fumigatus DNA in the group G-2, pretreated with dexamethasone.

Keywords

  • turkey poults
  • respiratory organs
  • nested PCR
Open Access

Evaluation of Systemic Inflammation Parameters in Dogs with Periodontitis

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 218 - 228

Abstract

Abstract

Periodontal diseases are the most common diseases in veterinary medicine. The first clinical finding is chewing difficulty, saliva flow and bad oral odor. It further develops into plaque and tartar formation, gingival inflammation and hemorrhagic appearance of the gingiva, periodontal pockets formation, alveolar bone resorption and tooth loss.

In this study an evaluation has been made to determine which degree reflects on the parameters of systemic inflammatory reaction with special attention to IL-6 (Interleukine-6), CRP (C-reactive protein), osteopontin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Ig (Immunglobulins = Total protein – Albumin) and hematological parameters in dogs with periodontitis.

Two groups have been defined in this study. The first group included 10 healthy and owned dogs as a control group. The second group consisted of 10 owned dogs with moderate-severe periodontitis.

The difference between monocyte (p <0.001) and neutrophil (p <0.05) counts was found to be significant. In addition, the difference between SOD, MDA, glutathione peroxidase, CRP, IL-6 measurements in group 1 and group 2 was significant. (p <0.001). The level of osteopontin in moderate-severe periodontitis cases was found significantly higher than the level measured in the healthy group.

Measured values in the moderate-severe periodontitis cases are higher than the healthy group in terms of CRP, IL-6, and osteopontin levels. Increasing severity of periodontitis was associated with changes in oxidative stress parameters: increased MDA, decreased SOD and glutathione peroxidase levels. These differences provide important information about the evaluation of the cellular responses. There is a need for continued research into the systemic impact of periodontal disease.

Keywords

  • Canine periodontitis
  • CRP
  • IL-6
  • SOD
  • MDA
  • glutathione peroxidase
Open Access

Mitochondrial Diversity of the East Balkan Swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica) in South-Eastern Bulgaria

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 229 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The East Balkan Swine (EBS) is the only preserved local swine breed in Bulgaria and one of the few indigenous pig breeds in Europe. The EBS is distributed in the region of Eastern Balkan Mountains and the Strandja Mountain. To reveal the breed’s genetic profile, we analyzed 50 purebred individuals according to mitochondrial DNA (D-loop region, HVR1) and sequence analysis in the Scientific Center of Agriculture (Sredets region) in the country.

The obtained results show the presence of four haplotypes: three Asian specific haplotypes (H1, H2, and H3) and the European specific E1a1. The haplotypes H2 (6 %) and H3 (2 %) were newly described and were branched from the basic clade H1 (90 %). All haplotypes belong to the Asiatic clade A (98 %), except one sample assigned to the European haplogroup E1 (2 %) in contrast to samples from East North Bulgaria where Asiatic and Europen clades were with almost equal distribution. The coexistence of two mtDNA clades in EBS in Bulgaria may be related to the source of the pig populations and/or the historical crossbreeding with imported pigs.

In conclusion, due to its native origin, the East Balkan Swine may be the only possible option for a solution to the exhaustion of the beneficial genetic variation of available cultural breeds. With its participation, high-productive populations can be restored and established after a long and purposeful selection.

Keywords

  • East Bulgarian Swine
  • D loop region
  • genetic diversity
Open Access

Acute Abdomen and Liver Abscess Caused by Penetrating Metallic Foreign Body in a Mare

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 237 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

