- Journal Details
- First Published
- 25 Mar 2014
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
Page range: 156 - 178
The blood and bone marrow have been thoroughly investiagated for more than a century, but we are still gaining surprising new informations. Blood transports different mature cells such as erythrocytes, platelets and granulocytes, but curiously, the blood is also transporting a number of non-differentiated cells of various mesodermal lineages: hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells, endothelial progenitor cells and very small embryonal like cells are some of the most impressive examples. In adults the bone marrow is the source of practiclly all cells that could be found in the blood. Stem and progenitor cells egress from the bone marrow and home to the bone marrow or various tissues in a highly regulated manner. The fact that the hematopoetic stem and progenitor cells traffic through the blood and repopulate the bone marrow niche is largely explored in stem cell therapy in human medicine. In this review we will briefly describe the main characteristics of stem and progenitor cells, the mechanisms of their mobilization from the bone marrow and homing to target tissues. Also, the history and importance of the fact that different stem, progenitor and precursor cells could be isolated from the blood circulation will be discussed in the light of informations concerning their use in human and veterinary medicine.
- peripheral blood
- stem cells
- progenitor cells
- veterinary medicine
- Open Access
A morphometric analysis of the postanatal development of the choroid plexus epithelium in the male and female rat
Page range: 179 - 188
Morphometric parameters of the lateral ventricle choroid plexus epithelial cells (average area, perimeter, bounding rectangle area, average nuclear area, nuclear perimeter, nuclear circularity and average nucleocytoplasmic ratio) were studied in postnatal and juvenile (10th, 16th and 38th postnatal days) 15 male and 15 female rats. The results were statistically analyzed by factorial ANOVA.
Mean values of epithelial cells area, bounding rectangle area and perimeter were significantly higher in 16 days old, than in 10 and 38 days old rats. Opposite to this, the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was lower in the 16 days old, than in 10 and 38 days old rats. Average nuclear area and perimeter showed similar trends, while nuclear circularity increased from the 10th to the 38th day. Significant sex differences were in the epithelial cells area, bounding rectangle area and perimeter, being higher in males than in females in both 16 and 38 days groups. Nucleocytoplasmic ratio was higher in 10 days old male rats, but lower in 16 and 38 days old male rats.
Generally, choroid epithelial cells size increased on the 16th and then decreased on the 38th day, but still remained higher compared to the 10th day. Nuclear size after increasing on day 16, also decreased on day 38, but to values lower than on day 10. The general decrease of nucleocytoplasmic ratio which accompanied these changes indirectly suggests a functional decrease. In the investigated period the male rat choroid epithelial cells were larger, but their nucleocytoplasmic ratio, which suggests the functional status, was lower than in females, indicating sex differences in the growth dynamics of the rat choroid plexus.
- choroid plexus
- lateral ventricle
- postnatal development
- sex differences
- Open Access
Delayed Behavioral Effects of SH–I–048A, a Novel Nonselective Positive Modulator of Gabaa Receptors, After Peripheral Nerve Injury in Rats
Page range: 189 - 199
The complex clinical picture of mono-neuropathy following injury of peripheral nerve is often accompanied by changes in the patients’ affective states. It has been shown that positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors can decrease nociceptive transmission in animal pain models. However, recent findings suggest a possibility that at least some of the antinociceptive effects of benzodiazepines, related to neuropathic painful stimuli, may to a significant degree be a consequence of their anxiolytic action.
In this study we evaluated the possible delayed effects of SH-I-048A, a newly- synthesized high-efficacy nonselective positive modulator of GABAA receptors, on anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity in Wistar rats with a previously induced peripheral nerve injury.
Assessment of behavioral parameters, using spontaneous locomotor activity and elevated plus maze tests, was performed 48h after completion of single-day threei. p. injections treatment consisting of zero, one, two or three doses of SH-I-048А (10 mg/kg).
In general, rats’ behavior observed 72 h after a moderate peripheral nerve injury did not indicate the persistence of sequelae of mono-neuropathic pain. The rats treated with three doses of SH-I-048А displayed an enhanced immobility time in the locomotor activity test, without concomitant decrease of the total distance traveled. On the other hand, in the group treated with two doses of SH- I-048А, a decrease in the emotional reactivity in the elevated plus maze test was observed. Subtle changes in the regimen of dosing of SH-I-048А affect locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior in animals with peripheral nerve injury.
- benzodiazepines elevated plus maze
- nerve crush injury
- spontaneous locomotor activity
- Wistar rats
- Open Access
Hematological and Serum Biochemical Reference Values for the Posavina and Croatian Coldblood Horse Breeds
Page range: 200 - 212
In this study the hematological and biochemical parameters in the blood of indigenous Croatian working horse breeds were investigated. The Posavina and Croatian Coldblood horses are adapted to harsh environmental conditions and their blood parameters might differ from other horse breeds. The study was carried out on 100 mares and 12 stallions of ages from 2 to 19 years. Fifteen hematological and 19 biochemical parameters were analysed. Values of 22 parameters showed considerable overlapping with values obtained for other horse breeds, and substantial resemblance is evident with values reported for Pakistani working horses. Several reference values showed statistically significant effect of sex (Hb, ALB, CREA, TBIL and Ca where significantly higher in stallions; EOS, CK, ALP, UREA and Mg were significantly higher in mares). None of the parameters studied showed any differences associated with age. The adaptation of Posavina and Croatian Coldblood horses to the harsh environment of flooded pastures and the way of breeding might be reflected in their specific reference values. The obtained results enabled the establishment of hematological and biochemical reference values in the blood of Posavina and Croatian Coldblood horses that will in turn support clinical diagnosis and further research into horse physiology.
- coldblood horses
- Posavina horse
- Croatian Coldblood horse
- reference values
- Open Access
Expression of E2 (Gp 55) Glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus in Lymphoid Tissue and Brain of Experimentally Infected Piglets with Different Immunological Status
Page range: 213 - 225
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic swine and wild boars. The aim of the study was to examine samples of lymphoid tissues and brain for the presence of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) antigen in piglets that originate from vaccinated and unvaccinated sows, in order to compare the intensity of pathological lesions in conditions of different immunological status. A total of 20 crossbreed piglets of both sexes, aged 45 days were divided in three groups (G1, G2 and G3). Piglets of G1 originated from sows vaccinated with a live vaccine containing attenuated C strain CSFV. Piglets of G2 originated from unvaccinated sows. Two piglets of G3 originated from vaccinated and two piglets from unvaccinated sows and they served as the control group. All the piglets from G1 and G2 were intramuscularly inoculated with 2×105 TCDI/50 of CSFV, Baker strain and they died by the 22nd day post inoculation. Immunohistochemistry was applied for immunolabeling E2 (gp55) glycoprotein of CSFV in the tonsils, mandibular lymph nodes, ileocecal valve and brain of all tested piglets. Differences were observed in the severity of lesions in the lymphoid tissue and the brain between G1 and G2 piglets. The present level of colostral antibodies was not able to protect piglets in G1 from the fatal outcome of the disease. Among others, this finding may also have an impact on vaccination policy in the future. Having in mind that vaccination of all domestic pigs with attenuated C-strain vaccine is still a mandatory control measure for CSF in Serbia, soon a non-vaccination policy should be harmonized with EU directives.
- classical swine fever
- E2 (gp55)
- Open Access
Page range: 226 - 235
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of endoscopy jointly with gastropexy in dogs as a potential mean to aid prevention and evaluation of the long-term efficiency of this procedure for gastric dilatation-volvulus.
The study was performed on ten healthy adult medium- and large-breed dogs. The dogs had no abnormal finding upon physical examination and each underwent an endoscopically assisted gastropexy procedure. After surgery all dogs were in good condition. The surgical procedure was followed by x-ray and ultrasonographic examinations. The records included data for gastropexy anatomic location and length, duration of the surgical procedure and complications.
The mean ± SD gastropexy length was 3.0 ± 0.25 cm, as determined by ultrasonography, and the mean duration of the surgical procedure was 20 ± 5 minutes.
It appears that endoscopically assisted gastropexy is a simple, fast, safe, and reliable method of performing a prophylactic gastropexy in dogs. This procedure maximizes the benefits of decreased morbidity and shorter duration of anaesthesia associated with minimally invasive surgery.
- endoscopical gastropexy
- Open Access
Analysis of Genetic Structure of Huchen (Hucho Hucho) in Serbia Inferred From Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA
Page range: 236 - 244
The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of Serbian huchen and provide guidelines for conservation and management. Fourteen huchen individuals were collected from six localities. For all individuals the mitochondrial DNA control region and the NADH1 gene were sequenced, and two microsatellite loci were genotyped. Sequencing of two mtDNA loci showed the presence of the same haplotypes (Hh_CR_1 and Hh_ND1_1) in all investigated specimens and the complete absence of genetic variability at inter- and intra-populational level. However, analyzed individuals from Serbia have the largest number of control region repeats (average 8.7) compared to all other huchen populations from the Danube basin. Microsatellite data show that the most of Serbian huchens were placed in the “eastern” cluster except one individual from the Drina River which clustered with “western” samples, most likely a consequence of stocking. In spite of only two loci used, four unique alleles found in the studied Serbian and Drina basin population indicate that the Danube basin may possess more region specific alleles than previously thought, which could be of great importance for efficient species management in the future.
- genetic diversity
- Hucho hucho
- microsatellite DNA
- mitochondrial DNA
- Open Access
Molecular Study of the Prevalence of Brucella Abortus and Brucella Melitensis in the Blood and Lymph Node Samples of Slaughtered Camels by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Iran
Page range: 245 - 256
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease which is characterized by reduced fertility and abortion in several species of animals, as well as humans. Camel brucellosis is caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis. To overcome the limitations posed by other techniques such as culture and serology, a sensitive technique (PCR) was employed for the detection of brucellosis in 123 camels. Findings from this PCR study indicated a total of 11.38% of blood samples as positive for Brucella spp. and 13.01% of the lymph node samples were positive for Brucella spp. In this study, 5 out of 123 (4.065%) and 3 out of 123 (2.439%) camel blood samples were positive for B. abortus and B. melitensis, respectively. Also, 4 out of 123 (3.252%) and 2 out of 123 (1.626%) camel lymph node samples were positive for B. abortus and B. melitensis, respectively. Young camels were the most commonly infected age group, while adult camels were the less often infected age group. Also, higher prevalence of brucellosis was observed in female camels. These results have indicated that PCR is a sensitive technique which could be used as a confirmatory test for the detection of brucellosis in live camels, at the same time with the lowest risk of infection of laboratory personnel. The obtained results suggest that control and eradication programs for Brucella spp. infection seem to be necessary in camels. Our findings support the power of PCR test for Brucella spp. detection in the blood and lymph node samples and it could be easily used for routine diagnosis.
- lymph nodes
- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
- Open Access
Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular Studies on Salmonella Enterica Subspecies Enterica Serovar Infantis Isolated in Human Cases and Broiler Carcasses
Page range: 257 - 268
During the year 2012 a study was conducted on the hygiene of the production of broiler carcasses at three abattoirs in the Republic of Serbia. A total of 150 samples of broiler neck skin were examined and 17 salmonella isolates were recorded. Isolates were, by using the corresponding monovalent and polyvalent sera, determined according to type as Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis 6, 7, r, 1, 5). In the case of the disease in humans, 5 Salmonella samples of identical serovars were isolated. After that, 22 samples were tested for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (95.5%), tetracycline (91%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (68.2%), but not to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The degree of genetic similarity of isolates from diseased humans and broiler carcasses was determined at a molecular level. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of 7 profiles, while all isolates have 92% genetic similarity. Although there are differences in the antimicrobial resistance of isolates originating from diseased humans and neck skin of tested broilers, can not be excluded an epidemiological link, because in the dominant genotype SINFXB0001, established in 8 isolates from diseased humans (3 isolates), and the neck skin of broilers (5 isolates), a genetic similarity of 100% was recorded. Based on these results, the presence of S. Infantis on broiler carcasses can be considered a hazard to human health.
- prevalence of Salmonella on broiler carcasses
- Salmonella Infantis
- antibiotic resistance
- Open Access
Clinical Observations and Safety Profile of Oral Herbal Products, Souroubea and Platanus Spp; a Pilot-Toxicology Study in Dogs
Page range: 269 - 275
This pilot-study evaluated the toxicity and safety profile of two herbal products Souroubea spp Botanical Blend (SSBB) and Platanus Tree Bark (PTB) after oral administration to dogs at elevated doses for 28 days. SSBB and PTB botanicals are the major active ingredients of Sin Susto™, a novel natural product for the treatment of anxiety in dogs. Three healthy female dogs were administered elevated doses of either SSBB, PTB or a placebo and then monitored for the occurrence of any systemic and local adverse events. Data from this pilot-study revealed that SSBB and PTB had no untoward effects on the health of dogs and were deemed safe which enabled the design and execution of a larger controlled target safety and toxicology study for Sin Susto™.
- Souroubea spp
- Sin Susto™
- Open Access
Page range: 276 - 280
In July 2012 a male Common Buzzard (Bute obuteo) from the Department of Environment of East Azerbaijan was sent to the Parasitology Laboratory at the School of Specialized Sciences of Veterinary Medicine, Science and Research Unit, Tehran Islamic Azad University. Gastrointestinal parasites were isolated and sent to the Iranian National Parasitology Museum in order to specify the diagnosis. It was determined that the bird was infected with the acanthocephalan Centrorhynchu saluconis. This is the first report of Common Buzzard infestation with this parasite in Iran.
- Common Buzzard