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Volume 71 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

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Volume 68 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

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Volume 67 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

12 Articles
Open Access

Pulmonary Hypertension in the Dog

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 1 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

Canine pulmonary hypertension is a clinical condition that needs to be adequately investigated and recognised because of the lack of specific clinical signs, the potential for rapid and irreversible deterioration of pulmonary vascular function and the development of right-sided heart failure. In recent years, many studies have been published on pulmonary hypertension, improving the understanding of its pathophysiology, the accuracy of diagnostic tests and the management of affected patients. This article provides updated information on pulmonary hypertension and serves as a resource for veterinarians regarding the interpretation of diagnostic tests and the clinical management of affected dogs.

Keywords

  • Canine
  • echocardiography
  • heart
  • phosphodiesterase inhibitors
  • pulmonary arterial hypertension
Open Access

Effects of Acute Administration of D,L-Homocysteine Thiolactone on the Antioxidative Status of Rat Intestine and Liver

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 26 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Oxidative stress appears to play a role in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Increased homocysteine levels may play a role in the pathogenesis of Chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of homocysteine on the antioxidant status of rat intestine and liver. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), activity of catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were investigated in the isolated gut and liver of young male rats in the control group (8 rats) and after 3-hоur incubation in high doses of D, L-homocysteine thionolactone (Hcy) (10 μmol/L) (8 rats). Samples of duodenum, ileum, colon and liver were homogenized in sodium phosphate buffer (1:10). Homogenates were centrifuged at 10000 for 10 min at 4° C and the supernatant was taken for biochemical assays. Our results showed that high D, L-homocysteine thionolactone concentration reduced enzymatic catalase activity in homogenates of the isolated segments of duodenum (27.04%) p<0.01; ileum (37.27%), colon (34.17%) and liver (67.46%) p<0.001. Exposition to high D,L-homocysteine thiolactone concentration significantly increased TBARS levels in the duodenum (106.05%), ileum (47.24%), colon (112.75%) and liver (32.07%) (p<0.01). Homocysteine also modifi ed the total antioxidant status of homogenates from the duodenum, ileum, colon and liver, increasing by 20.68% (duodenum), 24.74% (ileum), 14.88% (colon) and 19.35% (liver) (p<0.001). Homocysteine induced a consistent oxidative stress in rat’s intestine and liver (reduced activity of catalase and increased level of TBARS), but the elevated activity of TAS in our experiments could be explained as an adaptive response to the generated free radicals which indicates the failure of the total antioxidant defense mechanism to protect the tissues from damage caused by homocysteine.

Keywords

  • antioxidant enzymes
  • homocysteine
  • lipid peroxidation
  • oxidative stress
Open Access

The Role of Apoptosis and Autophagy in Bovine Abortions Associated with Brucella Spp

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 37 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

This study is aimed to evaluate the relationship between the severity of apoptotic and autophagic cell death based on the distribution of Brucella spp. antigens in the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart, skeletal muscle, mesenteric lymph node, and thymus tissue from bovine fetuses aborted due to natural infection with Brucella spp. The distribution of Brucella spp. antigens was immunohistochemically examined in the tissues of 16 aborted fetuses from cattle diagnosed with Brucella spp. infection by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, immunostaining of primary antibodies for cleaved caspase 3 was performed to detect apoptosis, and immunostaining of Microtubule Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 Beta (LC3B) was used to detect autophagy in the Brucella spp.- related abortions. Analysis of cellular death revealed strong immunopositivity in the lung, spleen, kidney, and thymus, moderate immunopositivity in the liver, mesenterial lymph nodes, and heart muscle and slight immunopositivity in the brain and skeletal muscle by staining of Brucellaspp. antigens. According to the immunohistochemical results, the immunopositivity of cleaved caspase 3 and LC3B was extremely high in the lung, thymus, spleen, kidney, and liver tissues. The immunostaining of cleaved caspase 3 in the lung, thymus, and kidney tissues was severe compared to that of LC3B. In the liver, spleen, and mesenterial lymph nodes, the immunopositivity of LC3B was higher than that of cleaved caspase 3. Bacterial antigens were highly evident in the lung, spleen, kidney, and thymus tissues of Brucella spp.-related bovine abortions, and both apoptosis and autophagy played a role in cellular death.

