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Volume 68 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

12 Articles
Open Access

Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis: An Update on Diagnosis and Treatment

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 299 - 317

Abstract

Abstract

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a tick-borne disease of worldwide distribution. The major causative agent is Ehrlichia canis, a gram-negative, obligate intracellular, pleomorphic bacterium of the genus Ehrlichia, which infects monocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes, forming intracytoplasmic, membrane-bound bacterial aggregates, called morulae. After an incubation period of 8-20 days, the course of E. canis infection, can be sequentially divided into acute, subclinical and chronic phases, although these phases can hardly be distinguished in the clinical setting. Clinical recovery is the typical outcome of acutely infected dogs, entering the subclinical phase, during which they show no or minimal clinical signs and/or mild hematological abnormalities. Immunocompetent dogs may eliminate the infection during the acute or subclinical phases, but an unpredictable proportion of dogs will eventually develop the chronic phase, characterized by aplastic pancytopenia and high mortality, due to septicemia and/or severe bleeding. This article outlines briefly the pathogenesis of CME due to E. canis, and more thoroughly reviews the recent scientific literature pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of this devastating disease.

Keywords

  • Ehrlichia canis
  • Canine
  • Dog
  • Tick-borne Diseases
Open Access

Changes in Thyroid Hormones Levels and Metabolism in Dairy Cows around Calving

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 318 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

The hormonal activity of the thyroid gland has an important role in ruminants for the modulation of metabolic variables. In this study changes in thyroid hormones and biochemical parameters in dairy cows around calving were evaluated and the critical thyroid hormones thresholds for predicting the risk of ketosis were estimated. Blood samples were collected from 82 dairy cows at 5±3 days pre-partum and 5±3 days postpartum. Serum values of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), insulin, glucose, Ca, Cl, Mg, P, K, Na, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and urea were evaluated. Signifi cant decrease in the levels of T3, T4 and TSH was found in the postpartum period. The values of T3 and T4 were negatively correlated with NEFA and BHB levels, and TSH values were negatively correlated with NEFA. A critical T3 threshold was found by means of ROC analysis for predicting the risk of ketosis. T3 values < 1.23 nmol/L were associated with BHB > 1.10 mmol/L in postpartum, which represents the BHB threshold commonly used as the indicator of hyperketonaemia. The results confirm that the peripartum period is accompanied by marked changes in circulating thyroid hormone profile that is correlated with lipomobilization predictors.

Keywords

  • dairy cow
  • metabolism
  • thyroid hormone
  • transition period
Open Access

Physiological Effects of Balanced Anesthesia during Dental Procedures in Brown Bears (Ursus Arctos)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 331 - 339

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of the present study was to monitor the physiological effects of a standardized balanced anesthetic protocol in brown bears (Ursus arctos) during routine dental procedures. Physiological parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation) were evaluated in twelve brown bears, anesthetized with a balanced drug combination for 90 minutes during dental procedures. The animals were kept in the „Park for Dancing Bears“ Belitza, Bulgaria. A standardized premedication protocol of a combined intramuscular injection of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (Zoletil 100® Virbac, France) 1mg/kg, medetomidine HCl 0.003mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg of butorphanol was administered intramuscularly. Anesthesia was induced intravenously with a combined bolus of ketamine at 2 mg/kg and propofol at 2 mg/kg, and maintained with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine at 0.8 mg/kg/h and propofol 0.04 at mg/kg/min. Rectal temperature decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas: heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were stable with no significant changes in these parameters for the duration of anesthesia. In conclusion, this anesthetic drug combination is suitable for oral surgery of medium duration in brown bears.

