Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 10 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 10 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 9 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 3 (December 2020)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 8 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 3 (October 2019)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 2 (September 2019)

Volume 7 (2019): Issue 1 (July 2019)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 3 (December 2018)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 2 (September 2018)

Volume 6 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 5 (2017): Issue 2 (September 2017)

Volume 5 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 4 (2014): Issue 2 (December 2014)

Volume 4 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 4 (November 2011)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 3 (October 2011)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 2 (June 2011)

Volume 3 (2011): Issue 1 (February 2011)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 4 (November 2010)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 3 (April 2010)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 2 (February 2010)

Volume 2 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-3577
First Published
01 Oct 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 10 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-3577
First Published
01 Oct 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
access type Open Access

Viability of bovine in vitro matured oocytes following ultra-rapid vitrification

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 1 - 6

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine viability of cattle oocytes after cryopreservation. Oocytes after in vitro maturation (IVM) were vitrified in minimum volume on the nickel electron microscopy grids by ultra-rapid cooling technique. After warming and subsequent in vitro fertilization the presumptive zygotes were cultured to reach the stage of the blastocyst (Bl). Several devitrified oocytes were processed for electron microscopy assay. Although, embryo cleavage and Bl percentages in the vitrified group were slightly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05), the Bl total cell number (TCN), apoptosis and dead cell percentages did not differ between both groups. However, significant difference was found between day 7 (D7) and day 8 (D8) Bl in the TCN in control (108.0 vs. 90.5) and vitrified group (103.75 vs 98.14). Electron microscopy of frozen oocytes revealed slight reversible injuries in mitochondria and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), nevertheless, the development of devitrified oocytes to the Bl stage was comparable to those in fresh oocytes. In conclusion, higher proportion of slower developing Bl (D8) compared to D7 Bl may be related to the mentioned minor damages of some organelles in vitrified oocytes.

Keywords

  • vitrification
  • bovine
  • oocyte
  • embryo
  • ultrastructure
  • apoptosis
access type Open Access

Silica nanoparticles in targeted human cancer therapy

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 7 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

One of the leading causes of death across the world is cancer. Despite massive attempts to develop efficient chemotherapy medications, there is still a significant toxicity and selectivity problem. We are looking for novel therapies and preventative strategies due to the toxicity of contemporary chemotherapy and cancer cell resistance to anticancer drugs. The structure and molecular characteristics of Na2SiO3 nanoparticles were investigated using density-functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G** level. The study looked at engineering qualities and several molecular recipes like HOMO, LUMO, and Egap in order to figure out how to arrange molecules as a powerful antioxidant, and hence the majority of the compounds are anticancer. We discovered that Na2SiO3 gel particles are responsible for antioxidant activity, implying that it can be employed as an antioxidant and anticancer for cancer prevention and treatment.

Keywords

  • Na2SiO3
  • human cancer
  • antioxidant
  • HOMO
  • LUMO
access type Open Access

Current application of exosomes in medicine

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 18 - 22

Abstract

Abstract

Exosomes are a distinct type of extracellular vesicles that play a major role in intracellular transport and communication. Depending on the cell of origin, exosomes can contain diverse constituents of a cell, including DNA, RNA, lipids, metabolites, cytosolic and cell-surface proteins, playing important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Due to these facts, they are subject of extensive research aiming at translating the knowledge into clinical approaches that are at the interface between nanomedicine and biopharmaceuticals.

Their potential clinical use mostly revolves around the fields of diagnostics and drug delivery, especially important in treatment of cancer. The conventional and emerging methods of exosome isolation are either based on their physical properties (such as density and/or size) or their functions. However, the isolation approaches are still characterised by significant downsides, lacking standardisation, and ensuring purity. The review gives a critical overview on exosomes characteristics, isolation approaches and the potential that exosomes hold in developing new clinical approaches of modern medicine, highlighting the need for further research to fully grasp their potential and translate the knowledge into future therapeutic solutions.

Keywords

  • exosomes
  • applications
  • medicine
access type Open Access

Changes of the zona pellucida patterns during oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development in mammals: mini-review

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 23 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

The mammalian zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix that surrounds immature and mature oocytes and early embryos until the stage of a blastocyst and its implantation. This mini-review summarizes basic information on the ZP and its morphologic and functional changes during in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization and in vivo pre-implantation embryo development.