Keywords

  • Brucella spp.
  • cleaved caspase 3
  • immunohistochemistry
  • LC3B
Open Access

Molecular Detection of PCV2 And PPV in Pigs in Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 51 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

The presence of porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus was examined in forty clinical samples of spleen, lymph nodes and lungs originating from non-vaccinated swine by polymerase chain reaction. All animals were reared in extensive livestock farming systems in different geographical districts of Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Porcine circovirus 2 DNA was detected in four lymph node and two spleen samples (15%), while porcine parvovirus DNA was identified in five lymph node samples (12.5%). The presence of both viruses was detected in three lymph node samples (7.5%). Partial nucleotide sequence of ORF1 gene of 2 porcine circovirus 2 and VP2 gene of 2 porcine parvovirus isolates was determined. The nucleotide sequences of two PCV2 isolates from RS-BIH included in phylogenetic typing are similar and cluster together with the strain Mantova isolated from domestic pigs in Italy, strains DE006-14 and DE222-13 isolated from pigs in Germany as well as with the strain Jvnan isolated from pigs in China. Also, analyzed PCV2 isolates were partially similar to the strain NIV-C SRB isolated from pigs in Serbia. The nucleotide sequences of two PPV isolates that were included in phylogenetic typing showed a high level of similarity with the strain Challenge isolated from pigs in UK, strain Kresse isolated from pigs in USA and strains 77 and LZ isolated from pigs in China.

Keywords

  • porcine circovirus 2
  • porcine parvovirus
  • nucleotide sequence
  • Republic of Srpska
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
Open Access

Placental Iodothyronine Deiodinases Expression in Pregnant Cows Exposed to Propylthiouracil (Ptu) and Thyroid Axis Activity of their Calves

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 61 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of our study was to investigate if the thyroid axis of newborn calves is affected by prenatal application of propylthyouracil (PTU). The study included 20 late pregnant Holstein cows. One group (n=10) was treated with PTU (4 mg/kg of BW daily) from day 20 before expected calving until the day of calving. The other group (n=10) was non-treated. Placental samples of dams were obtained for measuring mRNA expression of iodothyronine deiodinases type I (D1), type II (D2) and type III (D3). After parturition calves were separated from the dams and included in the study. Blood samples were taken daily from each calf starting on the day of birth until day 7 of age. Blood T3, T4 and TSH concentrations were measured. PCR analysis of the placental tissue revealed an abundance of all three types of placental deiodinases in non-treated cows, and a significant elevation of mRNA levels for all three types of deiodinases after PTU treatment. Calves that originated from dams treated with PTU had significantly lower T3 and T4 and significantly higher TSH concentrations compared to non-treated calves during the first 2 days of life. Starting from day 4 until day 6 of life the opposite effect was observed meaning that calves prenatally exposed to PTU had significantly higher T3 and T4 and slightly lower TSH. Our study, for the first time, provides information related to iodothyronine deiodinases mRNA expression in bovine placenta, and confirm that PTU treatment of pregnant dams provokes depression of thyroid function in newborns during the first days of life.

Keywords

  • cows
  • placental deiodinases
  • neonate
  • thyroid axis
  • PTU
Open Access

Post-Mortem Estimation of Time of Death of Dogs Based on Measurements of Kidney Temperature in Comparison with Rectal Temperature

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 76 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the study were dogs divided into two groups according to body weight: up to 10 kg and from 10 kg to 30 kg. The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics of the post-mortem decrease in rectal and kidney temperature. The temperature was measured on both sites at the same time using a thermometer connected to a computer, under constant environmental conditions of the necropsy room. In these animals, a higher temperature in the kidneys persisted for the duration of the study. Comparative analysis between mean differences in kidney and rectal temperature in small and large dogs showed the greatest temperature amplitude in the group of small dogs, both for the kidney and the rectum. The greatest decrease in temperature, 1.2°C, was noted for the kidney in small dogs between 4 and 6 hours after death. Analysis of the dynamics of the decrease in kidney and rectal temperature for both weight groups combined, and the difference in temperature between the kidney and the rectum in the time intervals analysed showed that in the first two hours the difference between kidney and rectal temperature did not exceed 0.5°C. Two hours after death the difference in temperature between the two measurement sites was about 0.5°C after which time dropped below 0.5ºC.

