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Volume 72 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

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Volume 68 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

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Volume 65 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

11 Articles
Open Access

Myofibroblasts in Normal and Fibrotic Liver in Different Animal Species

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 397 - 412

Abstract

Abstract

Myofibroblasts, cells sharing characteristics with fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, may have a very heterogeneous origin. The myofibroblasts may be derived from a variety of sources including resident mesenchymal cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, as well as from circulating fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes that are derived from bone-marrow stem cells, or derived from bone marrow precursors. In normal conditions, fibroblastic cells exhibit a low extracellular matrix production ability. After tissue injury, they become activated by cytokines locally released from inflammatory and resident cells to migrate into the damaged tissue and to synthesize extracellular matrix components. The investigation of cytoskeletal and cell surface markers showed a certain degree of heterogeneity of these cells. The reason for this is that markers these cells express to a large extent depend on the type of animal, age and stage of development of fibrosis. A better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the appearance of differentiated myofibroblasts in different pathological situations will be useful for understanding the development of fibrosis, its prevention and therapy

Keywords

  • fibrogenesis
  • immunohistochemistry
  • liver fibrosis
  • myofibroblasts
Open Access

Detection of Several Virulence Properties, Antibiotic Resistance and Phylogenetic Relationship in E. Coli Isolates Originated from Cow Mastitis

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 413 - 425

Abstract

Abstract

Cow mastitis caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) exhibits various local and systemic clinical signs at varying degrees of severity. The aim this study was to elucidate the virulence properties, antibiotic resistance and phylogenetics of 56 E. coli strains. Of all the studied strains, 12 were positive for hemolytic properties and 38 were positive for biofilm production. Additionally, 55 of the strains were positive for multiple resistances in bacteriological tests. PCR analysis revealed that 42 strains carried the traT gene, 20 strains had the shiga toxin gene (stx1-stx2), and 8 strains carried the intimin gene (eae), but all strains were negative for aerobactin gene (aer). All strains encoding shiga toxin genes were also positive for stx1, but only 4 strains were positive for stx2. There were no significant differences in virulence genes between antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains. The random amplifi ed polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction patterns revealed the existence of 13 main groups with 4 subgroups of E. coli. In this study, E. coli strains causing intramammary infections and originating from various sources might show resistance against common antibiotics. Pathogenity of E. coli that cause clinical mastitis, and prognosis of the infection might be predicted by obtaining the traT gene. Additionally, antibiotic resistance should be investigated at the genomic level to detect the relationship between virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. In field conditions, development of antibiotic resistance is the main cause of mastitis treatment failure. Thus, antibiotic resistance profiles in herds should be monitored and effective antibiotics should be administered

Keywords

  • Escherichia coli
  • virulence properties
  • antibiotic resistance
  • phylogeneticrelationship
  • cow mastitis
Open Access

Experimental Assessment of a New Type of Vascular Prostheses with Adiponectin (Adipograft Ra 1Vk 7/350) on Sheep

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 426 - 437

Abstract

Abstract

Despite medical advancements, the development of an ideal vascular prosthesis still poses a great challenge. In this study the researchers tried to test and verify the characteristics of a new type of vascular prosthesis, using adiponectin (Adipograft Ra 1vk 7/350) developed at the Knitting Research Institute, a.s. Brno. Two types of vascular prostheses (12 with adiponectin and 6 as a control without adiponectin) were implanted in nine healthy 4-year-old Merino sheep. The implantation site was the common carotid artery and the length of the implant was 10 cm. We applied the theory of the protected coagulum, whereby all sheep received antibiotics as a prophylactic measure. A Doppler U.S. was performed before finishing each operation, in order to verify the patency of the prostheses. Each animal was followed up during the whole study and the prostheses were extirpated on days 30 and 100 (1 and 3 months). It was observed that all prostheses coated with adiponectin showed patency after extirpation. The lumen implants were of a consistent thickness of 7 mm. Histological study of the implanted prostheses confirmed a quick, high quality, healing. Experimental vascular prostheses coated with adiponectin appeared to be successful in clinical practice. The researchers think that Adipograft Ra 1vk 7/350 can be a turning point in the development of vascular prostheses, due to its patency and quick healing.

