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Volume 10 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 10 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 10 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 3 (December 2020)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 3 (October 2019)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 2 (September 2019)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 1 (July 2019)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 3 (December 2018)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 2 (September 2018)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 5 (2017): Issue 2 (September 2017)

Volume 5 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 4 (2014): Issue 2 (December 2014)

Volume 4 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 4 (November 2011)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 3 (October 2011)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 2 (June 2011)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 1 (February 2011)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 4 (November 2010)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 3 (April 2010)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 2 (February 2010)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-3577
First Published
01 Oct 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-3577
First Published
01 Oct 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Properties of coagulase-positive staphylococcal cells that make it difficult to diagnose and treat mastitis in cows

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 100 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

Coagulase-positive staphylococci are a group of bacteria that, among other things, cause inflammation of the udder in cows (mastitis). The identification of the species of staphylococcus causing the inflammation is crucial for the success of the treatment process due to the individual characteristics of the strains and even the characteristics of the bacterial population in the herd. However, through evolution, staphylococci have developed a number of processes that make species identification difficult. Knowledge of the actual cause of inflammation enables the selection of appropriate therapy, but despite advanced diagnostic techniques, erroneous results still occur. In this review, we present the current knowledge of mainly resistance mechanisms and how they affect the drug resistance of microorganisms. We also highlight the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of bovine mastitis.

Keywords

  • mastitis
  • cows
  • diagnosis
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • coagulase-positive
Open Access

The rostral epidural rete mirabile of the llama as a place of retrograde transport of various substances – anatomical basics

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 105 - 109

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse the structure of the rostral epidural rete mirabile in the llama. Some specimens were prepared by injecting stained chemically cured acrylic into the bilateral common carotid arteries. After about 1 month received vascular corrosion casts on the bone scaffold. Some specimens made using red and blue latex introduced into the bilateral common carotid arteries and the bilateral external jugular vein. The rostral epidural rete mirabile is a well-developed, bilateral structure composed of numerous arteries, which are multiply anastomosed with each other. The cranial section of the rete is asymmetrical. Its lateral part is much better developed, because there are rostral branches to the rostral epidural rete mirabile at this point. The arterial vessels are not accompanied by homonymous veins. However, the arteries of the rostral epidural rete mirabile are accompanied by venous vessels of the cavernous sinus. That rete plays an important role in selective brain cooling, the conservation of body water, and retrograde transport of neurotransmitters. CO, GnRH, beta-endorphin, progesterone, testosterone, oxytocin, LHRH and dopamine diffuse from the venous blood of the cavernous sinus to the arterial blood of the rostral epidural rete mirabile.

Keywords

  • carbon monoxide
  • even-toed ungulates
  • neurotransmitters
  • RERM
Open Access

Mesenchymal stem cells and their secretome - candidates for safe and effective therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 110 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

More than 80 diseases are currently classified as autoimmune, with a rising prevalence throughout the world. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is classified as a systemic autoimmune disorder, but the exact pathogenesis of SLE remains elusive. Currently available treatment strategies offer only the possibility for disease remission making it essential to develop more effective and safer strategies for treatment. Recently MSCs are gaining attention as attractive therapeutic tools for autoimmune disease treatment. Special focus should be given to MSCs originated from perinatal tissues such as Wharton's jelly, as they present unique immunomodulatory properties and remarkably low immunogenicity. MSCs exert their immunomodulatory effects via direct cell-to-cell communication as well as in a paracrine manner, creating possibility to apply secretome of MSCs as an individual therapeutic tool. Although the secretome of MSCs has not yet been utilized in SLE treatment, its efficacy has been suggested in other disorders, such as multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer's disease. Regular administration of paracrine factors derived from MSCs could potentially effect in significant reduction of SLE symptoms and in maintenance of disease remission.

Keywords

  • mesenchymal stem cells
  • secretome
  • conditioned media
  • exosomes
  • SLE
Open Access

Effectiveness of embryo transfer in cows - risk factors including in vivo derived and in vitro produced embryos

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 123 - 131

Abstract

Abstract

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer is a biotech method with more than 50 years of history and an established position in cattle breeding. This procedure is beneficial in many ways, but it also carries a risk of failure. The study presents the overview of the most important risk factors that may affect conception rates in the course of embryo transfer, including the factors associated with the embryo sourcing (embryo production method, embryo quality, development stage and breed, embryo storage method), embryo transfer procedure (synchrony/asynchrony, embryo transfer difficulty, the time of the transcervical insemination gun passage, depth of embryo deposition, localization and structure of the corpus luteum relative to the follicle and both individual characteristics of donors and recipients (level of concentration of progesterone, the state of health of the udder, lactation level, body condition score and age) and some environmental factors.