Keywords

  • signs of death in animals
  • time of death of animals
  • veterinary forensics
Open Access

Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentration in Tissues of Three Different Fish Species Included in Human Diet from Danube River

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 89 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was the investigation of water, sediments and fish tissues contamination with heavy metals. All samples were taken from the Danube River in Belgrade region, a location upstream from Batajnica. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples were not detected, while concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu and As were in the range of 0.004 - 0.330 mg L-1. Iron was the most deposited metal in sediment samples in contrast to water samples where all investigated metals were detected. For the purpose of heavy metals determination in fresh fish tissue, fifteen samples of three different fish species, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and wels catfish (Silurus glanis) were collected. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined in the digestive tract, liver and muscle by absorption spectroscopy. The highest concentration of Pb was in the digestive tract in all three fish species, ranging from 0.036 to 1.518 μg g-1, while Cd was mostly deposited in the liver. Concentrations of As were in the range of 0.36 - 0.73 μg g-1 in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, 0.013 - 0.18 μg g-1 in Cyprinus carpio and 0.003 - 0.005 μg g-1 in Silurus glanis tissues, while the content of Hg was equal in all tested tissues of carp. Concentrations of all metals were found to be present in the fish samples at different levels, but these values are under the maximum residual levels prescribed by the European Union (EU) and the maximum allowed concentrations (MAC) for Serbia, so the fish meat is acceptable for the human consumption.

Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • bioaccumulation
  • sediments
  • fish
  • Danube river
Open Access

L-Arginine-No System Participates in the Analgesic Effect of Flunixin Meglumine in the Rat

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 103 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

This study investigated whether the L-arginine-NO system participates in the analgesic effect of flunixin meglumine in the rat. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of carrageenan (500 μg) into the rat’s hind paw. Electronic von Frey apparatus was used to determine paw withdrawal threshold induced by pressure as the painful stimulus, measured in grams (g). Flunixin meglumine (FM; 0.09-0.1 mg/kg; s.c.) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg; i.p.), given separately as a pre-treatment, i.e. 15 min before i.pl. injection of carrageenan, produced a significant antinociception. When FM (0.09 mg/kg) and a sub-effective dose of L-NAME (5 mg/kg) were co-administered, the antinociceptive effect was significantly increased in comparison with the effect of FM alone. L-arginine (L-ARG;10 mg/kg; i.p.) itself did not produce significant effect on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, but significantly reduced the antinociceptive effects of both FM and FM + L-NAME combination. The inhibition of the production of NO might be involved in the mechanism of the analgesic effect of FM.

Keywords

  • Flunixin meglumine
  • L-NAME
  • L-arginine
  • carrageenan
  • hyperalgesia
Open Access

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Selected Treatments of Nosema Spp. Infection by the Hemocytometric Method and Duplex Pcr

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 115 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

Recent years have witnessed an increase in the mortality of honey bees in many regions of the world. The observed decrease in the bee population results from a combination of factors, and microsporidian parasites Nosema apis and N. ceranae are among the main contributors. Those parasites cause a microsporidian infection that shortens the lifespan of bees and reduces the productivity of bee colonies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Nozevit, Api Herb and ApiX (acetylsalicylic acid + Artemisia absinthium L. extract) in the control of infections caused by Nosema spp. in a field experiment. Two groups of worker bees were evaluated - hive bees and forager bees returning to the hive. The effect of the analyzed therapies on the number of spores and the microsporidia species were analyzed by the hemocytometric method and duplex PCR. A statistical analysis revealed that the applied treatments had reduced the number of spores by 31.15% on average. In hive bees, Nosema spp. infection was most effectively reduced by Nozevit (67.85%) and ApiX (63.36%). Coinfections (N. ceranae and N. apis) were affirmed in all bee samples before treatments. However, after the treatments, single infection of N. apis and N. ceranae were detected. The tested treatments were more effective in the control of N. apis than N. ceranae.