Keywords

  • adiponectin
  • experimental surgery
  • pre-clinical trial
  • vascular prosthesis.
Open Access

Evaluation of Zackel Lamb Meat Quality with the Aim of Increasing the Conservation Value of the Breed

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 438 - 446

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of the study was to perform and evaluate the advanced phenotypic characterization of endangered Zackel sheep types, especially their productive potential and meat quality traits. Meat quality characteristics (m. longissimus dorsi) were evaluated in lambs of three types of autochthonous Zackel sheep: Sjenica sheep, Lipe sheep and Vlashko Vitoroga sheep, reared in traditional habitats in a sustainable management system. For the evaluation of sensory characteristics of lamb meat, quantitative descriptive analysis was performed according to ISO 6564:1985, i.e. structural intensity scale of seven points. All Zackel meat samples had an overall acceptability, the most favorable being in Sjenica sheep, with detected differences between Sjenica and Vlashko Vitoroga sheep (p<0.01), as well as between Lipe and Vlashko Vitoroga sheep (p<0.05). For the determination of fatty acids profile the prepared samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. The results showed that all tested lamb meat samples contain favorable amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The average content of conjugated linoleic acid was higher in Sjenica lamb meat compared with Lipe lamb meat, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). It is also shown that examined samples of Sjenica, Lipe and Vlashko Vitoroga lambs, compared to many other exotic and local breeds, were characterized by preferable values of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio. Polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6:n−3 ratio difference between tested Zackel types was not significant. The favorable fatty acid profile, important for human health and especially for infant and children nutrition, raises the interest for sustainable production and conservation of Zackel sheep

Keywords

  • Zackel sheep
  • animal genetic resources
  • lamb meat
  • sensory characteristics
  • fatty acid composition
Open Access

Canine and Feline Thelaziosis Caused by Thelazia Callipaeda in Serbia

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 447 - 455

Abstract

Abstract

Thelazia callipaeda is a parasitic nematode causing ocular infections in different mammalian species and humans, clinically manifested as lacrimation, conjunctivitis, keratitis, corneal opacity or corneal ulcer. In this paper, we reported six cases of autochthonous canine and feline thelaziosis on different localities in Serbia. Total of 285 parasites (85 males and 200 females) were collected from the eyes of infected animals (n=6) suffering from uni- or bilateral conjunctivitis, with the number of parasites ranging from 7 to 150 per animal. All parasites were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda, while molecular analyses of cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) gene revealed the presence of h1 haplotype, as the unique previously reported in other studies in Europe. Since T. callipaeda is a newly detected parasite in Serbia with the infective potential for humans, there is a necessity for animal owners education and cooperation among professional services in order to control this zoonosis.

Keywords

  • autochthonous infection
  • cats
  • dogs
  • h1 haplotype
  • Serbia
  • Thelazia callipaeda
Open Access

Influence of Epinephrine and Medetomidine on Systemic Absorption of Lidocaine Applied Epidurally in Anesthetized Swine

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 456 - 465

Abstract

Abstract

Epinephrine and alpha 2 agonist drugs are often used with epidural anesthesia to minimize local anesthetic systemic absorption, as well as to prolong the duration of the block. The aim of the current study was to determine by which extent epinephrine and medetomidine influenced lidocaine systemic absorption rate following epidural application. This was achieved by monitoring the serum lidocaine concentration in a porcine model. During general anesthesia, the first group received epidurally plane lidocaine, the second received lidocaine containing epinephrine (1 : 80.000), and the third lidocaine with medetomidine (15 μg/kg). Venous blood samples were taken before and 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes following epidural administration of the anesthetic. The effects of epinephrine and medetomidine were comparable. They both failed to cause a significant decrease in serum lidocaine concentration (p>0.05). In these settings we were unable to demonstrate a greater capacity of these two adrenergic agonists for reducing lidocaine systemic uptake and, accordingly, its systemic toxicity potential.