Keywords

  • mammals
  • zona pellucida morphology
  • ZP glycoproteins
  • maturation and fertilization
  • pre-implantation development
access type Open Access

Follicular renewal and stemness potency of follicular cells depended of telomerase activity and TERT expression – short review

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 29 - 33

Abstract

Abstract

Several hypotheses have been proposed, relating to the potential genesis of follicular cells in the ovarian niche. Reports using mice as an experimental model have suggested that the ovaries may contain stem cells that are likely involved in the formation of new follicles in adult reproductive life. Over recent years, various types of ovarian cells have been identified and described to confirm or disprove the existence of ovarian adult stem cells. Most research is focused on granulosa cells (GCs), which are essential for follicular development and maturation of female germ cells (oocytes). GCs exhibit the features of stem cells, such as expression of stem cell markers: OCT-4, Sox-2, Nanog as well as certain markers of mesenchymal stem cells, including CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD117, and CD166. Another discovery in favor of the potential stemness of GCs is their ability to transdifferentiate towards other cell lines and high telomerase (TERT) activity in dividing compartments of the follicle during its maturation.

Keywords

  • follicular renewal
  • ovarian reserve
  • telomerase activity
  • TERT expression
  • stem cell niche
access type Open Access

Approaches for in vitro culture of granulosa cells and ovarian follicles

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 34 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

The in vitro culture of ovarian follicles or cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) is used to study the factors that regulate follicular development and may have potential use in artificial reproductive technology (ART). Before ovulation, the follicle is formed by oocyte and cell populations known as granulosa cells (GCs). These cells build the internal and external mass of the follicular wall. Oocyte growth and proliferation of the surrounding cells depend on the gap junctions between the oocyte and the GCs. Maintenance of the optimal in vitro culture system allowing for preservation of follicle architecture and granulosa-oocyte interaction may be critical for success in vitro maturation of follicles. Recently many studies have focused on a culture of GCs, which have important functions related to steroidogenesis. Granulosa cells maintained in in vitro conditions exhibit stem cell properties making it important to consider in vitro culture (IVC) methods of the GC population.

Keywords

  • granulosa cells (GCs)
  • cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC)
  • ovarian follicle
  • ovarian follicle
  • in vitro culture systems
6 Articles
access type Open Access

Viability of bovine in vitro matured oocytes following ultra-rapid vitrification

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 1 - 6

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine viability of cattle oocytes after cryopreservation. Oocytes after in vitro maturation (IVM) were vitrified in minimum volume on the nickel electron microscopy grids by ultra-rapid cooling technique. After warming and subsequent in vitro fertilization the presumptive zygotes were cultured to reach the stage of the blastocyst (Bl). Several devitrified oocytes were processed for electron microscopy assay. Although, embryo cleavage and Bl percentages in the vitrified group were slightly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05), the Bl total cell number (TCN), apoptosis and dead cell percentages did not differ between both groups. However, significant difference was found between day 7 (D7) and day 8 (D8) Bl in the TCN in control (108.0 vs. 90.5) and vitrified group (103.75 vs 98.14). Electron microscopy of frozen oocytes revealed slight reversible injuries in mitochondria and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), nevertheless, the development of devitrified oocytes to the Bl stage was comparable to those in fresh oocytes. In conclusion, higher proportion of slower developing Bl (D8) compared to D7 Bl may be related to the mentioned minor damages of some organelles in vitrified oocytes.

Keywords

  • vitrification
  • bovine
  • oocyte
  • embryo
  • ultrastructure
  • apoptosis
access type Open Access

Silica nanoparticles in targeted human cancer therapy

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 7 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

One of the leading causes of death across the world is cancer. Despite massive attempts to develop efficient chemotherapy medications, there is still a significant toxicity and selectivity problem. We are looking for novel therapies and preventative strategies due to the toxicity of contemporary chemotherapy and cancer cell resistance to anticancer drugs. The structure and molecular characteristics of Na2SiO3 nanoparticles were investigated using density-functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G** level. The study looked at engineering qualities and several molecular recipes like HOMO, LUMO, and Egap in order to figure out how to arrange molecules as a powerful antioxidant, and hence the majority of the compounds are anticancer. We discovered that Na2SiO3 gel particles are responsible for antioxidant activity, implying that it can be employed as an antioxidant and anticancer for cancer prevention and treatment.