Keywords

  • Nosemosis control
  • N. apis
  • N. ceranae
  • honey bees
Open Access

Effects of BF Gene Polymorphism on the Reproductive Performance of Hybrid Polish Landrace X Polish Large White Sows

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 125 - 131

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the potential relationship between variants of the BF gene and litter size in Polish Landrace x Polish Large White sows. To identify polymorphism within the BF gene, the PCR-RFLP method was applied, using specific primers and the SmaI enzyme. The researchers identified the presence of two alleles, T and C, with frequencies: 0.68 and 0.32, giving three genotypes with frequencies: 0.49, 0.37 and 0.14, respectively for TT, TC and CC. Analysis of relationships between the various genotypes of the BF gene and selected reproductive traits showed significant differences. Sows with TT genotype in the BF locus, gave birth to significantly more live piglets in the first litter (10.24) compared with sows with the CC genotype (7.13).

Keywords

  • pig
  • BF gene
  • reproduction
  • SNP
  • litter size
Open Access

Comparison of M.Semitendinosus Morphometry and Structure in Gilts and Barrows at Market Age

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 132 - 137

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to investigate the differences in morphometric characteristics and histological structure of m. semitendinosus, between gilts and barrows of German Landrace breed at the end of the fattening period. Morphometric characteristics (weight, length, diameter and cross sectional area) of m. semitendinosus were not significantly different, while gender as a factor influenced the histological properties of this muscle. A very high statistical difference (p<0.01) in the total number of muscle fibers in m. semitendinosus was determined, with gilts having a higher total fiber number. The cross sectional area of fast twitch oxidative (FTO) fibers was significantly higher (p<0.05) in barrows. Gender did not affect the distribution of different fiber types: in both gender, the most present fiber types (48-52 %) were fast twitch glycolitic (FTG), FTO fibers represented 27-30 % of the total fiber number, while slow twitch oxidative fibers (STO) were the least represented (≈ 20 %).

Keywords

  • gender
  • fiber types
  • muscle composition
  • fattening
  • pigs
Open Access

Haemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome in Fattenig Pigs

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 138 - 146

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this work was to determine the possible causes of sudden death in fattening pigs associated with haemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) in a commercial pig farm (Eastern Slovakia). The etiology and pathogenesis of haemorrhagic bowel syndrome is not clearly defined within the scientific community. For this reason, clinical examination and sampling from 90 kg finisher pigs was done. Samples of blood, faeces, and rectal swabs were taken for haematological, serological, bacteriological, virological, and parasitological examination. Necropsy and sampling was also conducted on the carcasses of 90 kg finisher pigs that died peracutely during the investigation period. Three weeks later, during slaughter of the same group of pigs, goal-directed investigation and sampling from the gastrointestinal system for histological examination was performed. Results show the presence of bloody diarrhoea caused by L. intracellularis, C. perfringens typ A and haemolytic E. coli. Inflammation and loss of blood led to moderate normochromic (haemoglobin 12.85±0.95 g.dl-1) normocytic anaemia (erythrocytes 3.38±0.17 T.l-1), hydremia (haematocrit 0.17±0.01 l.l-1) and mild leukocytosis (18.7±4.68 G.l-1). Diagnostic necropsy confirmed the picture of “haemorrhagic bowel syndrome„ caused by infection and subsequent enterotoxemia without presence of gastric or intestinal displacement. Slaughter examination showed picture of proliferative ileitis typical for L. intracellularis. On the basis of our examinations, a major role in haemorrhagic bowel syndrome played infectious agents such as L. intracellularis, C. perfringens typ A and haemolytic E. coli. Negative findings of salmonellosis, dysentery, feed mycotoxins, intestinal parasites, and pollution of drinking water exclude these factors from the etiology of haemorrhagic bowel syndrome.