Keywords

  • epidural
  • lidocaine
  • serum concentration
  • epinephrine
  • medetomidine
  • swine
Open Access

Cardiorespiratory and Hemodynamic Effects of Medetomidine or Xylazine with Atropine and Diazepam Premedication for Total Intravenous Anesthesia Induced and Maintained with Propofol/Fentanyl in Dogs Undergoing Surgery

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 466 - 476

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different premedication protocols followed by a propofol/fentanyl TIVA on cardio-respiratory and hemodynamic changes in twenty-four dogs randomly divided into two groups (AMD-group: medetomidine, atropine and diazepam; AXD-group: xylazine, atropine and diazepam). Cardiorespiratory variables, acid-base indices, quality of sedation, induction, intubation and recovery were recorded throughout the experiment. Significant changes were observed for the pO2 level, which was increased in the AMDgroup from 90 min. (*P< 0.05) to 120 min. (**P< 0.01) of anesthesia. This can be explained by a reduction of the administration rate of propofol/fentanyl TIVA and oxygenation initiated due to excessively deep anesthesia detected by an anesthetsiologist, leading to improved ventilation and increased pO2. The pCO2 (*P < 0.05) reached more preferable values during the first 30 min. and pH (**P< 0.01) was significantly improved within the first 60 min. in the AXD-group thanks to less depressant effects of xylazine. Within the first 30 min. of anesthesia a significant heart rate difference between the groups was accompanied with significantly higher BP (hypertension) in the AXD-group (10 min. ***P< 0.001, 30 min. **P< 0.01). This points to the possibility of atropine application only in the case of a tendency to bradycardia followed by hypotension. It can be concluded that xylazine is a better option for the premedication of a propofol/ fentanyl TIVA in dogs undergoing a prolonged surgical intervention, in spite of the fact that lower sedation scores were attained. We have detected significantly less adverse cardio-respiratory and hemodynamic effects of xylazine, and a shorter recovery time when compared to medetomidine

Keywords

  • intravenous anesthesia
  • long-term anesthesia
  • dog
  • Fentanyl
  • Propofol
Open Access

Comparison of Resorbable Membranes for Guided Bone Regeneration of Human and Bovine Origin

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 477 - 492

Abstract

Abstract

The properties of membranes for guided bone regeneration have been described by a number of authors. These involve biocompatibility, appropriate barrier features (mechanical prevention of soft tissue proliferation), tissue integration, immunologic neutrality, preservation of the space for new alveolar bone, and simplicity of application. Such membrane must hold out against the masticatory forces and tissue tension of the fl ap, and prevent the collapse of soft tissues and wound space reduction. The property of integration into the tissue guarantees wound stabilization and inhibits epithelial migration. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the infl uence of human resorbable demineralized membrane (RHDM) and bovine resorbable demineralized membrane (RBDM) on bone regeneration. The experiment, approved by the Ethical Committee, was performed on six dogs and conducted into three phases. Bone defects were created in all six dogs on the left side of the mandible, 8 weeks after extraction of the second, third and fourth premolar. One defect was covered with 200 μm thick RHDM, one with 200 μm thick RBDM, and the third defect was left empty (control defect). The pathohistological analysis was done two, four and six months after the surgery. In the third phase samples of bone tissue were taken and subjected to patohistological analysis. In all six dogs the defects treated with RHDM 200μm thick showed a higher level of bone regeneration in comparison with the defect treated with RBDM 200 μm thick and especially with the control defect. Our results demonstrated that the human membrane showed the least soft tissue ingrowth and promoted better bone formation at 6 months compared with a bovine one.

Keywords

  • bovine resorbable membrane
  • dog mandible defect
  • guided bone regeneration
  • human resorbable membrane
  • membrane thickness
Open Access

Classical Swine Fever: Active Immunisation of Piglets with Subunit (E2) Vaccine in the Presence of Different Levels of Colostral Immunity (China Strain)

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 493 - 509

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the subunit vaccine against virulent CSF infection in piglets deriving from sows vaccinated with China strain. The experimental research included 34 piglets aged 45 days (13 naïve and 21 piglets originating from sows immunized with China strain CSFV). Three experimental groups consisting of seven animals each were formed based on serological examination of piglets aged 40 days. At the age of 45 days, the piglets were vaccinated with a subunit vaccine. After revaccination, the piglets were challenged with a virulent CSFV strain. With the aim of controlling virus shedding, two susceptible piglets were introduced into each group. After challenge, clinical monitoring of animals was performed, and blood samples were obtained to detect viremia and the presence of antibodies against CSF. The control of CSFV shedding by vaccinated, artificially infected piglets was performed by RT-PCR analysis of oropharyngeal and rectal swabs. After death or sacrifice of the animals, autopsy was performed along with the gross pathological examination and tissue sampling with the purpose of determining the presence and distribution of CSFV (ELISA and RT-PCR). Application of the subunit vaccine in piglets originating from sows vaccinated with China-strain resulted in a good active immune response. Following challenge virus shedding was confirmed, but without contact infection in susceptible animals in cohabitation. The results indicate that the subunit vaccine may have a potential application in the control of CSF in enzootic regions.

Keywords

  • classical swine fever
  • colostral immunity
  • subunit E2 vaccines
Open Access

Seroprevalence of Cat Leptospirosis in Belgrade (Serbia)

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 510 - 518

Abstract

Abstract

With its epizootiological characteristics, the territory of the municipality of Belgrade city is a potentially important locality for the maintenance and spreading of a number of serovars of Leptospira interrogans. In order to evaluate the epizootiological situation as far as animal leptospirosis in the Belgrade region is concerned, from January 2012 until June 2013 the prevalence of cat leptospirosis has been evaluated. The standard microagglutination test (MAT) was used to determine animals sero positive to different serovars that belong to L. interrogans sensu lato complex. The antigens used were: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Canicola, Bratislava, Batavie, Sejroe, Pyrogenes, Australis and Autumnalis. Out of the total number of tested animals, there were 43 (26.7%) positive to one, two or three serovar(s). Out of a total of 43 positive sera 20 (46.5%) samples were positive to more than one leptospira serovar

Keywords

  • cat
  • leptospirosis
  • microagglutination
  • seroprevalence
Open Access

Inulin Diet Intervention on Chemopreventive and Inflammatory Markers in Tumorigenesis of Colorectal Cancer

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 519 - 525

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the infl uence of inulin administration on chemopreventive and inflammatory markers in dimethylhydrazine induced colorectal cancer development in rats. A group of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats was divided into a control group (CG), a group with dimethylhydrazine (DMH), and a group given dimethylhydrazine combined with the prebiotic (DMH+PRE). Dimethylhydrazine injection significantly (p<0.001) elevated the immunoreactivity chemopreventive markers COX-2, NFκB, iNOS, elevated serum and jejunal mucosa levels of proinfl ammatory cytokine IL-2, and decreased serum and jejunal mucosa levels of regulatory cytokine IL-10. Inulin diet intervention significantly suppressed immunoreactivity of COX- 2, NFκB, iNOS positive cells in the tunica mucosae and tela submucosae of rat colon tissue, increased levels of IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-10. By determining the chemopreventive markers COX-2, iNOS and NFkB, which can be characterized as inflammatory markers, we confirmed the presence of inflammation in the colon as the number of COX-2, NFkB and iNOS immunoreactive cells was significantly higher after DMH application than in the control group. These findings indicate that dietary intake of inulin suppressed the expression of the observed markers, which play an important role in carcinogenesis and inflammation, which predispose the use of inulin in the prevention or treatment of human chronic diseases and its use as a nutritional supplement in veterinary medicine.

Keywords

  • Colon cancer
  • Sprague-Dawley rats
  • Inulin
  • Chemoprevention
  • Inflammation
11 Articles
Open Access

Myofibroblasts in Normal and Fibrotic Liver in Different Animal Species

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 397 - 412

Abstract

Abstract

Myofibroblasts, cells sharing characteristics with fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, may have a very heterogeneous origin. The myofibroblasts may be derived from a variety of sources including resident mesenchymal cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, as well as from circulating fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes that are derived from bone-marrow stem cells, or derived from bone marrow precursors. In normal conditions, fibroblastic cells exhibit a low extracellular matrix production ability. After tissue injury, they become activated by cytokines locally released from inflammatory and resident cells to migrate into the damaged tissue and to synthesize extracellular matrix components. The investigation of cytoskeletal and cell surface markers showed a certain degree of heterogeneity of these cells. The reason for this is that markers these cells express to a large extent depend on the type of animal, age and stage of development of fibrosis. A better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the appearance of differentiated myofibroblasts in different pathological situations will be useful for understanding the development of fibrosis, its prevention and therapy

Keywords

  • fibrogenesis
  • immunohistochemistry
  • liver fibrosis
  • myofibroblasts
Open Access

Detection of Several Virulence Properties, Antibiotic Resistance and Phylogenetic Relationship in E. Coli Isolates Originated from Cow Mastitis

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 413 - 425

Abstract

Abstract

Cow mastitis caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) exhibits various local and systemic clinical signs at varying degrees of severity. The aim this study was to elucidate the virulence properties, antibiotic resistance and phylogenetics of 56 E. coli strains. Of all the studied strains, 12 were positive for hemolytic properties and 38 were positive for biofilm production. Additionally, 55 of the strains were positive for multiple resistances in bacteriological tests. PCR analysis revealed that 42 strains carried the traT gene, 20 strains had the shiga toxin gene (stx1-stx2), and 8 strains carried the intimin gene (eae), but all strains were negative for aerobactin gene (aer). All strains encoding shiga toxin genes were also positive for stx1, but only 4 strains were positive for stx2. There were no significant differences in virulence genes between antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains. The random amplifi ed polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction patterns revealed the existence of 13 main groups with 4 subgroups of E. coli. In this study, E. coli strains causing intramammary infections and originating from various sources might show resistance against common antibiotics. Pathogenity of E. coli that cause clinical mastitis, and prognosis of the infection might be predicted by obtaining the traT gene. Additionally, antibiotic resistance should be investigated at the genomic level to detect the relationship between virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. In field conditions, development of antibiotic resistance is the main cause of mastitis treatment failure. Thus, antibiotic resistance profiles in herds should be monitored and effective antibiotics should be administered

Keywords

  • Escherichia coli
  • virulence properties
  • antibiotic resistance
  • phylogeneticrelationship
  • cow mastitis
Open Access

Experimental Assessment of a New Type of Vascular Prostheses with Adiponectin (Adipograft Ra 1Vk 7/350) on Sheep

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 426 - 437

Abstract

Abstract

Despite medical advancements, the development of an ideal vascular prosthesis still poses a great challenge. In this study the researchers tried to test and verify the characteristics of a new type of vascular prosthesis, using adiponectin (Adipograft Ra 1vk 7/350) developed at the Knitting Research Institute, a.s. Brno. Two types of vascular prostheses (12 with adiponectin and 6 as a control without adiponectin) were implanted in nine healthy 4-year-old Merino sheep. The implantation site was the common carotid artery and the length of the implant was 10 cm. We applied the theory of the protected coagulum, whereby all sheep received antibiotics as a prophylactic measure. A Doppler U.S. was performed before finishing each operation, in order to verify the patency of the prostheses. Each animal was followed up during the whole study and the prostheses were extirpated on days 30 and 100 (1 and 3 months). It was observed that all prostheses coated with adiponectin showed patency after extirpation. The lumen implants were of a consistent thickness of 7 mm. Histological study of the implanted prostheses confirmed a quick, high quality, healing. Experimental vascular prostheses coated with adiponectin appeared to be successful in clinical practice. The researchers think that Adipograft Ra 1vk 7/350 can be a turning point in the development of vascular prostheses, due to its patency and quick healing.