Keywords

  • Ursus arctos
  • balanced anesthesia
  • ketamine
  • propofol
  • medetomidine
  • zolazepam
  • butorphanol
Open Access

Effects of Selenium and Thyroid Hormone Deficiency on Peritoneal Macrophages Adhesion and Occurrence of Natural IGM Antibodies in Juvenile Rats

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 340 - 355

Abstract

Abstract

Both selenium, as an effector and regulator of antioxidative enzymes activity, and thyroid hormones are potent immunomodulators. Besides, selenium incorporated into iodothyronine deiodinases is involved in the thyroid function and thus indirectly regulates the immune response. Studies of the mutual influence of selenium and thyroid hormones on the immune response are scarce, hence we analyzed the effects of an iodothyronine deiodinases blocker, propylthiouracil (PTU), and selenium deficiency on the function of peritoneal macrophages, and titer of naturally occurring anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) IgM antibodies in juvenile rats. The experiment was carried out on 64 Wistar male rats allotted to 4 groups: controlselenium adequate PTU- group; selenium adequate, PTU+ group; selenium defi cient, PTU- group; and selenium defi cient, PTU+. The selenium adequate and selenium defi cient groups were fed a diet containing 0.334 and 0.031 mg Se/kg, respectively. PTU+ groups received PTU (150 mg/L) in drinking water. After 3 weeks, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined. The animals having “intermediate” concentrations of T3 (1.56-1.69 nmol/L) and T4 (41-50 nmol/L) were excluded from further analysis. Thus, PTU+ groups included hypothyroid animals (T3≤1.55 nmol/L; T4≤40 nmol/L), while PTU- groups included euthyroid rats (T3≥1.70 nmol/L; T4≥50 nmol/L). Both groups of selenium deficient rats had, when compared to the control group, a significantly lower activity of glutathione peroxidase GPx1 and GPx3. Neither selenium deficiency nor PTU influenced the adherence of peritoneal macrophages. Selenium deficiency significantly decreased the peroxide synthesis in macrophages and significantly increased the titer of anti-SRBC IgM. Hypotyroidism alone or in combination with selenium deficiency had no influence on these parameters.

Keywords

  • glutathione peroxidase
  • IgM
  • macrophage adherence
  • macrophage peroxide production
  • rats
  • selenium
  • thyroid hormones
Open Access

Survival and Evaluation of Clinical and Laboratory Variables as Prognostic Indicators in Horses Hospitilized with Acute Diarrhea: 342 Cases (1995-2015)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 356 - 365

Abstract

Abstract

A retrospective study was performed on 342 horses with acute diarrhea (equine colitis). Clinical and laboratory data were obtained upon arrival at the equine hospital. The main focus of this study was to find the difference between the clinical and laboratory variables of surviving and deceased acute colitis horses before the beginning of medical treatment, with the aim to provide a better guideline for determining the prognosis of survival. According to this retrospective study the lethality rate of acute equine colitis was 41.93 %. The time interval from the onset of acute diarrhea to the horse being taken to the clinic was significantly longer in the case of horses which had not survived. The heart rate, hematocrit, blood pH, blood hydrogen carbonate concentration, base excess and HCT/TPP ratio were shown to be significantly related to the survival of horses with colitis. Thus, the hematocrit, appeared to be the most relevant predictor of the outcome of acute equine colitis. Body temperature, respiration rate, total plasma protein and white blood cell count, did not show any prognostic significance.

Keywords

  • horse
  • diarrhea
  • colitis
  • survival
  • prognosis
Open Access

Field Trial on Glucose-Induced Insulin Response in High-Yielding Dairy Cows under Different Environmental Temperatures

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 366 - 382

Abstract

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate glucose-induced insulin response in cows exposed to different temperature-humidity index. Twenty early lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were divided into 2 equal groups based on season, as summer (SU) and spring (SP). SP cows were not exposed to heat stress, while SU cows were exposed to moderate or severe heat stress. Milk production was recorded daily. Starting from day 30 of lactation, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was carried out three times at 30-day intervals. Blood samples were taken before (basal) and after glucose infusion, and glucose and insulin were measured at each sample point. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index was calculated. Milk yield from days 30 to 40 and 64 to 90 of lactation were higher in SP cows than in SU cows. Basal glucose did not differ on days 30 and 60 of lactation, while basal insulin and HOMA were lower in SU compared to SP cows. On day 90 of lactation, SU cows had higher basal glucose, whereas basal insulin and HOMA did not differ. IVGTT results revealed that glucose tolerance was affected by heat stress such that SU cows had higher glucose clearance. Insulin responses to IVGTT did not differ on days 30 and 60 of lactation. Heat stress had a marked effect on insulin secretion on day 90 of lactation, illustrated by higher increments, peak concentrations and area under the curve for insulin in SU cows. Overall, season differences in glucose tolerance depend not only on heat stress and milk production but also on the stage of lactation.