Keywords

  • fattening pigs
  • haemorrhagic bowel syndrome
12 Articles
Open Access

Pulmonary Hypertension in the Dog

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 1 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

Canine pulmonary hypertension is a clinical condition that needs to be adequately investigated and recognised because of the lack of specific clinical signs, the potential for rapid and irreversible deterioration of pulmonary vascular function and the development of right-sided heart failure. In recent years, many studies have been published on pulmonary hypertension, improving the understanding of its pathophysiology, the accuracy of diagnostic tests and the management of affected patients. This article provides updated information on pulmonary hypertension and serves as a resource for veterinarians regarding the interpretation of diagnostic tests and the clinical management of affected dogs.

Keywords

  • Canine
  • echocardiography
  • heart
  • phosphodiesterase inhibitors
  • pulmonary arterial hypertension
Open Access

Effects of Acute Administration of D,L-Homocysteine Thiolactone on the Antioxidative Status of Rat Intestine and Liver

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 26 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Oxidative stress appears to play a role in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. Increased homocysteine levels may play a role in the pathogenesis of Chron’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of homocysteine on the antioxidant status of rat intestine and liver. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), activity of catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were investigated in the isolated gut and liver of young male rats in the control group (8 rats) and after 3-hоur incubation in high doses of D, L-homocysteine thionolactone (Hcy) (10 μmol/L) (8 rats). Samples of duodenum, ileum, colon and liver were homogenized in sodium phosphate buffer (1:10). Homogenates were centrifuged at 10000 for 10 min at 4° C and the supernatant was taken for biochemical assays. Our results showed that high D, L-homocysteine thionolactone concentration reduced enzymatic catalase activity in homogenates of the isolated segments of duodenum (27.04%) p<0.01; ileum (37.27%), colon (34.17%) and liver (67.46%) p<0.001. Exposition to high D,L-homocysteine thiolactone concentration significantly increased TBARS levels in the duodenum (106.05%), ileum (47.24%), colon (112.75%) and liver (32.07%) (p<0.01). Homocysteine also modifi ed the total antioxidant status of homogenates from the duodenum, ileum, colon and liver, increasing by 20.68% (duodenum), 24.74% (ileum), 14.88% (colon) and 19.35% (liver) (p<0.001). Homocysteine induced a consistent oxidative stress in rat’s intestine and liver (reduced activity of catalase and increased level of TBARS), but the elevated activity of TAS in our experiments could be explained as an adaptive response to the generated free radicals which indicates the failure of the total antioxidant defense mechanism to protect the tissues from damage caused by homocysteine.

Keywords

  • antioxidant enzymes
  • homocysteine
  • lipid peroxidation
  • oxidative stress
Open Access

The Role of Apoptosis and Autophagy in Bovine Abortions Associated with Brucella Spp

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 37 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

This study is aimed to evaluate the relationship between the severity of apoptotic and autophagic cell death based on the distribution of Brucella spp. antigens in the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart, skeletal muscle, mesenteric lymph node, and thymus tissue from bovine fetuses aborted due to natural infection with Brucella spp. The distribution of Brucella spp. antigens was immunohistochemically examined in the tissues of 16 aborted fetuses from cattle diagnosed with Brucella spp. infection by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, immunostaining of primary antibodies for cleaved caspase 3 was performed to detect apoptosis, and immunostaining of Microtubule Associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 Beta (LC3B) was used to detect autophagy in the Brucella spp.- related abortions. Analysis of cellular death revealed strong immunopositivity in the lung, spleen, kidney, and thymus, moderate immunopositivity in the liver, mesenterial lymph nodes, and heart muscle and slight immunopositivity in the brain and skeletal muscle by staining of Brucellaspp. antigens. According to the immunohistochemical results, the immunopositivity of cleaved caspase 3 and LC3B was extremely high in the lung, thymus, spleen, kidney, and liver tissues. The immunostaining of cleaved caspase 3 in the lung, thymus, and kidney tissues was severe compared to that of LC3B. In the liver, spleen, and mesenterial lymph nodes, the immunopositivity of LC3B was higher than that of cleaved caspase 3. Bacterial antigens were highly evident in the lung, spleen, kidney, and thymus tissues of Brucella spp.-related bovine abortions, and both apoptosis and autophagy played a role in cellular death.