The ingestion of sharp foreign bodies that cause penetrating wounds to the gut and surrounding structures and its consequences are not often seen in equine medicine. When animals ingest these objects, they tend to have colic episodes and peritonitis, as well as to be prone to abscess formation. The aim of the current case report is to describe liver abscesses and peritonitis, with abdominal adhesions, caused by a penetrating metallic foreign body that was swallowed by a Crioulo mare, which had been showing a history of recurrent colic episodes for 4 months. The animal was subjected to median celiotomy due to suspect enterolithiasis. During the procedure, abdominal adhesions, blood clots in the intestinal loops and enteroliths were observed. These severe changes led to the mare death while she was still recovering from anaesthesia. Necropsy findings revealed abscess formation in the liver, abdominal adhesions, diffuse peritonitis and a penetrating foreign body in the liver. The relevance of the present case study lies on the fact that the assessed mare presented a stable chronic condition, although she had peritonitis and abdominal abscesses. This observation reinforces the importance of assessing all abdominal organs in horses with recurrent colic episodes. The evaluation of abdominal organs through complementary exams and necropsy can help identifying foreign objects inside these animals and it contributes to the challenging diagnosis of colic syndrome.

Keywords

  • peritonitis
  • colic
  • diagnosis
  • equine
Open Access

Extramedullary Pulmonary Plasmacytoma in a Dog

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 244 - 250

Abstract

Abstract

In this case report we are presenting a rare case of primary pulmonary plasmacytoma in a dog in the context of clinical and pathological findings. A six-years-old, female Rottweiler was brought to the clinic with respiratory complaints. The patient was dyspneic and tachypneic, and there were friction sounds on auscultation of the lungs. Laryngeal and tracheal palpation induced severe cough. Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs of the thorax showed increased opacity in the lungs and loss of cardiac silhouette. Based on clinical and radiological findings, diagnosis of a lung mass was made and surgery recommended. Under general anesthesia, bilobectomy of the right lung lobes by medial sternotomy was performed. Upon cytological and histopathological findings, plasmacytoma was diagnosed.

Keywords

  • dog
  • histopathology
  • lung
  • plasmacytoma
10 Articles
Open Access

Hormones in Food as a Potential Risk for Human Reproductive and Health Disorders

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 137 - 152

Abstract

Abstract

In the last 60 years, milk, meat, and egg worldwide consumption per capita increased 2-, 3-, and 5-fold, respectively. In the same period, several studies have reported a drop of semen quality and an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and some hormone-related cancers (testicular, prostate, breast, endometrial cancer) in humans. A possible reason for these disruptions is increased exposure to exogenous hormones in food of animal origin. Hormones in food are considered to affect the endocrine system and cell signaling and thus disrupt homeostasis in the consumers. Since food safety assurance is a part of the veterinary service, the risk assessment of hormones in food as potential disruptive compounds is a significant challenge. Numerous cohort and epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses have been performed with respect to find an association between the consumption of food of animal origin and particular health disorders. Additionally, several studies in animal models have been performed to explain the mechanisms of disruptive effects of exogenous hormones. Since contradictory results have been reported, there is no general conclusion about the disruptive effects of exogenous hormones. Further experiments on animals in which long-term treatment with exogenous hormones is performed and further comprehensive endocrinological, toxicological, and human epidemiological studies are needed to confirm or deny the role of exogenous hormones in human health disorders. Moreover, long-term exposure to a combination of several exogenous compounds, such as environmental pollutants and dietary hormones and their additive effects, are also not well known and should be a topic for further studies.

Keywords

  • food of animal origin
  • hormones
  • estrogens
  • health disorders
Open Access

Insight in Leptin Gene Polymorphism and Impact on Milk Traits in Autochtonous Busha Cattle