Keywords

  • Na2SiO3
  • human cancer
  • antioxidant
  • HOMO
  • LUMO
access type Open Access

Current application of exosomes in medicine

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 18 - 22

Abstract

Abstract

Exosomes are a distinct type of extracellular vesicles that play a major role in intracellular transport and communication. Depending on the cell of origin, exosomes can contain diverse constituents of a cell, including DNA, RNA, lipids, metabolites, cytosolic and cell-surface proteins, playing important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Due to these facts, they are subject of extensive research aiming at translating the knowledge into clinical approaches that are at the interface between nanomedicine and biopharmaceuticals.

Their potential clinical use mostly revolves around the fields of diagnostics and drug delivery, especially important in treatment of cancer. The conventional and emerging methods of exosome isolation are either based on their physical properties (such as density and/or size) or their functions. However, the isolation approaches are still characterised by significant downsides, lacking standardisation, and ensuring purity. The review gives a critical overview on exosomes characteristics, isolation approaches and the potential that exosomes hold in developing new clinical approaches of modern medicine, highlighting the need for further research to fully grasp their potential and translate the knowledge into future therapeutic solutions.

Keywords

  • exosomes
  • applications
  • medicine
access type Open Access

Changes of the zona pellucida patterns during oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development in mammals: mini-review

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 23 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

The mammalian zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix that surrounds immature and mature oocytes and early embryos until the stage of a blastocyst and its implantation. This mini-review summarizes basic information on the ZP and its morphologic and functional changes during in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization and in vivo pre-implantation embryo development.

Keywords

  • mammals
  • zona pellucida morphology
  • ZP glycoproteins
  • maturation and fertilization
  • pre-implantation development
access type Open Access

Follicular renewal and stemness potency of follicular cells depended of telomerase activity and TERT expression – short review

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 29 - 33

Abstract

Abstract

Several hypotheses have been proposed, relating to the potential genesis of follicular cells in the ovarian niche. Reports using mice as an experimental model have suggested that the ovaries may contain stem cells that are likely involved in the formation of new follicles in adult reproductive life. Over recent years, various types of ovarian cells have been identified and described to confirm or disprove the existence of ovarian adult stem cells. Most research is focused on granulosa cells (GCs), which are essential for follicular development and maturation of female germ cells (oocytes). GCs exhibit the features of stem cells, such as expression of stem cell markers: OCT-4, Sox-2, Nanog as well as certain markers of mesenchymal stem cells, including CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD117, and CD166. Another discovery in favor of the potential stemness of GCs is their ability to transdifferentiate towards other cell lines and high telomerase (TERT) activity in dividing compartments of the follicle during its maturation.

Keywords

  • follicular renewal
  • ovarian reserve
  • telomerase activity
  • TERT expression
  • stem cell niche
access type Open Access

Approaches for in vitro culture of granulosa cells and ovarian follicles

Published Online: 10 Apr 2022
Page range: 34 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

The in vitro culture of ovarian follicles or cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) is used to study the factors that regulate follicular development and may have potential use in artificial reproductive technology (ART). Before ovulation, the follicle is formed by oocyte and cell populations known as granulosa cells (GCs). These cells build the internal and external mass of the follicular wall. Oocyte growth and proliferation of the surrounding cells depend on the gap junctions between the oocyte and the GCs. Maintenance of the optimal in vitro culture system allowing for preservation of follicle architecture and granulosa-oocyte interaction may be critical for success in vitro maturation of follicles. Recently many studies have focused on a culture of GCs, which have important functions related to steroidogenesis. Granulosa cells maintained in in vitro conditions exhibit stem cell properties making it important to consider in vitro culture (IVC) methods of the GC population.

Keywords

  • granulosa cells (GCs)
  • cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC)
  • ovarian follicle
  • ovarian follicle
  • in vitro culture systems

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo