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Volume 10 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 10 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 3 (December 2020)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 3 (October 2019)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 2 (September 2019)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 1 (July 2019)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 3 (December 2018)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 2 (September 2018)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 5 (2017): Issue 2 (September 2017)

Volume 5 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 4 (2014): Issue 2 (December 2014)

Volume 4 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 4 (November 2011)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 3 (October 2011)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 2 (June 2011)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 1 (February 2011)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 4 (November 2010)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 3 (April 2010)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 2 (February 2010)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-3577
First Published
01 Oct 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 10 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-3577
First Published
01 Oct 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

ELABELA as a Marker of Gestational Complications – A Review

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 43 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

Adipose tissue secretes dozens of biologically active molecules known as adipokines or adipocytokines. Apelin receptor early endogenous ligand (ELABELA, also known as ELA or APELA) is a circulating signaling protein expressed in placental tissue that binds to apelin receptors. The first animal experimental findings suggested that the ELABELA deficiency might be responsible for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia--like symptoms, i.e., hypertension and proteinuria in mice. Exogenous ELABELA supplementation reverted preeclampsia symptoms and normalized fetal birth weight in mice. Several in vitro studies confirmed that ELABELA supplementation could improve trophoblast cell functions such as invasiveness and proliferation capacity. Thus, the ELABELA axis could serve as the target of innovative therapies for gestational complications. Nonetheless, most human studies do not support the thesis that disturbances in ELABELA secretion in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. Therefore, it is unlikely that ELABELA could serve as a novel early marker of preeclampsia in humans. Alterations in the ELABELA secretion have also been discovered among patients with other gestational complications such as GDM and fetal growth restriction.

Keywords

  • Adipokines
  • ELABELA
  • Placenta
  • Preeclampsia
  • Pregnancy
Open Access

Potential Role of LYN, CCL2, ITGB3 and IL6 Genes in the Immune Response of Porcine Buccal Mucosa Cells

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 49 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

The genes considered in this study, namely, LYN, CCL2, ITGB3 and IL6 can be related to immune response in porcine buccal mucosa cells primary cultured in vitro. These genes are also responsible for, inter alia, cell migration, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, intracellular signal transduction, extracellular matrix binding and wound healing. A total of 20 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts bred on commercial farms were used to obtain buccal mucosa cell cultures, which were harvested on the 7th, 15th and 30th day after initiation of the culture. Expression levels of LYN, CCL2, ITGB3 and IL6 were evaluated employing Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. All studied genes showed expression. The expression of CCL2 on day 15 was the highest of all factors measured. The greatest difference between the measurements occurred in gene IL6, between 7th and 15th day, while the least difference between the measurements occurred in gene LYN, between 7th and 15th day. Moreover, on the 7th day, LYN presented the lowest expression among all studied genes. Although in vitro conditions are much more controlled than in vivo conditions, all the factors that may positively or negatively affect cultured cells still cannot be fully predicted. Nevertheless, LYN, CCL2, ITGB3 and IL6 are a valuable starting point for studying further immunological processes in oral mucosal epithelial cells. Given their high regenerative potential, research into them is a highly valuable source of information for future wound healing therapies, where immunological processes should be carefully considered.

Keywords

  • immune response
  • porcine buccal mucosa
  • in vitro culture
  • RT-qPCR
Open Access

Difficulties in Treatment of Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome - Case Report

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 56 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

The iridocorneal endothelial syndrome manifests in three clinical types: Chandler syndrome, progressive iris atrophy, and Cogan-Reese syndrome. It is caused by the presence of abnormal corneal endothelium on the iris stroma and anterior chamber angle leading to usually unilateral, progressive iris atrophy, glaucoma, and/or corneal edema. The etiology is yet unclear. It affects mostly young adults, mostly females. Management of iridocorneal endothelial syndrome is complex: conservative and surgical, depending on the stage of the disease and intensity of present symptoms. A 30-year-old female with a medical history of the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome was reported to the Ophthalmology Department for consultation. Slit-lamp examination revealed iris atrophy and superior-nasal corectopia in the left eye. On gonioscopy, the angle was wide open in the right eye, but there were iridocorneal adhesions and incomplete angle-closure in the left eye. The patient was provided with maximum local therapy consisting of three anti-glaucoma medications. On later check-ups, the patient presented corneal edema and increased intraocular pressure. She was qualified to ExPress mini shunt trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. Two years later, a patient came to the clinic because of increased values of intraocular pressure (up to 59 mmHg), slit-lamp examination showed that the ExPress implant was congested with fragments of the corneal endothelial cells. Thanks to YAG iridotomy the implant was recanalized.

Keywords

  • iridocorneal endothelial syndrome
  • glaucoma
  • progressive iris atrophy
Open Access

Ocular Manifestations of Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 61 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

This article aims to present up-to-date information on ocular symptoms of pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome. The reviewers obtained the results based on a search of an electronic database. The pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome appears a few weeks after COVID-19 in children. The exact etiology remains unclear. It is diagnosed based on clinical and laboratory criteria. The most prevalent manifestation of the syndrome is non-purulent conjunctivitis (observed in around 50% of cases). The other ocular findings in the pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome can be; eyelid swelling, bilateral uveitis or vitreous hyperreflective dots in the posterior vitreous. The treatment of the ophthalmic symptoms is systemic and topical, targeting the enhanced inflammatory response of the organism and the presence of the given ocular findings.

