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TEMPORÄRE RÄUMLICHE NÄHE – AKTEURE, ORTE UND INTERAKTIONEN

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Integrierende Stadtentwicklung

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Planung im Wandel - von Rollenverständnissen und Selbstbildern

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1869-4179
First Published
30 Jan 1936
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
German, English

Search

Volume 74 (2016): Issue 3 (June 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1869-4179
First Published
30 Jan 1936
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
German, English

Search

10 Articles

Editorial

access type Open Access

Räumliche Wirkungen und regionale Folgen einer „Politik der Energiewende“

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 175 - 177

Abstract

Wissenschaftlicher Beitrag

access type Open Access

The Länder in the German energy and climate policy: Distributional issues and federal decision-making

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 179 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

Until today, the academic and political debates on the German energy transition have primarily focused on policy activities and processes at either the national or local level. However, they have largely ignored how the Länder shape the federal decision-making on the allocation of greenhouse gas emissions according to their place-based economic interests. The starting point of this paper is the empirical evidence that effective national climate mitigation policies can go along with considerable and spatially unevenly distributed redistributive effects for regional energy industries, energy consumption sectors and thus public budgets of the Länder. Since the costs and benefits of climate mitigation policies are distributed unevenly, the Länder pursue place-based economic and political interests that shape their climate mitigation programs and their positions in federal decision-making. Based on an analysis of the regional economic interests and of the climate mitigation programs of the Länder, the paper uses the cases of the renewable energy policies and the European emission trading system to demonstrate how (re-)distributional conflicts in climate mitigation policies have been reconciled. The case studies show that redistributive policies could be implemented through concessions to single Länder. They also show that through distributive mechanisms, the externalization of costs to the users played a major role, and that the EU could partially dissolve blockades in decision-making. Contrary to findings in the academic debate on German federalism, federal climate mitigation policies have partially stimulated mechanisms for economic and innovation competition between the Länder. However, the findings also demonstrate that the concessions to regional economic interests have reduced the cost-efficiency and effectiveness of the German energy and climate mitigation policies.

Keywords

  • Energy transition
  • Federalism
  • Spatial distribution effects of environmental policies
  • Energy and climate policy
access type Open Access

Spatial Practices of the Energy Transition and the Case of Biogas Production in Rhineland-Palatinate

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 199 - 211

Abstract

Abstract

The energy transition has received increasing scientific interest over the last decade. A main focus is set on regional transformations from conventional to renewable energies. There, regions are typically defined as action spaces nested between local and national policy levels, and transition processes are analyzed in or between such regions. Adding on this, the main purpose of the paper in hand is to understand the processes that lead to the formation and change of such regions. How get energy regions constituted and transformed? Which geographical aspects are important for these processes? A qualitative case study from western Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany focusing on biogas co-fermentation explores different practices and routines of energy producers that illuminate the constitution, stabilization and transformation of “energy regions”. Problem-centered interviews are conducted with 20 plant operators to understand individual perceptions of routines and practices. The findings from these micro case studies are generalized and show the changing practices over time, their spatial connotations, and their importance for the energy transition. The paper discloses both, individual (practical knowledge and cognitive preconditions) and structural contexts (accessibility and availability of knowledge, existing networks and political frameworks) that are important for transition practices. Thereby, we show that over time the energy region changes from a subject oriented space to a regional network space bound to actors practicing in spatial proximity and building on mutual learning effects.

Keywords

  • Energy transition
  • Social practices
  • Biogas
  • Regionalising
  • Practice contexts
access type Open Access

Gendered Energy – Analytical perspectives and potentials of gender research for a social-ecological transformation of “Energiewende” in space

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 213 - 227

Abstract

Abstract

The “Energiewende” (energy transition) is an important transformation process changing spaces both materially and symbolically. Making this change sustainable is one of the biggest challenges on the way to a post-fossil society.

To meet these challenges in its areas of responsibility means for spatial planning to take into account in particular changed actor constellations, the emergence of new energy systems, energy landscapes and spatial relationships. However, both the implementation of the new planning tasks as well as the planning research on energy transition are only just at the beginning. Clearly, planning instruments will have to be adapted and developed procedurally and substantially.

We propose that linking the debate on the Energiewende that takes place in spatial research and planning science to analytical aspects of sustainability-related gender research will achieve a yet untapped potential for transforming energy systems towards sustainable development. Using results from gender studies and research into the social ecology of sustainability, we define gender in four ways, as differential, as structure, as process and as epistemological category. Drawing upon these concepts we ask what “blind spots”, justice and democracy deficits as well as manorial handling with nature can be made visible. The aim of the paper is to gain transformation knowledge for an emancipatory (re-)design of energy transition in space as well as new prospects for planning science on energy transition.

Keywords

  • Energy transition
  • Gender
  • Gender research
  • Social ecology
  • Space/Place
  • Spatial planning
  • Planning science
access type Open Access

Energy System Transition – Spatial Policy and Electricity Grid Planning

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 229 - 242

Abstract

Abstract

Energy politics tend to organize the balance between power production and power consumption at the international scale as good as possible, leaving the site selection for new power or storage plants to pan-European competition. As grid costs are paid for by consumers, such policy causes an increasing spatial concentration of power plants on most beneficial sites and a very extensive transmission grid expansion. In civil society in contrast, the intent of “energy transition” is often linked with aims of placing power production units close to consumption to regional balance divergence between power production and consumption patterns. Supporters expect a minor transmission grid expansion requirement from such a “decentralized energy transition”.

Against this background the article addresses the practice of grid planning in Germany as a focal point of the spatial energy policy. In this regard the role of transmission capacity planning is crucial. It is directly based on aims and measures of energy policy and thereby connects energy policy with transmission grid planning. The Federal Network Agency meanwhile has established sensitivity analysis asan instrument to check policy options with regard to their impacts on grid extension requirements. This instrument however could also be used to consider alternative paths in order to develop a systematic weighting regulation approach with integrated public participation based on well-grounded impact analysis.

Keywords

  • Capacity planning
  • Transmission grid expansion
  • Energy transition
  • Regionalisation
  • Centrality

Bericht aus Forschung und Praxis

access type Open Access

Future of German energy co-operatives

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 243 - 258

Abstract

Abstract

Energy co-operatives have played an important role in the development of decentralized renewable electricity production in Germany in the new millennium. They collect capital from individuals and thus open up another source of funding to promote the ”Energiewende“ in Germany. Their regional orientation and the co-operative participation model are regarded as success factors which help to increase local acceptance. With the amendment of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) in 2014, the so far very favorable funding conditions gradually fall away, which were central to the business models of many, especially regional energy co-operatives. The boom phase of energy co-operatives has thus come to an end and the increasing market orientation of support policies requires adaptations and innovations. Against this background the paper explores energy cooperatives and their development from an innovation perspective. It specifically asks how they need to position, if they are to make a significant contribution to a decentralized energy transition in the future.

In the empirical part of this paper, we examine the structures and developments in the German energy co-operative sector based on existing data and an online survey, with a focus on energy cooperatives of different sizes and geographical orientation, complemented by an analysis of two case studies. We conclude that economies of scale and geographical diversification can offer benefits, but that there are also promising development opportunities for regional energy co-operatives. Diversification of business fields, which can include not only energy-related services, but also other local general interest services, as well as cooperation at the regional level and with other energy co-operatives and their umbrella associations, could be starting points for successful regional strategies. In general, direct marketing can become a potentially important element of innovative development of business models, because – in accordance with the co-operative core principles of member orientation and the principle of identity – it links the focus on specific target groups with a regional or ideological surplus value.

Keywords

  • Energy cooperatives
  • Renewable energies
  • Innovation
  • EEG amendment
  • Germany
access type Open Access

Strengthening heating grids vs. energetic renovation? – Handling of competing strategies for implementing the thermal energy transformation on the municipal level

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 259 - 271

Abstract

Abstract

Strategies to integrate renewable energies into urban heat supply are often based on the installation and development of district heating grids. At the same time the energetic transformation of the building stock to reduce energy demand has been described as a competing strategy to grid-based systems, due to the characteristics of heating grids which generally are dependent on a comparatively high energy demand. Against this background the article asks, how far heating grids and energetic renovation are incompatible and therefore competing strategies to reach the thermal energy transformation. Based on results from case studies the article lines out, how these strategies are implemented at the municipal level. It is shown that competition as well as adaption and synergies are ways to cope with the existence of the two strategies.

Keywords

  • Heat supply
  • Energetic renovation
  • Energy transformation
  • Switzerland
access type Open Access

Modeling transition paths towards decentralized regional energy autonomy: the role of legislation, technology adoption, and resource availability

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 273 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

Decentralized energy systems are increasingly seen as a key factor for a transition towards a low-carbon, renewable energy based society. Within the transition process, regional demand and supply of renewable energy carriers have to be aligned, while considering the environmental conditions of the region. This paper focuses on the energy demand from buildings, which makes up 35% of the total energy demand. It presents an approach for aligning the regional supply potential of renewable energy carriers with the dynamics of regional energy demand from buildings. The approach consists of two components. First, a dynamic model simulates regional energy demand from buildings taking into consideration envelope renovation, legislative standards, and adoption of heating technologies. Second, the regional supply is estimated based on the technical maximum possible, taking into consideration competing uses and spatial limitations. We show a first application in the case of the energy region Weiz-Gleisdorf, Austria, which aims to achieve CO2 neutrality and energy self-sufficiency by the year 2050. Our results show that in the year 2050 (i) energy demand from buildings will decrease by 40–55%, depending on envelope renovation rates and legislative standards; (ii) demand for the different renewable energy carriers will be determined by the choice of heating technology; (iii) the demand for wood could be met from regional forest resources, as long as there are no additional demands for other purposes; (iv) the demand for biomass for district heating would require 5–10% of the agricultural area to be used for the production of energy plants rather than food; and (v) in contrast to other forms of energy, the demand for electricity will remain constant or increase slightly over time. This demand could only be regionally met if significant areas of façades or gardens are used for photovoltaic electricity production in addition to roofs. Overall we identified several issues related to spatial planning and a need for further research regarding the transition towards decentralized energy systems. First, if biomass for central district heating systems is to come from regional production, areas should be allocated for cultivating energy crops used specifically to produce fuel. Second, if wood is used for district heating purposes, the extent to which the import of wood from neighboring regions would be a useful ecological solution must be evaluated; this would involve extending regional energy planning beyond the typical jurisdictional boundaries while considering ecological issues.

Keywords

  • Regional energy demand
  • Energy supply
  • Spatial limitations
  • Renewables
  • Energy transition

Rezension

access type Open Access

Raumplanung nach 1945 – Kontinuitäten und Neuanfänge in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 285 - 287

Abstract

Erratum

access type Open Access

Erratum zu: Räumliche Praktiken der Energiewende am Beispiel der Biogaserzeugung in Rheinland-Pfalz

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 289 - 290

Abstract

10 Articles

Editorial

access type Open Access

Räumliche Wirkungen und regionale Folgen einer „Politik der Energiewende“

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 175 - 177

Abstract

Wissenschaftlicher Beitrag

access type Open Access

The Länder in the German energy and climate policy: Distributional issues and federal decision-making

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 179 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

Until today, the academic and political debates on the German energy transition have primarily focused on policy activities and processes at either the national or local level. However, they have largely ignored how the Länder shape the federal decision-making on the allocation of greenhouse gas emissions according to their place-based economic interests. The starting point of this paper is the empirical evidence that effective national climate mitigation policies can go along with considerable and spatially unevenly distributed redistributive effects for regional energy industries, energy consumption sectors and thus public budgets of the Länder. Since the costs and benefits of climate mitigation policies are distributed unevenly, the Länder pursue place-based economic and political interests that shape their climate mitigation programs and their positions in federal decision-making. Based on an analysis of the regional economic interests and of the climate mitigation programs of the Länder, the paper uses the cases of the renewable energy policies and the European emission trading system to demonstrate how (re-)distributional conflicts in climate mitigation policies have been reconciled. The case studies show that redistributive policies could be implemented through concessions to single Länder. They also show that through distributive mechanisms, the externalization of costs to the users played a major role, and that the EU could partially dissolve blockades in decision-making. Contrary to findings in the academic debate on German federalism, federal climate mitigation policies have partially stimulated mechanisms for economic and innovation competition between the Länder. However, the findings also demonstrate that the concessions to regional economic interests have reduced the cost-efficiency and effectiveness of the German energy and climate mitigation policies.