Keywords

  • adiponectin
  • experimental surgery
  • pre-clinical trial
  • vascular prosthesis.
Open Access

Evaluation of Zackel Lamb Meat Quality with the Aim of Increasing the Conservation Value of the Breed

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 438 - 446

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of the study was to perform and evaluate the advanced phenotypic characterization of endangered Zackel sheep types, especially their productive potential and meat quality traits. Meat quality characteristics (m. longissimus dorsi) were evaluated in lambs of three types of autochthonous Zackel sheep: Sjenica sheep, Lipe sheep and Vlashko Vitoroga sheep, reared in traditional habitats in a sustainable management system. For the evaluation of sensory characteristics of lamb meat, quantitative descriptive analysis was performed according to ISO 6564:1985, i.e. structural intensity scale of seven points. All Zackel meat samples had an overall acceptability, the most favorable being in Sjenica sheep, with detected differences between Sjenica and Vlashko Vitoroga sheep (p<0.01), as well as between Lipe and Vlashko Vitoroga sheep (p<0.05). For the determination of fatty acids profile the prepared samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. The results showed that all tested lamb meat samples contain favorable amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The average content of conjugated linoleic acid was higher in Sjenica lamb meat compared with Lipe lamb meat, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). It is also shown that examined samples of Sjenica, Lipe and Vlashko Vitoroga lambs, compared to many other exotic and local breeds, were characterized by preferable values of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio. Polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6:n−3 ratio difference between tested Zackel types was not significant. The favorable fatty acid profile, important for human health and especially for infant and children nutrition, raises the interest for sustainable production and conservation of Zackel sheep

Keywords

  • Zackel sheep
  • animal genetic resources
  • lamb meat
  • sensory characteristics
  • fatty acid composition
Open Access

Canine and Feline Thelaziosis Caused by Thelazia Callipaeda in Serbia

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 447 - 455

Abstract

Abstract

Thelazia callipaeda is a parasitic nematode causing ocular infections in different mammalian species and humans, clinically manifested as lacrimation, conjunctivitis, keratitis, corneal opacity or corneal ulcer. In this paper, we reported six cases of autochthonous canine and feline thelaziosis on different localities in Serbia. Total of 285 parasites (85 males and 200 females) were collected from the eyes of infected animals (n=6) suffering from uni- or bilateral conjunctivitis, with the number of parasites ranging from 7 to 150 per animal. All parasites were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda, while molecular analyses of cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1) gene revealed the presence of h1 haplotype, as the unique previously reported in other studies in Europe. Since T. callipaeda is a newly detected parasite in Serbia with the infective potential for humans, there is a necessity for animal owners education and cooperation among professional services in order to control this zoonosis.

Keywords

  • autochthonous infection
  • cats
  • dogs
  • h1 haplotype
  • Serbia
  • Thelazia callipaeda
Open Access

Influence of Epinephrine and Medetomidine on Systemic Absorption of Lidocaine Applied Epidurally in Anesthetized Swine

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 456 - 465

Abstract

Abstract

Epinephrine and alpha 2 agonist drugs are often used with epidural anesthesia to minimize local anesthetic systemic absorption, as well as to prolong the duration of the block. The aim of the current study was to determine by which extent epinephrine and medetomidine influenced lidocaine systemic absorption rate following epidural application. This was achieved by monitoring the serum lidocaine concentration in a porcine model. During general anesthesia, the first group received epidurally plane lidocaine, the second received lidocaine containing epinephrine (1 : 80.000), and the third lidocaine with medetomidine (15 μg/kg). Venous blood samples were taken before and 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes following epidural administration of the anesthetic. The effects of epinephrine and medetomidine were comparable. They both failed to cause a significant decrease in serum lidocaine concentration (p>0.05). In these settings we were unable to demonstrate a greater capacity of these two adrenergic agonists for reducing lidocaine systemic uptake and, accordingly, its systemic toxicity potential.

Keywords

  • epidural
  • lidocaine
  • serum concentration
  • epinephrine
  • medetomidine
  • swine
Open Access

Cardiorespiratory and Hemodynamic Effects of Medetomidine or Xylazine with Atropine and Diazepam Premedication for Total Intravenous Anesthesia Induced and Maintained with Propofol/Fentanyl in Dogs Undergoing Surgery

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 466 - 476

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different premedication protocols followed by a propofol/fentanyl TIVA on cardio-respiratory and hemodynamic changes in twenty-four dogs randomly divided into two groups (AMD-group: medetomidine, atropine and diazepam; AXD-group: xylazine, atropine and diazepam). Cardiorespiratory variables, acid-base indices, quality of sedation, induction, intubation and recovery were recorded throughout the experiment. Significant changes were observed for the pO2 level, which was increased in the AMDgroup from 90 min. (*P< 0.05) to 120 min. (**P< 0.01) of anesthesia. This can be explained by a reduction of the administration rate of propofol/fentanyl TIVA and oxygenation initiated due to excessively deep anesthesia detected by an anesthetsiologist, leading to improved ventilation and increased pO2. The pCO2 (*P < 0.05) reached more preferable values during the first 30 min. and pH (**P< 0.01) was significantly improved within the first 60 min. in the AXD-group thanks to less depressant effects of xylazine. Within the first 30 min. of anesthesia a significant heart rate difference between the groups was accompanied with significantly higher BP (hypertension) in the AXD-group (10 min. ***P< 0.001, 30 min. **P< 0.01). This points to the possibility of atropine application only in the case of a tendency to bradycardia followed by hypotension. It can be concluded that xylazine is a better option for the premedication of a propofol/ fentanyl TIVA in dogs undergoing a prolonged surgical intervention, in spite of the fact that lower sedation scores were attained. We have detected significantly less adverse cardio-respiratory and hemodynamic effects of xylazine, and a shorter recovery time when compared to medetomidine

Keywords

  • intravenous anesthesia
  • long-term anesthesia
  • dog
  • Fentanyl
  • Propofol
Open Access

Comparison of Resorbable Membranes for Guided Bone Regeneration of Human and Bovine Origin

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 477 - 492

Abstract

Abstract

The properties of membranes for guided bone regeneration have been described by a number of authors. These involve biocompatibility, appropriate barrier features (mechanical prevention of soft tissue proliferation), tissue integration, immunologic neutrality, preservation of the space for new alveolar bone, and simplicity of application. Such membrane must hold out against the masticatory forces and tissue tension of the fl ap, and prevent the collapse of soft tissues and wound space reduction. The property of integration into the tissue guarantees wound stabilization and inhibits epithelial migration. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the infl uence of human resorbable demineralized membrane (RHDM) and bovine resorbable demineralized membrane (RBDM) on bone regeneration. The experiment, approved by the Ethical Committee, was performed on six dogs and conducted into three phases. Bone defects were created in all six dogs on the left side of the mandible, 8 weeks after extraction of the second, third and fourth premolar. One defect was covered with 200 μm thick RHDM, one with 200 μm thick RBDM, and the third defect was left empty (control defect). The pathohistological analysis was done two, four and six months after the surgery. In the third phase samples of bone tissue were taken and subjected to patohistological analysis. In all six dogs the defects treated with RHDM 200μm thick showed a higher level of bone regeneration in comparison with the defect treated with RBDM 200 μm thick and especially with the control defect. Our results demonstrated that the human membrane showed the least soft tissue ingrowth and promoted better bone formation at 6 months compared with a bovine one.

