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TEMPORÄRE RÄUMLICHE NÄHE – AKTEURE, ORTE UND INTERAKTIONEN

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Integrierende Stadtentwicklung

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Planung im Wandel - von Rollenverständnissen und Selbstbildern

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Volume 56 (1998): Issue 1 (January 1998)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1869-4179
First Published
30 Jan 1936
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
German, English

Search

Volume 74 (2016): Issue 6 (December 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1869-4179
First Published
30 Jan 1936
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
German, English

Search

12 Articles

Editorial

Open Access

Biodiversität und nachhaltige Landnutzung in Großschutzgebieten

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 479 - 480

Abstract

Wissenschaftlicher Beitrag

Open Access

Biodiversity and Sustainable Land Use in Protected Areas

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 481 - 494

Abstract

Abstract

Land-use systems and biodiversity in Germany can be investigated using the network of protected areas. This issue focuses on nature parks, national parks and biosphere reserves that are confronted with various problems related to competition for land and acceptance. The working group “Biodiversity and sustainable land use in protected areas” of the Academy for Spatial Research and Planning (ARL) has tackled this topic. This paper reviews the research questions that are debated in this special issue of “Raumforschung und Raumordnung”. These questions include the influence of different land-use systems on the state of ecosystem services, how the different types of protected areas should be evaluated in terms of their individual contributions to the conservation and development of biodiversity, the role played specifically by woods and forestry management with regard to biodiversity and sustainable land use, and the patterns of conflict that exist due to competing land uses. Attention is also paid to concrete governance approaches in protected areas against the background of competition for land and the question of how experience gained in protected areas can be transferred to ,normal‘ landscapes. The paper also provides basic definitions relevant to the topic. Finally, from the perspective of various disciplines, the working group calls for policy and planning actors to support the sustainable development of protected areas in Germany. Here the focus is not only on a stringent strengthening of the status of protected areas on the federal level combined with appropriate administrative structures, but also on promoting improved quality assurance and quality development of the protected areas. Of further relevance to these calls for action is the field of tension between the necessity for strengthened process protection and the intensification of agriculture in the context of EU Common Agricultural Policy.

Keywords

  • Nature Protection
  • Biodiversity
  • Acceptance
  • Land Use Conflicts
  • Protected Areas
Open Access

Land Use and Biological Diversity in Germany – To What Extent Can Large Protected Areas Contribute to Sustainability?

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 495 - 508

Abstract

Abstract

Agriculture and forestry play a central role in preserving biological diversity. In this context, we examined the attributes and present state of sustainability of agriculture and forestry in respect of biological diversity in Germany. Additionally, we asked whether large protected areas can serve as model sites for the integration of land use and conservation or as priority areas for nature conservation. Sustainable land use is a way of managing natural resources to meet present needs without limiting future generations in fulfilling their needs. The main attribute of sustainability is the implementation of a management system that safeguards potential multifunctional use. The indicator systems implemented on the national level in Germany to evaluate sustainability of agriculture and forestry are shown to be incomplete in respect of biological diversity and do not always contain target values. With the different types of large protected areas in Germany different targets are pursued. While national parks exclude agriculture and forestry to a large extent and therefore serve as priority areas for conservation, nature parks and biosphere reserves aim at the integration of land use and nature protection. Large protected areas in Germany do not exhibit a representative spatial distribution. In order to render nature parks and biosphere reserves to model sites for the integration of land use and nature conservation their management needs to be improved considerably and an even more systematic conservation planning should be pursued. In contrast, national parks already reveal that they will fulfill their task as priority sites for nature conservation in the near future.

