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Integrierende Stadtentwicklung

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1869-4179
First Published
30 Jan 1936
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
German, English

Search

Volume 70 (2012): Issue 4 (August 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1869-4179
First Published
30 Jan 1936
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
German, English

Search

12 Articles

Editorial

Open Access

Vulnerability and Resilience

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 257 - 258

Abstract

Wissenschaftlicher Beitrag

Open Access

Vulnerability and Resilience in a Socio-Spatial Perspective

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 259 - 272

Abstract

Abstract

This paper argues that the conceptions of "vulnerability" and "resilience", which have been strongly influenced by ecology and natural hazards research, have been widely used in an essentialist manner. Thus, vulnerability is treated as the factual susceptibility and resilience as the factual adaptive capacity of systems, which are measurable by certain indicators. Although in the meantime social dimensions have received greater consideration than previously and although both notions have been transferred to a wider field of phenomena ranging from technology to economy and society, the conception of vulnerability and resilience still lacks the dimension of the social construction of reality that implies that actors may develop different perceptions of potential threats and of the precautionary measures that are to be adopted—even though the nature of an endangerment seems clear and proven. In this contribution we identify major conceptual desiderata and suggest a social science based conception of vulnerability and resilience addressing them. We take up ideas from social constructivism in the form pointed out in actor-network theory. We dissolve the tired dichotomy between social and material entities and instead emphasise that all kinds of entities have the same ontological status and thus interact directly with one another on the same level ('flat ontology')- Against the background of a generic definition of governance, questions of agency in networks will be addressed. Based on a relational understanding of space, a spatial research perspective will be developed also taking into account the dimension of time. Finally the conception comprises an empirical strategy for investigating vulnerability and resilience.

Keywords

  • Vulnerability
  • Resilience
  • Knowledge
  • Social constructivism
  • Nature-culture dichotomy
  • Actor-network theory
Open Access

Societal Aspects of Vulnerability to Natural Hazards

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 273 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

To date, social vulnerability research has focused primarily on the individual and household levels, and on social institutions relevant to these two benchmarks. In this paper, a widening of the perspective of social vulnerability to natural hazards is proposed to include socio-structural aspects. For a number of reasons, the sociological system theory, which is inextricably linked with the name of Niklas Luhmann, is an obvious choice for this undertaking. Firstly, Luhmann developed a consistent social theoretical definition of risk, which has significantly influenced risk and hazard research in social science. Furthermore, the system theory provides a theory of society that claims to be able to cover all social levels and to describe all social phenomena. The system theory assumes that in modern society social systems are formed of communications. Therefore, in this paper the view is taken that a system-theoretical inspired concept of social vulnerability must also assess communication. First, this paper describes empirical observations about the vulnerability of social systems. This is achieved on the one hand through a categorisation of four forms of social vulnerability. On the other hand, it is based on examples of vulnerability to flood risks in selected social systems. Finally, consideration is given to a system-theoretical concept of social vulnerability that sees the sensitivity of a social system in each of the respective system structures. Vulnerabilities can only be observed for a particular social system, because the configuration of system structures differs from system to system. These fundamental considerations have to be further explored infuture work on a consistent social theoretical concept of vulnerability.

Keywords

  • Social vulnerability
  • Risk
  • Society
  • System theory
  • Floods
Open Access

How do cities and regions adapt to socio-economic crisis? Towards an institutionalist approach to urban and regional resilience

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 285 - 291

Abstract

Abstract

This paper depicts resilience as a systemic 'adaptive capacity' to cope with social and economic crisis situations at the urban and regional level. It argues that the notion of resilience has to be conceptualised in such a way that processes of and (institutional) frameworks for decision making are recognized. Such an understanding suggests a new institutionalist approach to governance may be useful, one highlighting dominant norms, perceptions and paradigms leading to particular forms of action. Under the axiom of a socially constructed world the benefit of the notion of resilience as an analytical tool in urban and regional studies lies in a better understanding of change in complex systems of socio-spatial interdependencies. It thus has the potential to fill a gap in new institutional theory and contemporary governance research.