Keywords

  • bovine resorbable membrane
  • dog mandible defect
  • guided bone regeneration
  • human resorbable membrane
  • membrane thickness
Open Access

Classical Swine Fever: Active Immunisation of Piglets with Subunit (E2) Vaccine in the Presence of Different Levels of Colostral Immunity (China Strain)

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 493 - 509

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the subunit vaccine against virulent CSF infection in piglets deriving from sows vaccinated with China strain. The experimental research included 34 piglets aged 45 days (13 naïve and 21 piglets originating from sows immunized with China strain CSFV). Three experimental groups consisting of seven animals each were formed based on serological examination of piglets aged 40 days. At the age of 45 days, the piglets were vaccinated with a subunit vaccine. After revaccination, the piglets were challenged with a virulent CSFV strain. With the aim of controlling virus shedding, two susceptible piglets were introduced into each group. After challenge, clinical monitoring of animals was performed, and blood samples were obtained to detect viremia and the presence of antibodies against CSF. The control of CSFV shedding by vaccinated, artificially infected piglets was performed by RT-PCR analysis of oropharyngeal and rectal swabs. After death or sacrifice of the animals, autopsy was performed along with the gross pathological examination and tissue sampling with the purpose of determining the presence and distribution of CSFV (ELISA and RT-PCR). Application of the subunit vaccine in piglets originating from sows vaccinated with China-strain resulted in a good active immune response. Following challenge virus shedding was confirmed, but without contact infection in susceptible animals in cohabitation. The results indicate that the subunit vaccine may have a potential application in the control of CSF in enzootic regions.

Keywords

  • classical swine fever
  • colostral immunity
  • subunit E2 vaccines
Open Access

Seroprevalence of Cat Leptospirosis in Belgrade (Serbia)

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 510 - 518

Abstract

Abstract

With its epizootiological characteristics, the territory of the municipality of Belgrade city is a potentially important locality for the maintenance and spreading of a number of serovars of Leptospira interrogans. In order to evaluate the epizootiological situation as far as animal leptospirosis in the Belgrade region is concerned, from January 2012 until June 2013 the prevalence of cat leptospirosis has been evaluated. The standard microagglutination test (MAT) was used to determine animals sero positive to different serovars that belong to L. interrogans sensu lato complex. The antigens used were: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Canicola, Bratislava, Batavie, Sejroe, Pyrogenes, Australis and Autumnalis. Out of the total number of tested animals, there were 43 (26.7%) positive to one, two or three serovar(s). Out of a total of 43 positive sera 20 (46.5%) samples were positive to more than one leptospira serovar

Keywords

  • cat
  • leptospirosis
  • microagglutination
  • seroprevalence
Open Access

Inulin Diet Intervention on Chemopreventive and Inflammatory Markers in Tumorigenesis of Colorectal Cancer

Published Online: 30 Dec 2014
Page range: 519 - 525

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the infl uence of inulin administration on chemopreventive and inflammatory markers in dimethylhydrazine induced colorectal cancer development in rats. A group of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats was divided into a control group (CG), a group with dimethylhydrazine (DMH), and a group given dimethylhydrazine combined with the prebiotic (DMH+PRE). Dimethylhydrazine injection significantly (p<0.001) elevated the immunoreactivity chemopreventive markers COX-2, NFκB, iNOS, elevated serum and jejunal mucosa levels of proinfl ammatory cytokine IL-2, and decreased serum and jejunal mucosa levels of regulatory cytokine IL-10. Inulin diet intervention significantly suppressed immunoreactivity of COX- 2, NFκB, iNOS positive cells in the tunica mucosae and tela submucosae of rat colon tissue, increased levels of IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-10. By determining the chemopreventive markers COX-2, iNOS and NFkB, which can be characterized as inflammatory markers, we confirmed the presence of inflammation in the colon as the number of COX-2, NFkB and iNOS immunoreactive cells was significantly higher after DMH application than in the control group. These findings indicate that dietary intake of inulin suppressed the expression of the observed markers, which play an important role in carcinogenesis and inflammation, which predispose the use of inulin in the prevention or treatment of human chronic diseases and its use as a nutritional supplement in veterinary medicine.

Keywords

  • Colon cancer
  • Sprague-Dawley rats
  • Inulin
  • Chemoprevention
  • Inflammation

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