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 153 - 163

Abstract

Abstract

Leptin, a biomolecule secreted by adipose tissue, enchances productivity in cattle, especially affecting milk traits. The aim of this study was to detect leptin gene polymorphism on exon 3 (A59V locus) and intron 2 (SAU3AI locus) in the endangered population of autochtonous Busha cattle and associations with milk traits. The study included 46 cows: 36 Busha and 10 half-bred. Milk analyses comprised determination of somatic cell counts, fat, protein, lactose, total solids and solids-not-fat (SNF) concentrations and freezing point depression (FPD). Polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP technique. A single A59V genotype (CC) was affirmed, and two SAU3AI genotypes, AA and AB, with frequencies of 78.26% and 21.74%, respectively. Comparing the obtained results for chemical characteristics of milk between cows with AA and AB, no significant differences were found, except for SNF content and FPD values. Cows with AA genotype had significantly lower (p=0.021) average SNF content (8.74%) in milk compared to the average SNF content (9.28%) in those with genotype AB, while cows with genotype AA (−0.54°C) had significantly higher (p=0.004) average FPD values than those with AB genotype (−0.58°C). The absence of BB genotype and significant differences in the investigated functional traits between two SAU3AI genotypes and the absence of A59V polymorphism (presence of only CC genotype) show that the Busha cattle breed, although being an autochtonous low-producing native breed used for meat and milk production, harbours polymorphism on gentic markers characteristic of high production dairy cows.

Keywords

  • Busha cattle
  • leptin polymorphsm
  • milk traits
  • genetic markers
Open Access

A Retrospective Epidemiological Study: The Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in Dogs in the Aegean Region of Turkey

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 164 - 176

Abstract

Abstract

Among tick-borne diseases, Ehrlichia canis and Babesia piroplasm cause important diseases in dogs where the distributions of the pathogen, vector and host overlap. The primary aim of the present study was to detect the prevalence of Babesia spp. and E. canis using PCR and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay in a total of 379 samples comprising stray and owned dogs and to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of the two tests. Overall, 41.4% of dogs were infected with B. vogeli and/or E. canis as single (35.4%) and mixed (6.1%) infections. The majority of Babesia positive dogs (74.1%) were co-infected with E. canis. PCR detected a higher (P= 0.000) number of positivity in some provinces compared to RLB. To the best of our knowledge, these findings provide the first molecular evidence for the existence of B. vogeli in the Aegean Region, Turkey. The present study pinpoints the distribution and prevalence of E. canis and B. vogeli in the Aegean region of Turkey as of 2004 and as such establishes a baseline. This is of pivotal importance for future studies aimed to demonstrate changes in the dynamics of E. canis and B. vogeli infections in the region.

Keywords

  • Babesia
  • Ehrlichia
Open Access

Investigation of the Effects of Artemisinin on Testis and Kidney Injury Induced by Doxorubicin

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 177 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

Artemisinin, an antimalarial drug, has anticancer activity and possesses protective effects against several tissue injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of artemisinin on doxorubicin-induced renal and testicular toxicity in rats. Doxorubicin was administered to rats at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) as a single intraperitoneal injection. Application of artemisinin was by using oral gavage feeding needle for 14 days at different specified doses (7 mg/kg and 35 mg/kg b.w.). At the end of the experiments, kidney and testis samples were collected and used for histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. At histopathological examination, while hyperemia was the marked finding in kidney and testis of rats treated with doxorubicin only, no evidence of structural abnormalities showed in other groups. Immunohistochemical examination of the testes and kidneys demonstrated significantly increased expression of caspase-3, TNF-α, iNOS and NF-κB in rats treated with doxorubicin only. Artemisinin decreased the doxorubicin-induced overexpression of NF-κB, iNOS, TNFα and caspase-3 in these tissues of rats. Artemisinin can protect the kidney and testis against doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity and testotoxicity, probably through a decrease of caspase-3, TNF-α, iNOS and NF-κB expressions. It may be concluded that artemisinin has a potential for clinical use in the treatment of kidney and testis damage induced by doxorubicin. Further researches are required to determine the appropriate combination of artemisinin with doxorubicin.

Keywords

  • Artemisinin
  • Doxorubicin
  • Kidney
  • Rat
  • Testis
Open Access

Accuracy and Reliability of Measurements Obtained from 3-Dimensional Rabbit Mandible Model: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 192 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular morphometric measurements of male and female rabbits using three-dimensional digital model and real bone measurements. Ten (5 female, 5 male) rabbits with no bone deformities were used in the study. Three-dimensional models were produced from two-dimensional microcomputed tomography images of the rabbit’s mandible. Biometric data were obtained by using the same measuring points over both three-dimensional models and real bone samples. There was only a significant main effect of gender for the greatest length of the mandible, length from aboral border of the alveolus of third molar teeth to infradentale, length of the diastema, height of the vertical ramus (measured in projection), distance from the incisor to the oral border of mental foramen, distance from aboral border of mental foramen to caudal border of mandible, distance between retroalveolar foramen and caudal border of mandible. For these measurements, calculated data for females are significantly higher than the males (p<0.05). It was found to be statistically significant between methods only for the length of the cheek tooth row and height of the vertical ramus values (p<0.05). In this study, it was understood that 3D morphometric measurements for bone tissue could be used with accuracy and reliability especially in anatomy and orthodontics areas as an alternative to traditional measurements made with a digital caliper.

Keywords

  • Mandible
  • Micro computed tomography
  • Morphometry
  • Rabbit
  • Three-dimensional reconstruction
Open Access

Comparative Pathomorphological, Mycological and Molecular Examination of Turkey Poults with Different Immunological Status Experimentally Infected with Aspergillus fumigatus

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 201 - 217

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the pathological, mycological and molecular findings in turkey poults with different immunological status experimentally infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. The investigation was carried out 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after intratracheal inoculation of 5.056×107 spores of A. fumigatus to 14-day-old turkey poults in group G-1, as well as to turkey poults in group G-2 which were treated prior to infection with dexamethasone. A. fumigatus was isolated on day 1 p.i. in both groups, but the number of positive samples was bigger in group G-1. A. fumigatus was isolated from the respiratory organs of group G-1as early as on day 1 and 3 p.i. in 4 out of 12 examined specimens (33%). On day 7 p.i. A. fumigatus was possible to isolate from the respiratory organs of 50% of infected birds, on day 14 in 83.33% and on day 21 p.i. A. fumigatus was isolated in 6 out of 6 sacrificed turkey poults (100%). In dexamethasone-treated group A. fumigatus isolates from the respiratory organs on day 1 and 3 p.i. were same as in group G-1, whereas on days 7 and 14 p.i. the number of turkey poults positive to A. fumigatus increased in comparison with the untreated G-1 group. The histopathological lesions in turkey poults treated with dexamethasone developed earlier, were more intensive and extensive. The mycological and nested PCR results revealed a higher number of samples positive for the presence of A. fumigatus DNA in the group G-2, pretreated with dexamethasone.

Keywords

  • turkey poults
  • respiratory organs
  • nested PCR
Open Access

Evaluation of Systemic Inflammation Parameters in Dogs with Periodontitis

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 218 - 228

Abstract

Abstract

Periodontal diseases are the most common diseases in veterinary medicine. The first clinical finding is chewing difficulty, saliva flow and bad oral odor. It further develops into plaque and tartar formation, gingival inflammation and hemorrhagic appearance of the gingiva, periodontal pockets formation, alveolar bone resorption and tooth loss.

In this study an evaluation has been made to determine which degree reflects on the parameters of systemic inflammatory reaction with special attention to IL-6 (Interleukine-6), CRP (C-reactive protein), osteopontin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Ig (Immunglobulins = Total protein – Albumin) and hematological parameters in dogs with periodontitis.

Two groups have been defined in this study. The first group included 10 healthy and owned dogs as a control group. The second group consisted of 10 owned dogs with moderate-severe periodontitis.

The difference between monocyte (p <0.001) and neutrophil (p <0.05) counts was found to be significant. In addition, the difference between SOD, MDA, glutathione peroxidase, CRP, IL-6 measurements in group 1 and group 2 was significant. (p <0.001). The level of osteopontin in moderate-severe periodontitis cases was found significantly higher than the level measured in the healthy group.

Measured values in the moderate-severe periodontitis cases are higher than the healthy group in terms of CRP, IL-6, and osteopontin levels. Increasing severity of periodontitis was associated with changes in oxidative stress parameters: increased MDA, decreased SOD and glutathione peroxidase levels. These differences provide important information about the evaluation of the cellular responses. There is a need for continued research into the systemic impact of periodontal disease.