Keywords

  • PIMS
  • multisystem inflammatory syndrome
  • MIS-C
  • COVID-19
  • ocular manifestations
  • conjunctivitis
Open Access

Heavy Eye Syndrome – Case Report

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 65 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to report clinical features, differential diagnosis and successful surgical outcome of a patient with myopic strabismus fixus, also known as Heavy Eye syndrome (HES). We present a case of a 47-year-old man who presented to the Ophthalmology Department with diplopia and poor vision. In the past, he had been diagnosed with Graves’ disease, high myopia, and secondary open-angle glaucoma. He had undergone orbital decompression and cataract surgery of both eyes. On examination, the patient had esotropia and hypotropia with limited abduction and elevation. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with HES. Yokoyama’s surgery combined with a medial rectus muscle recession in the right eye, were performed. The procedure reduced esotropia, hypotropia and improved ductions.

Keywords

  • heavy eye syndrome
  • high myopia
  • myopic strabismus fixus
Open Access

The Influence of L-Methionine, DL-Methionine, and a Methionine Hydroxy Analog on Proliferation and Differentiation Potential of Avian Myoblasts

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 69 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

Methionine is an essential amino critical to many cell functions including the synthesis of proteins. Supplementation of methionine in vivo is typically through L-methionine, DL-methionine, or a methionine hydroxy analog (MHA). The goal of this study was to compare the function of L-methionine, DL-methionine, and an MHA as a source of methionine to myoblasts in vitro. Avian myoblasts isolated from turkey embryos were plated in media containing varying concentrations of DL-methionine (DLM; 1.125 mg/mL or 0.56 mg/mL) or methionine hydroxy analog (MHA; 1.28 mg/mL or 0.64 mg/mL) as well as a methionine deficient negative control group and an L-methionine supplemented positive control group. The results of the proliferation assay exhibited cell division in the absence of methionine which was not significantly different than the positive control group. Results from the myoblast fusion assay revealed significantly greater myotube diameter between methionine supplemented groups compared to the methionine deficient negative control. The findings of this study show an ability for avian myoblasts to proliferate in the absence of methionine, the significance of which is discussed. Additionally, findings from the fusion assay suggest that DL-methionine and MHA are potential cost-effective substitutes for methionine supplementation during terminal differentiation of avian myoblasts.

Keywords

  • methionine
  • in vitro
  • myoblast
  • avian
  • proliferation
  • fusion
  • myotube diameter
  • differentiation
6 Articles
Open Access

ELABELA as a Marker of Gestational Complications – A Review

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 43 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

Adipose tissue secretes dozens of biologically active molecules known as adipokines or adipocytokines. Apelin receptor early endogenous ligand (ELABELA, also known as ELA or APELA) is a circulating signaling protein expressed in placental tissue that binds to apelin receptors. The first animal experimental findings suggested that the ELABELA deficiency might be responsible for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia--like symptoms, i.e., hypertension and proteinuria in mice. Exogenous ELABELA supplementation reverted preeclampsia symptoms and normalized fetal birth weight in mice. Several in vitro studies confirmed that ELABELA supplementation could improve trophoblast cell functions such as invasiveness and proliferation capacity. Thus, the ELABELA axis could serve as the target of innovative therapies for gestational complications. Nonetheless, most human studies do not support the thesis that disturbances in ELABELA secretion in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. Therefore, it is unlikely that ELABELA could serve as a novel early marker of preeclampsia in humans. Alterations in the ELABELA secretion have also been discovered among patients with other gestational complications such as GDM and fetal growth restriction.

Keywords

  • Adipokines
  • ELABELA
  • Placenta
  • Preeclampsia
  • Pregnancy
Open Access

Potential Role of LYN, CCL2, ITGB3 and IL6 Genes in the Immune Response of Porcine Buccal Mucosa Cells

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 49 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

The genes considered in this study, namely, LYN, CCL2, ITGB3 and IL6 can be related to immune response in porcine buccal mucosa cells primary cultured in vitro. These genes are also responsible for, inter alia, cell migration, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, intracellular signal transduction, extracellular matrix binding and wound healing. A total of 20 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts bred on commercial farms were used to obtain buccal mucosa cell cultures, which were harvested on the 7th, 15th and 30th day after initiation of the culture. Expression levels of LYN, CCL2, ITGB3 and IL6 were evaluated employing Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. All studied genes showed expression. The expression of CCL2 on day 15 was the highest of all factors measured. The greatest difference between the measurements occurred in gene IL6, between 7th and 15th day, while the least difference between the measurements occurred in gene LYN, between 7th and 15th day. Moreover, on the 7th day, LYN presented the lowest expression among all studied genes. Although in vitro conditions are much more controlled than in vivo conditions, all the factors that may positively or negatively affect cultured cells still cannot be fully predicted. Nevertheless, LYN, CCL2, ITGB3 and IL6 are a valuable starting point for studying further immunological processes in oral mucosal epithelial cells. Given their high regenerative potential, research into them is a highly valuable source of information for future wound healing therapies, where immunological processes should be carefully considered.