Keywords

  • embryo transfer
  • cattle reproduction
  • assisted reproduction techniques
Open Access

The history of melanoma diagnostics

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 132 - 137

Abstract

Abstract

This article provides a historical overview of melanoma, involving the knowledge of this neoplasm from antiquity to the present. Selected people who made key descriptions of the disease, its symptoms, and treatment methods were listed. The classification of melanoma, which is used in therapeutic management nowadays, is briefly discussed. Additionally, we describe circulating tumour cells and the selected diagnostic methods associated with their detection and characteristics. The aim of this article is to present a historical outline of melanoma, as well as its classification and the development of laboratory methods of its diagnosis. In addition, we have also provided a comparison of historical and current knowledge of this malignancy.

Keywords

  • melanoma
  • diagnostics
  • history
  • classification
  • circulating tumor cells
Open Access

The significance of HERC5, IFIH1, SAMD4, SEMA3A and MCTP1 genes expression in resistance to cytotoxic drugs in ovarian cancer cell lines

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 138 - 147

Abstract

Abstract

Resistance to chemotherapy is the main obstacle in contemporary ovarian cancer treatment. The aim of this study was the evaluation of expression of HERC5, IFIH1, SAMD4, MCTP1 and SEMA3A mRNA and assessment their role in resistance to cisplatin, paclitaxel, doxorubicin and topotecan in seven ovarian cancer cell lines. MTT assay was used in resistance assessment. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression levels of the genes. We observed different levels of resistance among cell lines. The resistance was not related to the expression of drug transporters genes. The expression of HERC5 and IFIH1 genes was upregulated, and the expression of SEMA3A gene was downregulated. Expression of SAMD4 was upregulated in PEA1, PEA2, and PEO23 cell lines, and expression of MCTP1 was downregulated in A2780, PEA2, and PEO23 cell lines. Upregulation of HERC5, IFIH1, and SAMD4 and downregulation of SEMA3A and MCTP1 in TOP-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines may suggest some role of those genes in topotecan resistance development.

Keywords

  • ovarian cancer
  • cytotoxic drug resistance
  • new genes
6 Articles
Open Access

Properties of coagulase-positive staphylococcal cells that make it difficult to diagnose and treat mastitis in cows

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 100 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

Coagulase-positive staphylococci are a group of bacteria that, among other things, cause inflammation of the udder in cows (mastitis). The identification of the species of staphylococcus causing the inflammation is crucial for the success of the treatment process due to the individual characteristics of the strains and even the characteristics of the bacterial population in the herd. However, through evolution, staphylococci have developed a number of processes that make species identification difficult. Knowledge of the actual cause of inflammation enables the selection of appropriate therapy, but despite advanced diagnostic techniques, erroneous results still occur. In this review, we present the current knowledge of mainly resistance mechanisms and how they affect the drug resistance of microorganisms. We also highlight the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of bovine mastitis.

Keywords

  • mastitis
  • cows
  • diagnosis
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • coagulase-positive
Open Access

The rostral epidural rete mirabile of the llama as a place of retrograde transport of various substances – anatomical basics

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 105 - 109

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse the structure of the rostral epidural rete mirabile in the llama. Some specimens were prepared by injecting stained chemically cured acrylic into the bilateral common carotid arteries. After about 1 month received vascular corrosion casts on the bone scaffold. Some specimens made using red and blue latex introduced into the bilateral common carotid arteries and the bilateral external jugular vein. The rostral epidural rete mirabile is a well-developed, bilateral structure composed of numerous arteries, which are multiply anastomosed with each other. The cranial section of the rete is asymmetrical. Its lateral part is much better developed, because there are rostral branches to the rostral epidural rete mirabile at this point. The arterial vessels are not accompanied by homonymous veins. However, the arteries of the rostral epidural rete mirabile are accompanied by venous vessels of the cavernous sinus. That rete plays an important role in selective brain cooling, the conservation of body water, and retrograde transport of neurotransmitters. CO, GnRH, beta-endorphin, progesterone, testosterone, oxytocin, LHRH and dopamine diffuse from the venous blood of the cavernous sinus to the arterial blood of the rostral epidural rete mirabile.

Keywords

  • carbon monoxide
  • even-toed ungulates
  • neurotransmitters
  • RERM
Open Access

Mesenchymal stem cells and their secretome - candidates for safe and effective therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 110 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

More than 80 diseases are currently classified as autoimmune, with a rising prevalence throughout the world. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is classified as a systemic autoimmune disorder, but the exact pathogenesis of SLE remains elusive. Currently available treatment strategies offer only the possibility for disease remission making it essential to develop more effective and safer strategies for treatment. Recently MSCs are gaining attention as attractive therapeutic tools for autoimmune disease treatment. Special focus should be given to MSCs originated from perinatal tissues such as Wharton's jelly, as they present unique immunomodulatory properties and remarkably low immunogenicity. MSCs exert their immunomodulatory effects via direct cell-to-cell communication as well as in a paracrine manner, creating possibility to apply secretome of MSCs as an individual therapeutic tool. Although the secretome of MSCs has not yet been utilized in SLE treatment, its efficacy has been suggested in other disorders, such as multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer's disease. Regular administration of paracrine factors derived from MSCs could potentially effect in significant reduction of SLE symptoms and in maintenance of disease remission.

Keywords

  • mesenchymal stem cells
  • secretome
  • conditioned media
  • exosomes
  • SLE
Open Access

Effectiveness of embryo transfer in cows - risk factors including in vivo derived and in vitro produced embryos

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 123 - 131

Abstract

Abstract

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer is a biotech method with more than 50 years of history and an established position in cattle breeding. This procedure is beneficial in many ways, but it also carries a risk of failure. The study presents the overview of the most important risk factors that may affect conception rates in the course of embryo transfer, including the factors associated with the embryo sourcing (embryo production method, embryo quality, development stage and breed, embryo storage method), embryo transfer procedure (synchrony/asynchrony, embryo transfer difficulty, the time of the transcervical insemination gun passage, depth of embryo deposition, localization and structure of the corpus luteum relative to the follicle and both individual characteristics of donors and recipients (level of concentration of progesterone, the state of health of the udder, lactation level, body condition score and age) and some environmental factors.

Keywords

  • embryo transfer
  • cattle reproduction
  • assisted reproduction techniques
Open Access

The history of melanoma diagnostics

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 132 - 137

Abstract

Abstract

This article provides a historical overview of melanoma, involving the knowledge of this neoplasm from antiquity to the present. Selected people who made key descriptions of the disease, its symptoms, and treatment methods were listed. The classification of melanoma, which is used in therapeutic management nowadays, is briefly discussed. Additionally, we describe circulating tumour cells and the selected diagnostic methods associated with their detection and characteristics. The aim of this article is to present a historical outline of melanoma, as well as its classification and the development of laboratory methods of its diagnosis. In addition, we have also provided a comparison of historical and current knowledge of this malignancy.

Keywords

  • melanoma
  • diagnostics
  • history
  • classification
  • circulating tumor cells
Open Access

The significance of HERC5, IFIH1, SAMD4, SEMA3A and MCTP1 genes expression in resistance to cytotoxic drugs in ovarian cancer cell lines

Published Online: 27 Sep 2021
Page range: 138 - 147

Abstract

Abstract

Resistance to chemotherapy is the main obstacle in contemporary ovarian cancer treatment. The aim of this study was the evaluation of expression of HERC5, IFIH1, SAMD4, MCTP1 and SEMA3A mRNA and assessment their role in resistance to cisplatin, paclitaxel, doxorubicin and topotecan in seven ovarian cancer cell lines. MTT assay was used in resistance assessment. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression levels of the genes. We observed different levels of resistance among cell lines. The resistance was not related to the expression of drug transporters genes. The expression of HERC5 and IFIH1 genes was upregulated, and the expression of SEMA3A gene was downregulated. Expression of SAMD4 was upregulated in PEA1, PEA2, and PEO23 cell lines, and expression of MCTP1 was downregulated in A2780, PEA2, and PEO23 cell lines. Upregulation of HERC5, IFIH1, and SAMD4 and downregulation of SEMA3A and MCTP1 in TOP-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines may suggest some role of those genes in topotecan resistance development.

Keywords

  • ovarian cancer
  • cytotoxic drug resistance
  • new genes

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