Keywords

  • Energy transition
  • Federalism
  • Spatial distribution effects of environmental policies
  • Energy and climate policy
access type Open Access

Spatial Practices of the Energy Transition and the Case of Biogas Production in Rhineland-Palatinate

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 199 - 211

Abstract

Abstract

The energy transition has received increasing scientific interest over the last decade. A main focus is set on regional transformations from conventional to renewable energies. There, regions are typically defined as action spaces nested between local and national policy levels, and transition processes are analyzed in or between such regions. Adding on this, the main purpose of the paper in hand is to understand the processes that lead to the formation and change of such regions. How get energy regions constituted and transformed? Which geographical aspects are important for these processes? A qualitative case study from western Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany focusing on biogas co-fermentation explores different practices and routines of energy producers that illuminate the constitution, stabilization and transformation of “energy regions”. Problem-centered interviews are conducted with 20 plant operators to understand individual perceptions of routines and practices. The findings from these micro case studies are generalized and show the changing practices over time, their spatial connotations, and their importance for the energy transition. The paper discloses both, individual (practical knowledge and cognitive preconditions) and structural contexts (accessibility and availability of knowledge, existing networks and political frameworks) that are important for transition practices. Thereby, we show that over time the energy region changes from a subject oriented space to a regional network space bound to actors practicing in spatial proximity and building on mutual learning effects.

Keywords

  • Energy transition
  • Social practices
  • Biogas
  • Regionalising
  • Practice contexts
access type Open Access

Gendered Energy – Analytical perspectives and potentials of gender research for a social-ecological transformation of “Energiewende” in space

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 213 - 227

Abstract

Abstract

The “Energiewende” (energy transition) is an important transformation process changing spaces both materially and symbolically. Making this change sustainable is one of the biggest challenges on the way to a post-fossil society.

To meet these challenges in its areas of responsibility means for spatial planning to take into account in particular changed actor constellations, the emergence of new energy systems, energy landscapes and spatial relationships. However, both the implementation of the new planning tasks as well as the planning research on energy transition are only just at the beginning. Clearly, planning instruments will have to be adapted and developed procedurally and substantially.

We propose that linking the debate on the Energiewende that takes place in spatial research and planning science to analytical aspects of sustainability-related gender research will achieve a yet untapped potential for transforming energy systems towards sustainable development. Using results from gender studies and research into the social ecology of sustainability, we define gender in four ways, as differential, as structure, as process and as epistemological category. Drawing upon these concepts we ask what “blind spots”, justice and democracy deficits as well as manorial handling with nature can be made visible. The aim of the paper is to gain transformation knowledge for an emancipatory (re-)design of energy transition in space as well as new prospects for planning science on energy transition.

Keywords

  • Energy transition
  • Gender
  • Gender research
  • Social ecology
  • Space/Place
  • Spatial planning
  • Planning science
access type Open Access

Energy System Transition – Spatial Policy and Electricity Grid Planning

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 229 - 242

Abstract

Abstract

Energy politics tend to organize the balance between power production and power consumption at the international scale as good as possible, leaving the site selection for new power or storage plants to pan-European competition. As grid costs are paid for by consumers, such policy causes an increasing spatial concentration of power plants on most beneficial sites and a very extensive transmission grid expansion. In civil society in contrast, the intent of “energy transition” is often linked with aims of placing power production units close to consumption to regional balance divergence between power production and consumption patterns. Supporters expect a minor transmission grid expansion requirement from such a “decentralized energy transition”.

Against this background the article addresses the practice of grid planning in Germany as a focal point of the spatial energy policy. In this regard the role of transmission capacity planning is crucial. It is directly based on aims and measures of energy policy and thereby connects energy policy with transmission grid planning. The Federal Network Agency meanwhile has established sensitivity analysis asan instrument to check policy options with regard to their impacts on grid extension requirements. This instrument however could also be used to consider alternative paths in order to develop a systematic weighting regulation approach with integrated public participation based on well-grounded impact analysis.

Keywords

  • Capacity planning
  • Transmission grid expansion
  • Energy transition
  • Regionalisation
  • Centrality

Bericht aus Forschung und Praxis

access type Open Access

Future of German energy co-operatives

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 243 - 258

Abstract

Abstract

Energy co-operatives have played an important role in the development of decentralized renewable electricity production in Germany in the new millennium. They collect capital from individuals and thus open up another source of funding to promote the ”Energiewende“ in Germany. Their regional orientation and the co-operative participation model are regarded as success factors which help to increase local acceptance. With the amendment of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) in 2014, the so far very favorable funding conditions gradually fall away, which were central to the business models of many, especially regional energy co-operatives. The boom phase of energy co-operatives has thus come to an end and the increasing market orientation of support policies requires adaptations and innovations. Against this background the paper explores energy cooperatives and their development from an innovation perspective. It specifically asks how they need to position, if they are to make a significant contribution to a decentralized energy transition in the future.

In the empirical part of this paper, we examine the structures and developments in the German energy co-operative sector based on existing data and an online survey, with a focus on energy cooperatives of different sizes and geographical orientation, complemented by an analysis of two case studies. We conclude that economies of scale and geographical diversification can offer benefits, but that there are also promising development opportunities for regional energy co-operatives. Diversification of business fields, which can include not only energy-related services, but also other local general interest services, as well as cooperation at the regional level and with other energy co-operatives and their umbrella associations, could be starting points for successful regional strategies. In general, direct marketing can become a potentially important element of innovative development of business models, because – in accordance with the co-operative core principles of member orientation and the principle of identity – it links the focus on specific target groups with a regional or ideological surplus value.

Keywords

  • Energy cooperatives
  • Renewable energies
  • Innovation
  • EEG amendment
  • Germany
access type Open Access

Strengthening heating grids vs. energetic renovation? – Handling of competing strategies for implementing the thermal energy transformation on the municipal level

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 259 - 271

Abstract

Abstract

Strategies to integrate renewable energies into urban heat supply are often based on the installation and development of district heating grids. At the same time the energetic transformation of the building stock to reduce energy demand has been described as a competing strategy to grid-based systems, due to the characteristics of heating grids which generally are dependent on a comparatively high energy demand. Against this background the article asks, how far heating grids and energetic renovation are incompatible and therefore competing strategies to reach the thermal energy transformation. Based on results from case studies the article lines out, how these strategies are implemented at the municipal level. It is shown that competition as well as adaption and synergies are ways to cope with the existence of the two strategies.

Keywords

  • Heat supply
  • Energetic renovation
  • Energy transformation
  • Switzerland
access type Open Access

Modeling transition paths towards decentralized regional energy autonomy: the role of legislation, technology adoption, and resource availability

Published Online: 30 Jun 2016
Page range: 273 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

Decentralized energy systems are increasingly seen as a key factor for a transition towards a low-carbon, renewable energy based society. Within the transition process, regional demand and supply of renewable energy carriers have to be aligned, while considering the environmental conditions of the region. This paper focuses on the energy demand from buildings, which makes up 35% of the total energy demand. It presents an approach for aligning the regional supply potential of renewable energy carriers with the dynamics of regional energy demand from buildings. The approach consists of two components. First, a dynamic model simulates regional energy demand from buildings taking into consideration envelope renovation, legislative standards, and adoption of heating technologies. Second, the regional supply is estimated based on the technical maximum possible, taking into consideration competing uses and spatial limitations. We show a first application in the case of the energy region Weiz-Gleisdorf, Austria, which aims to achieve CO2 neutrality and energy self-sufficiency by the year 2050. Our results show that in the year 2050 (i) energy demand from buildings will decrease by 40–55%, depending on envelope renovation rates and legislative standards; (ii) demand for the different renewable energy carriers will be determined by the choice of heating technology; (iii) the demand for wood could be met from regional forest resources, as long as there are no additional demands for other purposes; (iv) the demand for biomass for district heating would require 5–10% of the agricultural area to be used for the production of energy plants rather than food; and (v) in contrast to other forms of energy, the demand for electricity will remain constant or increase slightly over time. This demand could only be regionally met if significant areas of façades or gardens are used for photovoltaic electricity production in addition to roofs. Overall we identified several issues related to spatial planning and a need for further research regarding the transition towards decentralized energy systems. First, if biomass for central district heating systems is to come from regional production, areas should be allocated for cultivating energy crops used specifically to produce fuel. Second, if wood is used for district heating purposes, the extent to which the import of wood from neighboring regions would be a useful ecological solution must be evaluated; this would involve extending regional energy planning beyond the typical jurisdictional boundaries while considering ecological issues.

Keywords

  • Regional energy demand
  • Energy supply
  • Spatial limitations
  • Renewables
  • Energy transition

Rezension

Erratum

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