Keywords

  • Sustainability
  • Forestry
  • Agriculture
  • Large protected areas
  • Biological diversity
  • Evaluation
  • Indicators
Open Access

Concepts for Target Species as an Instrument for a Strategic Protection and for the Monitoring of Biodiversity in Large Protected Areas

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 509 - 524

Abstract

Abstract

Due to its complexity biodiversity cannot be measured easily – its quantification requires the selection of species which represent biodiversity. The systematic and criteria-based selection of target species provides a pragmatic solution. These target species are representative for the biocoenoses in the characteristic types of biotopes and ecosystems within a planning area. This approach allows to qualitatively and quantitatively derive and justify aims of nature conservation, to use them as simple indicators e. g. to prove the sustainability of a certain land use or the success of conservation measures, and to publicly communicate conservation objectives. This can be particularly helpful in large protected areas since they have to fulfil certain aims of conservation and sustainability as large-scale sections of the landscape. This paper defines the term and the functions of target species with a particular focus on large protected areas. It describes the methodical approach to establish a concept of target species including the applicable criteria using the examples of the nature parks Spessart and Diemelsee. For the nature park Diemelsee a particular emphasis has been laid on plant and animal species reacting sensitively to climate change since they require specific protection. Another innovative approach describes the use of target species in the context of the marketing of organic products from biosphere reserves which verifiably improve biodiversity. The selection of the target species has to ensure that their spatial demands are compatible with the respective planning level. Then the target species can integrate the planning target of biodiversity in spatially relevant planning projects. An evaluation based on target species allows the early identification of possible conflict issues and their mastering in the course of the planning process. This can help to relieve, accelerate and even cheapen the later planning process.

Keywords

  • Biodiversity
  • · Large protected areas
  • · Nature parks
  • · Biosphere reserves
  • · Target species
Open Access

Acceptance as a Framework for a Successful Management of Land Use and Biological Diversity in Large Protected Areas

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 525 - 540

Abstract

Abstract

Local acceptance and the resolution of conflicts that arise from conservation objectives are important tasks for the successful management of large protected areas. This paper focuses on the distinct genesis of acceptance research for German large protected areas compared to the global context where the comprehensive term “park-people relationships” prevails. Using multiple tasks and roles assigned to national parks and biosphere reserves, we illustrate the overall diversity of conflict potential. Four explorative case studies, based on media analysis and selected expert interviews, are used to elaborate on the individual local conditions that foster conflict or co-existence in Germany. Berchtesgaden National Park is currently mainly free of conflicts, but unforeseen events such as barkbeetle infestations could unsettle the situation. On the contrary, private land ownership and conflicts over zoning in the Senne-Teutoburger Wald-Eggegebirge region have halted plans to establish a national park. In the Bliesgau Biosphere Reserve, conflicts arose around conflicting land uses and overlapping planning responsibilities during the designation process, while in the Pfälzerwald Biosphere Reserve region, the development of renewable energies – mainly wind turbines – have shown to bear a specific conflict potential. The paper concludes with suggestions related to spatial and environmental planning, such as widening the mainly local focus on “acceptance” to active stakeholder management, including integrated, adaptive management approaches, in the sense of the term park-people relationships.

Keywords

  • Acceptance
  • Large protected areas
  • Protected area management
  • Park-people relationships
  • Model region
  • Conflict resolution
Open Access

Implementation of the Ecosystem Services Approach in German Biosphere Reserves

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 541 - 554

Abstract

Abstract

To safeguard ecosystem services has been defined as a central goal for large protected areas in several international agreements. This study investigates the importance of the ecosystem services approach for biosphere reserves in Germany. The ecosystem services approach can be useful in various fields for large protected areas, e. g. as approach in communication, fundraising, monitoring, planning and management. The analysis of the evaluation reports of the currently 15 UNESCO biosphere reserves in Germany shows a high variation in the degree of implementing the ecosystem services approach. The biosphere reserves at the North Sea coast are leading, possibly as they are subject to the trilateral agreement on the Wadden Sea, as the evaluation reports are fairly new, and they have better equipped management, being biosphere reserves and national parks at the same time. Important barriers of the implementation of the ecosystem services approach may arise from limited resources and from the administrative allocation of reserve management to environmental ministries, which is in conflict with the cross-sectoral character of the ecosystem services approach.