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • heat stress
  • intravenous glucose tolerance test
  • HOMA
Open Access

First Detection and Clinical Presentation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv) in Serbia

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 383 - 396

Abstract

Abstract

During 2015/2016, fecal and intestinal samples from live diseased and/or dead pigs with suspected PEDV and/or TGEV and signs of rotavirus infection were collected from in total seven different farrow-to-finish swine farms located in Northern Serbia region (Vojvodina Province). A total of 14 samples (2 pools per farm) of small intestine with fecal content were submitted to laboratory molecular investigation (multiplex RTPCR). On these farms the clinical signs included the occurrence of diarrhea in suckling and weaned piglets, with weak or no response to the applied antimicrobial therapy. The epidemic of severe diarrhea affecting pigs of all ages on one farrow-to finish swine farm was detected in January 2016. Watery diarrhea in all swine categories was associated with vomiting and a reduction in feed consumption. Diarrheic, gaunt and dehydrated piglets, covered with feces were found in 90% litters. The disease affected most severely the suckling piglets, and the mortality in newborn piglets was up to 35%. In the weaned piglets and fatteners the mortality was up to 2.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The PEDV RNA was detected in pooled feces and samples of small intestines derived from diseased and dead suckling piglets from only one investigated farm. The PEDV positive samples showed to be negative for rotavirus group A and TGEV. The transport vehicles were identified as the main possible route of PEDV introduction. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of PEDV in Serbia.

Keywords

  • Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)
  • swine farm
  • Serbia
Open Access

An Immunohistochemical Study of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (Cart) Expression in the Pterygopalatine Ganglion of the Pig

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 397 - 408

Abstract

Abstract

Although, a great effort has been made to understand the synthesis, regulation, processing and function of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide at the central level, its peripheral function(s) are still obscure. Moreover, scarce studies describing the presence of CART in peripheral autonomic ganglia are mainly limited to laboratory rodents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to immunohistochemically investigate the expression of CART in Hu C/D-positive neurons of the porcine pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG). The distribution pattern of CART-IR nerve elements in PPG has been also assessed. The co-localization of CART with substance P (SP), galanin or somatostatin was studied by means of double immunohistochemical stainings. The presence of Hu C/D-positive/CART-positive neurons was detected both in the left and right PPG (4.7±1.2% and 5.2% ± 1.4%, respectively). The CARTimmunoreactive (IR) neurons were categorized as either middle (ca. 80%) or small (ca. 20%) in size. Moderate numbers of CART-IR boutons were also detected between CART-negative ganglionic neurons. CART-IR basket-like formations around PPG neurons were regularly observed. Virtually all CART-IR neurons additionally co-stored VIP, whereas none of the CART-expressing cells showed the presence of galanin, SP or somatostatin. CART-IR basket-like formations exclusively encircled VIP-IR PPG neurons. Thus, CART-IR nerve cells seem to constitute a relatively small homologous population of the porcine PPG neurons with largely unknown functions. Further functional studies aiming at whether CART-IR neurons could serve as interneurons are necessary.

Keywords

  • autonomic ganglia
  • immunohistochemistry
  • neuropeptides
  • pig
  • pterygopalatine ganglion
Open Access

Effects of Losartan, Tempol, and Their Combination On Renal Nitric Oxide Synthases in the Animal Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 409 - 425