Keywords

  • Brucella spp.
  • cleaved caspase 3
  • immunohistochemistry
  • LC3B
Open Access

Molecular Detection of PCV2 And PPV in Pigs in Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 51 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

The presence of porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus was examined in forty clinical samples of spleen, lymph nodes and lungs originating from non-vaccinated swine by polymerase chain reaction. All animals were reared in extensive livestock farming systems in different geographical districts of Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Porcine circovirus 2 DNA was detected in four lymph node and two spleen samples (15%), while porcine parvovirus DNA was identified in five lymph node samples (12.5%). The presence of both viruses was detected in three lymph node samples (7.5%). Partial nucleotide sequence of ORF1 gene of 2 porcine circovirus 2 and VP2 gene of 2 porcine parvovirus isolates was determined. The nucleotide sequences of two PCV2 isolates from RS-BIH included in phylogenetic typing are similar and cluster together with the strain Mantova isolated from domestic pigs in Italy, strains DE006-14 and DE222-13 isolated from pigs in Germany as well as with the strain Jvnan isolated from pigs in China. Also, analyzed PCV2 isolates were partially similar to the strain NIV-C SRB isolated from pigs in Serbia. The nucleotide sequences of two PPV isolates that were included in phylogenetic typing showed a high level of similarity with the strain Challenge isolated from pigs in UK, strain Kresse isolated from pigs in USA and strains 77 and LZ isolated from pigs in China.

Keywords

  • porcine circovirus 2
  • porcine parvovirus
  • nucleotide sequence
  • Republic of Srpska
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
Open Access

Placental Iodothyronine Deiodinases Expression in Pregnant Cows Exposed to Propylthiouracil (Ptu) and Thyroid Axis Activity of their Calves

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 61 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of our study was to investigate if the thyroid axis of newborn calves is affected by prenatal application of propylthyouracil (PTU). The study included 20 late pregnant Holstein cows. One group (n=10) was treated with PTU (4 mg/kg of BW daily) from day 20 before expected calving until the day of calving. The other group (n=10) was non-treated. Placental samples of dams were obtained for measuring mRNA expression of iodothyronine deiodinases type I (D1), type II (D2) and type III (D3). After parturition calves were separated from the dams and included in the study. Blood samples were taken daily from each calf starting on the day of birth until day 7 of age. Blood T3, T4 and TSH concentrations were measured. PCR analysis of the placental tissue revealed an abundance of all three types of placental deiodinases in non-treated cows, and a significant elevation of mRNA levels for all three types of deiodinases after PTU treatment. Calves that originated from dams treated with PTU had significantly lower T3 and T4 and significantly higher TSH concentrations compared to non-treated calves during the first 2 days of life. Starting from day 4 until day 6 of life the opposite effect was observed meaning that calves prenatally exposed to PTU had significantly higher T3 and T4 and slightly lower TSH. Our study, for the first time, provides information related to iodothyronine deiodinases mRNA expression in bovine placenta, and confirm that PTU treatment of pregnant dams provokes depression of thyroid function in newborns during the first days of life.

Keywords

  • cows
  • placental deiodinases
  • neonate
  • thyroid axis
  • PTU
Open Access

Post-Mortem Estimation of Time of Death of Dogs Based on Measurements of Kidney Temperature in Comparison with Rectal Temperature

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 76 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the study were dogs divided into two groups according to body weight: up to 10 kg and from 10 kg to 30 kg. The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics of the post-mortem decrease in rectal and kidney temperature. The temperature was measured on both sites at the same time using a thermometer connected to a computer, under constant environmental conditions of the necropsy room. In these animals, a higher temperature in the kidneys persisted for the duration of the study. Comparative analysis between mean differences in kidney and rectal temperature in small and large dogs showed the greatest temperature amplitude in the group of small dogs, both for the kidney and the rectum. The greatest decrease in temperature, 1.2°C, was noted for the kidney in small dogs between 4 and 6 hours after death. Analysis of the dynamics of the decrease in kidney and rectal temperature for both weight groups combined, and the difference in temperature between the kidney and the rectum in the time intervals analysed showed that in the first two hours the difference between kidney and rectal temperature did not exceed 0.5°C. Two hours after death the difference in temperature between the two measurement sites was about 0.5°C after which time dropped below 0.5ºC.

Keywords

  • signs of death in animals
  • time of death of animals
  • veterinary forensics
Open Access

Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentration in Tissues of Three Different Fish Species Included in Human Diet from Danube River

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 89 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was the investigation of water, sediments and fish tissues contamination with heavy metals. All samples were taken from the Danube River in Belgrade region, a location upstream from Batajnica. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples were not detected, while concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu and As were in the range of 0.004 - 0.330 mg L-1. Iron was the most deposited metal in sediment samples in contrast to water samples where all investigated metals were detected. For the purpose of heavy metals determination in fresh fish tissue, fifteen samples of three different fish species, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and wels catfish (Silurus glanis) were collected. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined in the digestive tract, liver and muscle by absorption spectroscopy. The highest concentration of Pb was in the digestive tract in all three fish species, ranging from 0.036 to 1.518 μg g-1, while Cd was mostly deposited in the liver. Concentrations of As were in the range of 0.36 - 0.73 μg g-1 in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, 0.013 - 0.18 μg g-1 in Cyprinus carpio and 0.003 - 0.005 μg g-1 in Silurus glanis tissues, while the content of Hg was equal in all tested tissues of carp. Concentrations of all metals were found to be present in the fish samples at different levels, but these values are under the maximum residual levels prescribed by the European Union (EU) and the maximum allowed concentrations (MAC) for Serbia, so the fish meat is acceptable for the human consumption.

Keywords

  • heavy metals
  • bioaccumulation
  • sediments
  • fish
  • Danube river
Open Access

L-Arginine-No System Participates in the Analgesic Effect of Flunixin Meglumine in the Rat

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 103 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

This study investigated whether the L-arginine-NO system participates in the analgesic effect of flunixin meglumine in the rat. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of carrageenan (500 μg) into the rat’s hind paw. Electronic von Frey apparatus was used to determine paw withdrawal threshold induced by pressure as the painful stimulus, measured in grams (g). Flunixin meglumine (FM; 0.09-0.1 mg/kg; s.c.) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg; i.p.), given separately as a pre-treatment, i.e. 15 min before i.pl. injection of carrageenan, produced a significant antinociception. When FM (0.09 mg/kg) and a sub-effective dose of L-NAME (5 mg/kg) were co-administered, the antinociceptive effect was significantly increased in comparison with the effect of FM alone. L-arginine (L-ARG;10 mg/kg; i.p.) itself did not produce significant effect on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, but significantly reduced the antinociceptive effects of both FM and FM + L-NAME combination. The inhibition of the production of NO might be involved in the mechanism of the analgesic effect of FM.

Keywords

  • Flunixin meglumine
  • L-NAME
  • L-arginine
  • carrageenan
  • hyperalgesia
Open Access

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Selected Treatments of Nosema Spp. Infection by the Hemocytometric Method and Duplex Pcr

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 115 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

Recent years have witnessed an increase in the mortality of honey bees in many regions of the world. The observed decrease in the bee population results from a combination of factors, and microsporidian parasites Nosema apis and N. ceranae are among the main contributors. Those parasites cause a microsporidian infection that shortens the lifespan of bees and reduces the productivity of bee colonies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Nozevit, Api Herb and ApiX (acetylsalicylic acid + Artemisia absinthium L. extract) in the control of infections caused by Nosema spp. in a field experiment. Two groups of worker bees were evaluated - hive bees and forager bees returning to the hive. The effect of the analyzed therapies on the number of spores and the microsporidia species were analyzed by the hemocytometric method and duplex PCR. A statistical analysis revealed that the applied treatments had reduced the number of spores by 31.15% on average. In hive bees, Nosema spp. infection was most effectively reduced by Nozevit (67.85%) and ApiX (63.36%). Coinfections (N. ceranae and N. apis) were affirmed in all bee samples before treatments. However, after the treatments, single infection of N. apis and N. ceranae were detected. The tested treatments were more effective in the control of N. apis than N. ceranae.

Keywords

  • Nosemosis control
  • N. apis
  • N. ceranae
  • honey bees
Open Access

Effects of BF Gene Polymorphism on the Reproductive Performance of Hybrid Polish Landrace X Polish Large White Sows

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 125 - 131

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the potential relationship between variants of the BF gene and litter size in Polish Landrace x Polish Large White sows. To identify polymorphism within the BF gene, the PCR-RFLP method was applied, using specific primers and the SmaI enzyme. The researchers identified the presence of two alleles, T and C, with frequencies: 0.68 and 0.32, giving three genotypes with frequencies: 0.49, 0.37 and 0.14, respectively for TT, TC and CC. Analysis of relationships between the various genotypes of the BF gene and selected reproductive traits showed significant differences. Sows with TT genotype in the BF locus, gave birth to significantly more live piglets in the first litter (10.24) compared with sows with the CC genotype (7.13).

Keywords

  • pig
  • BF gene
  • reproduction
  • SNP
  • litter size
Open Access

Comparison of M.Semitendinosus Morphometry and Structure in Gilts and Barrows at Market Age

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 132 - 137

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to investigate the differences in morphometric characteristics and histological structure of m. semitendinosus, between gilts and barrows of German Landrace breed at the end of the fattening period. Morphometric characteristics (weight, length, diameter and cross sectional area) of m. semitendinosus were not significantly different, while gender as a factor influenced the histological properties of this muscle. A very high statistical difference (p<0.01) in the total number of muscle fibers in m. semitendinosus was determined, with gilts having a higher total fiber number. The cross sectional area of fast twitch oxidative (FTO) fibers was significantly higher (p<0.05) in barrows. Gender did not affect the distribution of different fiber types: in both gender, the most present fiber types (48-52 %) were fast twitch glycolitic (FTG), FTO fibers represented 27-30 % of the total fiber number, while slow twitch oxidative fibers (STO) were the least represented (≈ 20 %).

Keywords

  • gender
  • fiber types
  • muscle composition
  • fattening
  • pigs
Open Access

Haemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome in Fattenig Pigs

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 138 - 146

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this work was to determine the possible causes of sudden death in fattening pigs associated with haemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) in a commercial pig farm (Eastern Slovakia). The etiology and pathogenesis of haemorrhagic bowel syndrome is not clearly defined within the scientific community. For this reason, clinical examination and sampling from 90 kg finisher pigs was done. Samples of blood, faeces, and rectal swabs were taken for haematological, serological, bacteriological, virological, and parasitological examination. Necropsy and sampling was also conducted on the carcasses of 90 kg finisher pigs that died peracutely during the investigation period. Three weeks later, during slaughter of the same group of pigs, goal-directed investigation and sampling from the gastrointestinal system for histological examination was performed. Results show the presence of bloody diarrhoea caused by L. intracellularis, C. perfringens typ A and haemolytic E. coli. Inflammation and loss of blood led to moderate normochromic (haemoglobin 12.85±0.95 g.dl-1) normocytic anaemia (erythrocytes 3.38±0.17 T.l-1), hydremia (haematocrit 0.17±0.01 l.l-1) and mild leukocytosis (18.7±4.68 G.l-1). Diagnostic necropsy confirmed the picture of “haemorrhagic bowel syndrome„ caused by infection and subsequent enterotoxemia without presence of gastric or intestinal displacement. Slaughter examination showed picture of proliferative ileitis typical for L. intracellularis. On the basis of our examinations, a major role in haemorrhagic bowel syndrome played infectious agents such as L. intracellularis, C. perfringens typ A and haemolytic E. coli. Negative findings of salmonellosis, dysentery, feed mycotoxins, intestinal parasites, and pollution of drinking water exclude these factors from the etiology of haemorrhagic bowel syndrome.

Keywords

  • fattening pigs
  • haemorrhagic bowel syndrome

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