Keywords

  • Canine periodontitis
  • CRP
  • IL-6
  • SOD
  • MDA
  • glutathione peroxidase
Open Access

Mitochondrial Diversity of the East Balkan Swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica) in South-Eastern Bulgaria

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 229 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The East Balkan Swine (EBS) is the only preserved local swine breed in Bulgaria and one of the few indigenous pig breeds in Europe. The EBS is distributed in the region of Eastern Balkan Mountains and the Strandja Mountain. To reveal the breed’s genetic profile, we analyzed 50 purebred individuals according to mitochondrial DNA (D-loop region, HVR1) and sequence analysis in the Scientific Center of Agriculture (Sredets region) in the country.

The obtained results show the presence of four haplotypes: three Asian specific haplotypes (H1, H2, and H3) and the European specific E1a1. The haplotypes H2 (6 %) and H3 (2 %) were newly described and were branched from the basic clade H1 (90 %). All haplotypes belong to the Asiatic clade A (98 %), except one sample assigned to the European haplogroup E1 (2 %) in contrast to samples from East North Bulgaria where Asiatic and Europen clades were with almost equal distribution. The coexistence of two mtDNA clades in EBS in Bulgaria may be related to the source of the pig populations and/or the historical crossbreeding with imported pigs.

In conclusion, due to its native origin, the East Balkan Swine may be the only possible option for a solution to the exhaustion of the beneficial genetic variation of available cultural breeds. With its participation, high-productive populations can be restored and established after a long and purposeful selection.

Keywords

  • East Bulgarian Swine
  • D loop region
  • genetic diversity
Open Access

Acute Abdomen and Liver Abscess Caused by Penetrating Metallic Foreign Body in a Mare

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 237 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

The ingestion of sharp foreign bodies that cause penetrating wounds to the gut and surrounding structures and its consequences are not often seen in equine medicine. When animals ingest these objects, they tend to have colic episodes and peritonitis, as well as to be prone to abscess formation. The aim of the current case report is to describe liver abscesses and peritonitis, with abdominal adhesions, caused by a penetrating metallic foreign body that was swallowed by a Crioulo mare, which had been showing a history of recurrent colic episodes for 4 months. The animal was subjected to median celiotomy due to suspect enterolithiasis. During the procedure, abdominal adhesions, blood clots in the intestinal loops and enteroliths were observed. These severe changes led to the mare death while she was still recovering from anaesthesia. Necropsy findings revealed abscess formation in the liver, abdominal adhesions, diffuse peritonitis and a penetrating foreign body in the liver. The relevance of the present case study lies on the fact that the assessed mare presented a stable chronic condition, although she had peritonitis and abdominal abscesses. This observation reinforces the importance of assessing all abdominal organs in horses with recurrent colic episodes. The evaluation of abdominal organs through complementary exams and necropsy can help identifying foreign objects inside these animals and it contributes to the challenging diagnosis of colic syndrome.

Keywords

  • peritonitis
  • colic
  • diagnosis
  • equine
Open Access

Extramedullary Pulmonary Plasmacytoma in a Dog

Published Online: 22 Jun 2019
Page range: 244 - 250

Abstract

Abstract

In this case report we are presenting a rare case of primary pulmonary plasmacytoma in a dog in the context of clinical and pathological findings. A six-years-old, female Rottweiler was brought to the clinic with respiratory complaints. The patient was dyspneic and tachypneic, and there were friction sounds on auscultation of the lungs. Laryngeal and tracheal palpation induced severe cough. Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs of the thorax showed increased opacity in the lungs and loss of cardiac silhouette. Based on clinical and radiological findings, diagnosis of a lung mass was made and surgery recommended. Under general anesthesia, bilobectomy of the right lung lobes by medial sternotomy was performed. Upon cytological and histopathological findings, plasmacytoma was diagnosed.

Keywords

  • dog
  • histopathology
  • lung
  • plasmacytoma

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