Keywords

  • Large protected areas
  • Ecosystem services
  • Evaluation
  • Regional development
  • Biosphere reserve
  • Nature conservation
Open Access

Adaptation to climate change as a challenge for biosphere reserves – the example of the river landscape Elbe-Brandenburg

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 555 - 567

Abstract

Abstract

Dealing with the effects of climate change poses new challenges for biosphere reserves as model regions for sustainable development. Although the impacts on ecosystems or landscapes can only be managed to a limited extent and are difficult to predict, the effects of climate change should be strategically addressed. Furthermore, it is necessary to involve numerous actors with various perspectives in the decisions that must be reached against a background of uncertain prognoses for the future. The paper uses the example of the UNESCO-Biosphere Reserve Elbe-Brandenburg River Landscape to illustrate the concrete fields of action that are emerging and the possible work phases involved in a planned approach to dealing with climate change. Various measures relevant to landscape water balance, vegetation, fauna and land use are demonstrated. On the Elbe, river basin management is particularly important. The discussion of possible strategic fields of action elucidates the roles that can be assumed by the administrations of biosphere reserves in a process of climate adaptation. The options and the extent to which biosphere reserves can develop into model regions for adaptation to climate change depend in practice on the capacities and expertise available.

Keywords

  • Adaptation strategies
  • Major protected areas
  • Biosphere reserves
  • River basin
  • Elbe
  • Land use
Open Access

Governance and Regional Development in Protected Areas of Switzerland and Austria

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 569 - 583

Abstract

Abstract

The article investigates large protected areas from a governance research perspective. The analytical focus is on regional governance regimes of selected large protected areas in Austria and Switzerland. The analysis characterizes structures and patterns of regional governance regimes. Also, the kind and quality of cooperation between the actors is assessed. The article contributes to a deeper understanding of the regional governance of protected areas. Drawing from the empirical findings some recommendations are made for a more efficient management and organization of large protected areas.

Keywords

  • Regional Governance
  • · Governance Regime
  • · Regional Development
  • · Large Protected Area
  • · Regional Nature Park
  • · Biosphere Reserve

Rezension

Open Access

Parks of the Future. Protected Areas in Europe Challenging Regional and Global Change

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 585 - 587

Abstract

Open Access

Understanding Geographies of Polarization and Peripheralization: Perspectives from Central and Eastern Europe and Beyond

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 589 - 591

Abstract

Open Access

Grundlagen der Geo-Informationssysteme. 6. völlig neu bearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 593 - 594

Abstract

Erratum

12 Articles

Editorial

Open Access

Biodiversität und nachhaltige Landnutzung in Großschutzgebieten

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 479 - 480

Abstract

Wissenschaftlicher Beitrag

Open Access

Biodiversity and Sustainable Land Use in Protected Areas

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 481 - 494

Abstract

Abstract

Land-use systems and biodiversity in Germany can be investigated using the network of protected areas. This issue focuses on nature parks, national parks and biosphere reserves that are confronted with various problems related to competition for land and acceptance. The working group “Biodiversity and sustainable land use in protected areas” of the Academy for Spatial Research and Planning (ARL) has tackled this topic. This paper reviews the research questions that are debated in this special issue of “Raumforschung und Raumordnung”. These questions include the influence of different land-use systems on the state of ecosystem services, how the different types of protected areas should be evaluated in terms of their individual contributions to the conservation and development of biodiversity, the role played specifically by woods and forestry management with regard to biodiversity and sustainable land use, and the patterns of conflict that exist due to competing land uses. Attention is also paid to concrete governance approaches in protected areas against the background of competition for land and the question of how experience gained in protected areas can be transferred to ,normal‘ landscapes. The paper also provides basic definitions relevant to the topic. Finally, from the perspective of various disciplines, the working group calls for policy and planning actors to support the sustainable development of protected areas in Germany. Here the focus is not only on a stringent strengthening of the status of protected areas on the federal level combined with appropriate administrative structures, but also on promoting improved quality assurance and quality development of the protected areas. Of further relevance to these calls for action is the field of tension between the necessity for strengthened process protection and the intensification of agriculture in the context of EU Common Agricultural Policy.

Keywords

  • Nature Protection
  • Biodiversity
  • Acceptance
  • Land Use Conflicts
  • Protected Areas
Open Access

Land Use and Biological Diversity in Germany – To What Extent Can Large Protected Areas Contribute to Sustainability?

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 495 - 508

Abstract

Abstract

Agriculture and forestry play a central role in preserving biological diversity. In this context, we examined the attributes and present state of sustainability of agriculture and forestry in respect of biological diversity in Germany. Additionally, we asked whether large protected areas can serve as model sites for the integration of land use and conservation or as priority areas for nature conservation. Sustainable land use is a way of managing natural resources to meet present needs without limiting future generations in fulfilling their needs. The main attribute of sustainability is the implementation of a management system that safeguards potential multifunctional use. The indicator systems implemented on the national level in Germany to evaluate sustainability of agriculture and forestry are shown to be incomplete in respect of biological diversity and do not always contain target values. With the different types of large protected areas in Germany different targets are pursued. While national parks exclude agriculture and forestry to a large extent and therefore serve as priority areas for conservation, nature parks and biosphere reserves aim at the integration of land use and nature protection. Large protected areas in Germany do not exhibit a representative spatial distribution. In order to render nature parks and biosphere reserves to model sites for the integration of land use and nature conservation their management needs to be improved considerably and an even more systematic conservation planning should be pursued. In contrast, national parks already reveal that they will fulfill their task as priority sites for nature conservation in the near future.

Keywords

  • Sustainability
  • Forestry
  • Agriculture
  • Large protected areas
  • Biological diversity
  • Evaluation
  • Indicators
Open Access

Concepts for Target Species as an Instrument for a Strategic Protection and for the Monitoring of Biodiversity in Large Protected Areas

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 509 - 524

Abstract

Abstract

Due to its complexity biodiversity cannot be measured easily – its quantification requires the selection of species which represent biodiversity. The systematic and criteria-based selection of target species provides a pragmatic solution. These target species are representative for the biocoenoses in the characteristic types of biotopes and ecosystems within a planning area. This approach allows to qualitatively and quantitatively derive and justify aims of nature conservation, to use them as simple indicators e. g. to prove the sustainability of a certain land use or the success of conservation measures, and to publicly communicate conservation objectives. This can be particularly helpful in large protected areas since they have to fulfil certain aims of conservation and sustainability as large-scale sections of the landscape. This paper defines the term and the functions of target species with a particular focus on large protected areas. It describes the methodical approach to establish a concept of target species including the applicable criteria using the examples of the nature parks Spessart and Diemelsee. For the nature park Diemelsee a particular emphasis has been laid on plant and animal species reacting sensitively to climate change since they require specific protection. Another innovative approach describes the use of target species in the context of the marketing of organic products from biosphere reserves which verifiably improve biodiversity. The selection of the target species has to ensure that their spatial demands are compatible with the respective planning level. Then the target species can integrate the planning target of biodiversity in spatially relevant planning projects. An evaluation based on target species allows the early identification of possible conflict issues and their mastering in the course of the planning process. This can help to relieve, accelerate and even cheapen the later planning process.

Keywords

  • Biodiversity
  • · Large protected areas
  • · Nature parks
  • · Biosphere reserves
  • · Target species
Open Access

Acceptance as a Framework for a Successful Management of Land Use and Biological Diversity in Large Protected Areas

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 525 - 540

Abstract

Abstract

Local acceptance and the resolution of conflicts that arise from conservation objectives are important tasks for the successful management of large protected areas. This paper focuses on the distinct genesis of acceptance research for German large protected areas compared to the global context where the comprehensive term “park-people relationships” prevails. Using multiple tasks and roles assigned to national parks and biosphere reserves, we illustrate the overall diversity of conflict potential. Four explorative case studies, based on media analysis and selected expert interviews, are used to elaborate on the individual local conditions that foster conflict or co-existence in Germany. Berchtesgaden National Park is currently mainly free of conflicts, but unforeseen events such as barkbeetle infestations could unsettle the situation. On the contrary, private land ownership and conflicts over zoning in the Senne-Teutoburger Wald-Eggegebirge region have halted plans to establish a national park. In the Bliesgau Biosphere Reserve, conflicts arose around conflicting land uses and overlapping planning responsibilities during the designation process, while in the Pfälzerwald Biosphere Reserve region, the development of renewable energies – mainly wind turbines – have shown to bear a specific conflict potential. The paper concludes with suggestions related to spatial and environmental planning, such as widening the mainly local focus on “acceptance” to active stakeholder management, including integrated, adaptive management approaches, in the sense of the term park-people relationships.

Keywords

  • Acceptance
  • Large protected areas
  • Protected area management
  • Park-people relationships
  • Model region
  • Conflict resolution
Open Access

Implementation of the Ecosystem Services Approach in German Biosphere Reserves

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 541 - 554

Abstract

Abstract

To safeguard ecosystem services has been defined as a central goal for large protected areas in several international agreements. This study investigates the importance of the ecosystem services approach for biosphere reserves in Germany. The ecosystem services approach can be useful in various fields for large protected areas, e. g. as approach in communication, fundraising, monitoring, planning and management. The analysis of the evaluation reports of the currently 15 UNESCO biosphere reserves in Germany shows a high variation in the degree of implementing the ecosystem services approach. The biosphere reserves at the North Sea coast are leading, possibly as they are subject to the trilateral agreement on the Wadden Sea, as the evaluation reports are fairly new, and they have better equipped management, being biosphere reserves and national parks at the same time. Important barriers of the implementation of the ecosystem services approach may arise from limited resources and from the administrative allocation of reserve management to environmental ministries, which is in conflict with the cross-sectoral character of the ecosystem services approach.

Keywords

  • Large protected areas
  • Ecosystem services
  • Evaluation
  • Regional development
  • Biosphere reserve
  • Nature conservation
Open Access

Adaptation to climate change as a challenge for biosphere reserves – the example of the river landscape Elbe-Brandenburg

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 555 - 567

Abstract

Abstract

Dealing with the effects of climate change poses new challenges for biosphere reserves as model regions for sustainable development. Although the impacts on ecosystems or landscapes can only be managed to a limited extent and are difficult to predict, the effects of climate change should be strategically addressed. Furthermore, it is necessary to involve numerous actors with various perspectives in the decisions that must be reached against a background of uncertain prognoses for the future. The paper uses the example of the UNESCO-Biosphere Reserve Elbe-Brandenburg River Landscape to illustrate the concrete fields of action that are emerging and the possible work phases involved in a planned approach to dealing with climate change. Various measures relevant to landscape water balance, vegetation, fauna and land use are demonstrated. On the Elbe, river basin management is particularly important. The discussion of possible strategic fields of action elucidates the roles that can be assumed by the administrations of biosphere reserves in a process of climate adaptation. The options and the extent to which biosphere reserves can develop into model regions for adaptation to climate change depend in practice on the capacities and expertise available.

Keywords

  • Adaptation strategies
  • Major protected areas
  • Biosphere reserves
  • River basin
  • Elbe
  • Land use
Open Access

Governance and Regional Development in Protected Areas of Switzerland and Austria

Published Online: 31 Dec 2016
Page range: 569 - 583

Abstract

Abstract

The article investigates large protected areas from a governance research perspective. The analytical focus is on regional governance regimes of selected large protected areas in Austria and Switzerland. The analysis characterizes structures and patterns of regional governance regimes. Also, the kind and quality of cooperation between the actors is assessed. The article contributes to a deeper understanding of the regional governance of protected areas. Drawing from the empirical findings some recommendations are made for a more efficient management and organization of large protected areas.

Keywords

  • Regional Governance
  • · Governance Regime
  • · Regional Development
  • · Large Protected Area
  • · Regional Nature Park
  • · Biosphere Reserve

Rezension

Erratum

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