Abstract

Abstract

Down-regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO deficiency in the kidneys have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study we examined the effects of losartan, tempol, and combined treatment on three NOS isoforms expressions, kidney NO content and NOS correlation with renal function and structure in the early stage of adriamycin (ADR)-induced CKD in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rats were divided into control group, and four other groups which were treated with ADR and received vehicle, losartan (L, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker), tempol (T, redox-cycling nitroxide) or T+L treatment (by gavage) in a six-week study. Reduction of all NOS isoforms expressions were significantly improved by losartan or tempol, and correlated with proteinuria amelioration. Combined treatment induced down-regulation of constitutive NOS isoforms, whilst inducible NOS was up-regulated and followed by increased nitrite content and a significant decline in the glomerular filtration rate. Losartan or tempol prevented ADR-induced neoexpression of vimentin in the glomeruli and tubulointerstital areas, whereas de novo vimentin expression was still observed in the atrophic tubules and in the interstitial fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in combined treatment. It can be concluded that single treatments, contrary to combined, were effective in improving NO bioavailability and slowing down the progression of CKD.

Keywords

  • adriamycin nephropathy
  • hypertension
  • nitric oxide synthase
  • losartan
  • tempol
Open Access

IGF1 Gene Polymorphism in Selected Species of the Canidae Family

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 426 - 431

Abstract

Abstract

The gene IGF1 has been shown to have a significant influence on the size of individuals, including animals of the Canidae family. In this study we determined SNP mutations of the IGF1 gene in dogs, raccoon dogs and farmed and free-living red foxes from Poland and Canada. No SNP mutations were noted in dogs or raccoon dogs, but a total of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in foxes, including 12 substitutions, as well as one new mutation missense variant (exon 6) in wild Polish foxes and one synonymous mutation variant in wild foxes from Canada. We identified specific SNP profiles characteristic only for farmed foxes and only for wild foxes, as well as specific SNP profiles or wild foxes from North America (Canada) and from Europe (Poland).

Keywords

  • IGF1
  • SNP
  • dog
  • fox
  • raccoon dog
Open Access

Polyarthritis in Goat-Kids Caused by Streptococcus Equi Subspecies Zooepidemicus

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 432 - 440

Abstract

Abstract

Infectious arthritides in goats is mainly caused by mycoplasmas and Caprine Arthritis- Encephalitis virus (CAEV). Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a member of Lancefield group C beta-hemolytic streptococcus that commonly colonizes the mucous membranes of healthy equids which is also capable to induce different pathological conditions in many animal species. In this paper we described a case of polyarthritis in four Alpine goat-kids caused by S. zooepidemicus. Goat-kids originated from a farm where sheep, llamas, shepherd dogs, cows and horses were kept with goats. During the external examination of carcasses, crusts and discrete hyperemia were seen on the earlobes beneath the ear tag, as well as swollen joints. Necropsy findings included severe fibrinous polyarthritis in all four examined kids. Shoulder, knee and hip joints were affected. From all affected joints S. zooepidemicus was isolated. Neither Mycoplasma spp. nor CAEV genome were detected from the affected joints. Most likely the goatkids were infected with S. zooepidemicus through the lesions on earlobes which were made after the tagging. As a possible source of bacteria, we recognized the horses and dogs. Due to the lack of any signs of illness in other animal species on the farm, as well as negative pathomorphological findings in other organs, we assumed that the isolated strain is highly adapted to goat-kids. Our report is the first described case of polyarthritis in goat-kids caused by S. zooepidemicus.

Keywords

  • goat-kids
  • polyarthritis
  • Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus
Open Access

Elbow Joint Luxation in a Ten Months Old Arabian Colt – A Case Report

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 441 - 448

Abstract

Abstract

Elbow joint luxation without concomitant fracture is uncommon in horses. This paper reports on a case of elbow joint luxation in a ten months old Arabian colt. The horse was presented with a history of an acute onset of non-weight bearing right front limb lameness with edema of the affected region lasting for six days. Radiographic imaging indicated luxation of the elbow joint; however, useful information about the severity of soft tissue involvement was obtained using ultrasonography since bilateral collateral ligaments were completely disrupted. The owner opted for euthanasia and necropsy confirmed the diagnosis. Although very rare, elbow joint luxation should be considered in cases of acute forelimb lameness in young horses.

Keywords

  • collateral ligament
  • elbow joint
  • luxation
  • ultrasound
12 Articles
Open Access

Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis: An Update on Diagnosis and Treatment

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 299 - 317

Abstract

Abstract

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a tick-borne disease of worldwide distribution. The major causative agent is Ehrlichia canis, a gram-negative, obligate intracellular, pleomorphic bacterium of the genus Ehrlichia, which infects monocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes, forming intracytoplasmic, membrane-bound bacterial aggregates, called morulae. After an incubation period of 8-20 days, the course of E. canis infection, can be sequentially divided into acute, subclinical and chronic phases, although these phases can hardly be distinguished in the clinical setting. Clinical recovery is the typical outcome of acutely infected dogs, entering the subclinical phase, during which they show no or minimal clinical signs and/or mild hematological abnormalities. Immunocompetent dogs may eliminate the infection during the acute or subclinical phases, but an unpredictable proportion of dogs will eventually develop the chronic phase, characterized by aplastic pancytopenia and high mortality, due to septicemia and/or severe bleeding. This article outlines briefly the pathogenesis of CME due to E. canis, and more thoroughly reviews the recent scientific literature pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of this devastating disease.

Keywords

  • Ehrlichia canis
  • Canine
  • Dog
  • Tick-borne Diseases
Open Access

Changes in Thyroid Hormones Levels and Metabolism in Dairy Cows around Calving

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 318 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

The hormonal activity of the thyroid gland has an important role in ruminants for the modulation of metabolic variables. In this study changes in thyroid hormones and biochemical parameters in dairy cows around calving were evaluated and the critical thyroid hormones thresholds for predicting the risk of ketosis were estimated. Blood samples were collected from 82 dairy cows at 5±3 days pre-partum and 5±3 days postpartum. Serum values of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), insulin, glucose, Ca, Cl, Mg, P, K, Na, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and urea were evaluated. Signifi cant decrease in the levels of T3, T4 and TSH was found in the postpartum period. The values of T3 and T4 were negatively correlated with NEFA and BHB levels, and TSH values were negatively correlated with NEFA. A critical T3 threshold was found by means of ROC analysis for predicting the risk of ketosis. T3 values < 1.23 nmol/L were associated with BHB > 1.10 mmol/L in postpartum, which represents the BHB threshold commonly used as the indicator of hyperketonaemia. The results confirm that the peripartum period is accompanied by marked changes in circulating thyroid hormone profile that is correlated with lipomobilization predictors.

Keywords

  • dairy cow
  • metabolism
  • thyroid hormone
  • transition period
Open Access

Physiological Effects of Balanced Anesthesia during Dental Procedures in Brown Bears (Ursus Arctos)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 331 - 339

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of the present study was to monitor the physiological effects of a standardized balanced anesthetic protocol in brown bears (Ursus arctos) during routine dental procedures. Physiological parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation) were evaluated in twelve brown bears, anesthetized with a balanced drug combination for 90 minutes during dental procedures. The animals were kept in the „Park for Dancing Bears“ Belitza, Bulgaria. A standardized premedication protocol of a combined intramuscular injection of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (Zoletil 100® Virbac, France) 1mg/kg, medetomidine HCl 0.003mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg of butorphanol was administered intramuscularly. Anesthesia was induced intravenously with a combined bolus of ketamine at 2 mg/kg and propofol at 2 mg/kg, and maintained with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine at 0.8 mg/kg/h and propofol 0.04 at mg/kg/min. Rectal temperature decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas: heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were stable with no significant changes in these parameters for the duration of anesthesia. In conclusion, this anesthetic drug combination is suitable for oral surgery of medium duration in brown bears.

Keywords

  • Ursus arctos
  • balanced anesthesia
  • ketamine
  • propofol
  • medetomidine
  • zolazepam
  • butorphanol
Open Access

Effects of Selenium and Thyroid Hormone Deficiency on Peritoneal Macrophages Adhesion and Occurrence of Natural IGM Antibodies in Juvenile Rats

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 340 - 355

Abstract

Abstract

Both selenium, as an effector and regulator of antioxidative enzymes activity, and thyroid hormones are potent immunomodulators. Besides, selenium incorporated into iodothyronine deiodinases is involved in the thyroid function and thus indirectly regulates the immune response. Studies of the mutual influence of selenium and thyroid hormones on the immune response are scarce, hence we analyzed the effects of an iodothyronine deiodinases blocker, propylthiouracil (PTU), and selenium deficiency on the function of peritoneal macrophages, and titer of naturally occurring anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) IgM antibodies in juvenile rats. The experiment was carried out on 64 Wistar male rats allotted to 4 groups: controlselenium adequate PTU- group; selenium adequate, PTU+ group; selenium defi cient, PTU- group; and selenium defi cient, PTU+. The selenium adequate and selenium defi cient groups were fed a diet containing 0.334 and 0.031 mg Se/kg, respectively. PTU+ groups received PTU (150 mg/L) in drinking water. After 3 weeks, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined. The animals having “intermediate” concentrations of T3 (1.56-1.69 nmol/L) and T4 (41-50 nmol/L) were excluded from further analysis. Thus, PTU+ groups included hypothyroid animals (T3≤1.55 nmol/L; T4≤40 nmol/L), while PTU- groups included euthyroid rats (T3≥1.70 nmol/L; T4≥50 nmol/L). Both groups of selenium deficient rats had, when compared to the control group, a significantly lower activity of glutathione peroxidase GPx1 and GPx3. Neither selenium deficiency nor PTU influenced the adherence of peritoneal macrophages. Selenium deficiency significantly decreased the peroxide synthesis in macrophages and significantly increased the titer of anti-SRBC IgM. Hypotyroidism alone or in combination with selenium deficiency had no influence on these parameters.

Keywords

  • glutathione peroxidase
  • IgM
  • macrophage adherence
  • macrophage peroxide production
  • rats
  • selenium
  • thyroid hormones
Open Access

Survival and Evaluation of Clinical and Laboratory Variables as Prognostic Indicators in Horses Hospitilized with Acute Diarrhea: 342 Cases (1995-2015)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 356 - 365

Abstract

Abstract

A retrospective study was performed on 342 horses with acute diarrhea (equine colitis). Clinical and laboratory data were obtained upon arrival at the equine hospital. The main focus of this study was to find the difference between the clinical and laboratory variables of surviving and deceased acute colitis horses before the beginning of medical treatment, with the aim to provide a better guideline for determining the prognosis of survival. According to this retrospective study the lethality rate of acute equine colitis was 41.93 %. The time interval from the onset of acute diarrhea to the horse being taken to the clinic was significantly longer in the case of horses which had not survived. The heart rate, hematocrit, blood pH, blood hydrogen carbonate concentration, base excess and HCT/TPP ratio were shown to be significantly related to the survival of horses with colitis. Thus, the hematocrit, appeared to be the most relevant predictor of the outcome of acute equine colitis. Body temperature, respiration rate, total plasma protein and white blood cell count, did not show any prognostic significance.

Keywords

  • horse
  • diarrhea
  • colitis
  • survival
  • prognosis
Open Access

Field Trial on Glucose-Induced Insulin Response in High-Yielding Dairy Cows under Different Environmental Temperatures

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 366 - 382

Abstract

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate glucose-induced insulin response in cows exposed to different temperature-humidity index. Twenty early lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were divided into 2 equal groups based on season, as summer (SU) and spring (SP). SP cows were not exposed to heat stress, while SU cows were exposed to moderate or severe heat stress. Milk production was recorded daily. Starting from day 30 of lactation, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was carried out three times at 30-day intervals. Blood samples were taken before (basal) and after glucose infusion, and glucose and insulin were measured at each sample point. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index was calculated. Milk yield from days 30 to 40 and 64 to 90 of lactation were higher in SP cows than in SU cows. Basal glucose did not differ on days 30 and 60 of lactation, while basal insulin and HOMA were lower in SU compared to SP cows. On day 90 of lactation, SU cows had higher basal glucose, whereas basal insulin and HOMA did not differ. IVGTT results revealed that glucose tolerance was affected by heat stress such that SU cows had higher glucose clearance. Insulin responses to IVGTT did not differ on days 30 and 60 of lactation. Heat stress had a marked effect on insulin secretion on day 90 of lactation, illustrated by higher increments, peak concentrations and area under the curve for insulin in SU cows. Overall, season differences in glucose tolerance depend not only on heat stress and milk production but also on the stage of lactation.

Keywords

  • dairy cows
  • heat stress
  • intravenous glucose tolerance test
  • HOMA
Open Access

First Detection and Clinical Presentation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv) in Serbia

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 383 - 396

Abstract

Abstract

During 2015/2016, fecal and intestinal samples from live diseased and/or dead pigs with suspected PEDV and/or TGEV and signs of rotavirus infection were collected from in total seven different farrow-to-finish swine farms located in Northern Serbia region (Vojvodina Province). A total of 14 samples (2 pools per farm) of small intestine with fecal content were submitted to laboratory molecular investigation (multiplex RTPCR). On these farms the clinical signs included the occurrence of diarrhea in suckling and weaned piglets, with weak or no response to the applied antimicrobial therapy. The epidemic of severe diarrhea affecting pigs of all ages on one farrow-to finish swine farm was detected in January 2016. Watery diarrhea in all swine categories was associated with vomiting and a reduction in feed consumption. Diarrheic, gaunt and dehydrated piglets, covered with feces were found in 90% litters. The disease affected most severely the suckling piglets, and the mortality in newborn piglets was up to 35%. In the weaned piglets and fatteners the mortality was up to 2.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The PEDV RNA was detected in pooled feces and samples of small intestines derived from diseased and dead suckling piglets from only one investigated farm. The PEDV positive samples showed to be negative for rotavirus group A and TGEV. The transport vehicles were identified as the main possible route of PEDV introduction. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of PEDV in Serbia.

Keywords

  • Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)
  • swine farm
  • Serbia
Open Access

An Immunohistochemical Study of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (Cart) Expression in the Pterygopalatine Ganglion of the Pig

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 397 - 408

Abstract

Abstract

Although, a great effort has been made to understand the synthesis, regulation, processing and function of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide at the central level, its peripheral function(s) are still obscure. Moreover, scarce studies describing the presence of CART in peripheral autonomic ganglia are mainly limited to laboratory rodents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to immunohistochemically investigate the expression of CART in Hu C/D-positive neurons of the porcine pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG). The distribution pattern of CART-IR nerve elements in PPG has been also assessed. The co-localization of CART with substance P (SP), galanin or somatostatin was studied by means of double immunohistochemical stainings. The presence of Hu C/D-positive/CART-positive neurons was detected both in the left and right PPG (4.7±1.2% and 5.2% ± 1.4%, respectively). The CARTimmunoreactive (IR) neurons were categorized as either middle (ca. 80%) or small (ca. 20%) in size. Moderate numbers of CART-IR boutons were also detected between CART-negative ganglionic neurons. CART-IR basket-like formations around PPG neurons were regularly observed. Virtually all CART-IR neurons additionally co-stored VIP, whereas none of the CART-expressing cells showed the presence of galanin, SP or somatostatin. CART-IR basket-like formations exclusively encircled VIP-IR PPG neurons. Thus, CART-IR nerve cells seem to constitute a relatively small homologous population of the porcine PPG neurons with largely unknown functions. Further functional studies aiming at whether CART-IR neurons could serve as interneurons are necessary.

Keywords

  • autonomic ganglia
  • immunohistochemistry
  • neuropeptides
  • pig
  • pterygopalatine ganglion
Open Access

Effects of Losartan, Tempol, and Their Combination On Renal Nitric Oxide Synthases in the Animal Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 409 - 425

Abstract

Abstract

Down-regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO deficiency in the kidneys have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study we examined the effects of losartan, tempol, and combined treatment on three NOS isoforms expressions, kidney NO content and NOS correlation with renal function and structure in the early stage of adriamycin (ADR)-induced CKD in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rats were divided into control group, and four other groups which were treated with ADR and received vehicle, losartan (L, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker), tempol (T, redox-cycling nitroxide) or T+L treatment (by gavage) in a six-week study. Reduction of all NOS isoforms expressions were significantly improved by losartan or tempol, and correlated with proteinuria amelioration. Combined treatment induced down-regulation of constitutive NOS isoforms, whilst inducible NOS was up-regulated and followed by increased nitrite content and a significant decline in the glomerular filtration rate. Losartan or tempol prevented ADR-induced neoexpression of vimentin in the glomeruli and tubulointerstital areas, whereas de novo vimentin expression was still observed in the atrophic tubules and in the interstitial fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in combined treatment. It can be concluded that single treatments, contrary to combined, were effective in improving NO bioavailability and slowing down the progression of CKD.

Keywords

  • adriamycin nephropathy
  • hypertension
  • nitric oxide synthase
  • losartan
  • tempol
Open Access

IGF1 Gene Polymorphism in Selected Species of the Canidae Family

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 426 - 431

Abstract

Abstract

The gene IGF1 has been shown to have a significant influence on the size of individuals, including animals of the Canidae family. In this study we determined SNP mutations of the IGF1 gene in dogs, raccoon dogs and farmed and free-living red foxes from Poland and Canada. No SNP mutations were noted in dogs or raccoon dogs, but a total of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in foxes, including 12 substitutions, as well as one new mutation missense variant (exon 6) in wild Polish foxes and one synonymous mutation variant in wild foxes from Canada. We identified specific SNP profiles characteristic only for farmed foxes and only for wild foxes, as well as specific SNP profiles or wild foxes from North America (Canada) and from Europe (Poland).

Keywords

  • IGF1
  • SNP
  • dog
  • fox
  • raccoon dog
Open Access

Polyarthritis in Goat-Kids Caused by Streptococcus Equi Subspecies Zooepidemicus

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 432 - 440

Abstract

Abstract

Infectious arthritides in goats is mainly caused by mycoplasmas and Caprine Arthritis- Encephalitis virus (CAEV). Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a member of Lancefield group C beta-hemolytic streptococcus that commonly colonizes the mucous membranes of healthy equids which is also capable to induce different pathological conditions in many animal species. In this paper we described a case of polyarthritis in four Alpine goat-kids caused by S. zooepidemicus. Goat-kids originated from a farm where sheep, llamas, shepherd dogs, cows and horses were kept with goats. During the external examination of carcasses, crusts and discrete hyperemia were seen on the earlobes beneath the ear tag, as well as swollen joints. Necropsy findings included severe fibrinous polyarthritis in all four examined kids. Shoulder, knee and hip joints were affected. From all affected joints S. zooepidemicus was isolated. Neither Mycoplasma spp. nor CAEV genome were detected from the affected joints. Most likely the goatkids were infected with S. zooepidemicus through the lesions on earlobes which were made after the tagging. As a possible source of bacteria, we recognized the horses and dogs. Due to the lack of any signs of illness in other animal species on the farm, as well as negative pathomorphological findings in other organs, we assumed that the isolated strain is highly adapted to goat-kids. Our report is the first described case of polyarthritis in goat-kids caused by S. zooepidemicus.

Keywords

  • goat-kids
  • polyarthritis
  • Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus
Open Access

Elbow Joint Luxation in a Ten Months Old Arabian Colt – A Case Report

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Page range: 441 - 448

Abstract

Abstract

Elbow joint luxation without concomitant fracture is uncommon in horses. This paper reports on a case of elbow joint luxation in a ten months old Arabian colt. The horse was presented with a history of an acute onset of non-weight bearing right front limb lameness with edema of the affected region lasting for six days. Radiographic imaging indicated luxation of the elbow joint; however, useful information about the severity of soft tissue involvement was obtained using ultrasonography since bilateral collateral ligaments were completely disrupted. The owner opted for euthanasia and necropsy confirmed the diagnosis. Although very rare, elbow joint luxation should be considered in cases of acute forelimb lameness in young horses.

Keywords

  • collateral ligament
  • elbow joint
  • luxation
  • ultrasound

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