Keywords

  • immune response
  • porcine buccal mucosa
  • in vitro culture
  • RT-qPCR
Open Access

Difficulties in Treatment of Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome - Case Report

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 56 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

The iridocorneal endothelial syndrome manifests in three clinical types: Chandler syndrome, progressive iris atrophy, and Cogan-Reese syndrome. It is caused by the presence of abnormal corneal endothelium on the iris stroma and anterior chamber angle leading to usually unilateral, progressive iris atrophy, glaucoma, and/or corneal edema. The etiology is yet unclear. It affects mostly young adults, mostly females. Management of iridocorneal endothelial syndrome is complex: conservative and surgical, depending on the stage of the disease and intensity of present symptoms. A 30-year-old female with a medical history of the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome was reported to the Ophthalmology Department for consultation. Slit-lamp examination revealed iris atrophy and superior-nasal corectopia in the left eye. On gonioscopy, the angle was wide open in the right eye, but there were iridocorneal adhesions and incomplete angle-closure in the left eye. The patient was provided with maximum local therapy consisting of three anti-glaucoma medications. On later check-ups, the patient presented corneal edema and increased intraocular pressure. She was qualified to ExPress mini shunt trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. Two years later, a patient came to the clinic because of increased values of intraocular pressure (up to 59 mmHg), slit-lamp examination showed that the ExPress implant was congested with fragments of the corneal endothelial cells. Thanks to YAG iridotomy the implant was recanalized.

Keywords

  • iridocorneal endothelial syndrome
  • glaucoma
  • progressive iris atrophy
Open Access

Ocular Manifestations of Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 61 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

This article aims to present up-to-date information on ocular symptoms of pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome. The reviewers obtained the results based on a search of an electronic database. The pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome appears a few weeks after COVID-19 in children. The exact etiology remains unclear. It is diagnosed based on clinical and laboratory criteria. The most prevalent manifestation of the syndrome is non-purulent conjunctivitis (observed in around 50% of cases). The other ocular findings in the pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome can be; eyelid swelling, bilateral uveitis or vitreous hyperreflective dots in the posterior vitreous. The treatment of the ophthalmic symptoms is systemic and topical, targeting the enhanced inflammatory response of the organism and the presence of the given ocular findings.

Keywords

  • PIMS
  • multisystem inflammatory syndrome
  • MIS-C
  • COVID-19
  • ocular manifestations
  • conjunctivitis
Open Access

Heavy Eye Syndrome – Case Report

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 65 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to report clinical features, differential diagnosis and successful surgical outcome of a patient with myopic strabismus fixus, also known as Heavy Eye syndrome (HES). We present a case of a 47-year-old man who presented to the Ophthalmology Department with diplopia and poor vision. In the past, he had been diagnosed with Graves’ disease, high myopia, and secondary open-angle glaucoma. He had undergone orbital decompression and cataract surgery of both eyes. On examination, the patient had esotropia and hypotropia with limited abduction and elevation. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with HES. Yokoyama’s surgery combined with a medial rectus muscle recession in the right eye, were performed. The procedure reduced esotropia, hypotropia and improved ductions.

Keywords

  • heavy eye syndrome
  • high myopia
  • myopic strabismus fixus
Open Access

The Influence of L-Methionine, DL-Methionine, and a Methionine Hydroxy Analog on Proliferation and Differentiation Potential of Avian Myoblasts

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Page range: 69 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

Methionine is an essential amino critical to many cell functions including the synthesis of proteins. Supplementation of methionine in vivo is typically through L-methionine, DL-methionine, or a methionine hydroxy analog (MHA). The goal of this study was to compare the function of L-methionine, DL-methionine, and an MHA as a source of methionine to myoblasts in vitro. Avian myoblasts isolated from turkey embryos were plated in media containing varying concentrations of DL-methionine (DLM; 1.125 mg/mL or 0.56 mg/mL) or methionine hydroxy analog (MHA; 1.28 mg/mL or 0.64 mg/mL) as well as a methionine deficient negative control group and an L-methionine supplemented positive control group. The results of the proliferation assay exhibited cell division in the absence of methionine which was not significantly different than the positive control group. Results from the myoblast fusion assay revealed significantly greater myotube diameter between methionine supplemented groups compared to the methionine deficient negative control. The findings of this study show an ability for avian myoblasts to proliferate in the absence of methionine, the significance of which is discussed. Additionally, findings from the fusion assay suggest that DL-methionine and MHA are potential cost-effective substitutes for methionine supplementation during terminal differentiation of avian myoblasts.

Keywords

  • methionine
  • in vitro
  • myoblast
  • avian
  • proliferation
  • fusion
  • myotube diameter
  • differentiation

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