Keywords

  • Resilience
  • Urban and regional development
  • Economic crisis
  • Governance
  • New institutional theory
Open Access

Tools for Resilience Building and Adaptive Spatial Governance

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 293 - 308

Abstract

Abstract

Climate change, resilience building and vulnerability reduction are emerging issues in spatial development and spatial planning in Germany, the European Union and globally. This paper introduces different concepts of and views on adaptation, vulnerability and resilience and outlines their implications for spatial planning in the context of a changing climate. On the basis of a conceptual discussion of key terms, the authors underscore the importance of assessing vulnerability as baseline information for the promotion of resilience and the enhancing of adaptation. The challenges of identifying and assessing vulnerability are illustrated through a case study of local flood vulnerability in Cologne with a specific focus on the vulnerability of different population groups as well as critical infrastructures. The respective key elements and phases of such assessments are identified. New challenges with regard to systemic risks are addressed and recommendations for improved linkages between spatial planning and civil protection formulated. The final part of the paper evaluates the upcoming challenges for adaptive planning in the context of climate change adaptation, for example regarding scenario development and its application.

Keywords

  • Resilience
  • Vulnerability
  • Adaptation
  • Governance
  • Critical infrastructures
Open Access

Vulnerability Through Resilience?

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 309 - 321

Abstract

Abstract

In dealing with perceived threats and hazards by coordinating and bundling diverse actors' efforts, governance approaches potentially face a problem. Perceptions of threats as well as adequate action strategies aiming to build up resilience are both based on processes of social construction. Therefore, what at first sight seem to be promising strategies for building resilience for all actors can conversely be considered as new threats and vulnerabilities by particular actors due to their differing perceptions. Within the context of a governance that intends to increase resilience this can potentially cause counterproductive effects. This paper demonstrates this possibility by means of a social constructivist notion of vulnerability and resilience. Socio-spatial identity building processes between the "International Building Exhibition" ("Internationale Bauausstellung": IBA) and actors in the local area of Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg are used as an empirical example. This paper illustrates that historically developed social knowledge in the form of socio-spatial identities and local discourses can play an important role because it influences the specific perceptions of local actors.

Keywords

  • Vulnerability
  • Resilience
  • Governance
  • International Building Exhibition Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg
  • Local actors
  • Socio-spatial identity
  • Discourse
Open Access

Governance and Design of Urban Infostructures

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 323 - 336

Abstract

Abstract

Information, communication and knowledge creation are at the core of urban stakeholder interactions enabling the identification of vulnerabilities and the design of adequate responses to them. Urban infostructures play a crucial role within these processes, interfacing between a city's ecological, social, technical, economic and political networks. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the governance and design of urban infostructures from a socio-technical systems perspective. It, therefore, reviews pertinent technology components, as well as institutional and discursive frameworks and their respective influence on the identification and assessment of vulnerabilities and resilience building in cities. It concludes that approaches to developing urban infostructures should be a major concern when addressing urban resilience. There is a need to fully account for the hybrid character of urban infostructures as socio-technical systems, while also seizing opportunities for targeted transformation.

Keywords

  • Cities
  • Vulnerability
  • Resilience
  • Socio-technical systems
  • Local government
  • Information infrastructures
  • Spatial data infrastructures
  • Knowledge
  • Discourse
Open Access

Stigmatisation of Cities. The Vulnerability of Local Identities

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 337 - 347

Abstract

Abstract

The vulnerability of cities is often discussed in terms of physical hazards and disasters such as earthquakes, floods or terrorist attacks. In contrast, this paper opens up a social-constructivist perspective, describing the vulnerability of cities as a result of discursive based communications. The article looks at the extent to which collective identities in cities are vulnerable to stigmatisation in the media and the ways in which local actors find to cope with this. Key terms of stigma and identity research are presented and the transferability of stigma and identity concepts of social groups to cities is discussed. Taking the examples of Sangerhausen and Pirmasens, which have for several decades been affected by peripheralisation, the article describes stigma processes in the national media, how this is addressed in the city and what coping strategies the actors have developed. Finally the key findings are summarised and conclusions with regard to the vulnerability of collective identities are interpreted.

Keywords

  • Stigmatisation
  • Identity
  • Vulnerability
  • Sangerhausen
  • Pirmasens
Open Access

Acting on Multiple Stages

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 349 - 361

Abstract

Abstract

This paper takes a social-constructionist approach to the terms vulnerability and resilience in order to test their analytical potential within the frame of an empirical spatial-science study. The empirical object was deliberately chosen from a field untypical for vulnerability analyses: the volatile labour markets for musical actors. The paper draws on qualitative interviews to trace the actors' construction of labour-market related uncertainties, mainly caused by labour-market dynamics as well as institutional and territorial mismatches. Barely any resilience strategies exist for these forms of vulnerability. As a result, musical actors construct multiple identities from their bodies and talents, which they use in a targeted way within different spatial and social contexts. Two forms of network governance are additionally established to attenuate some of the competitive mechanisms. From a spatial viewpoint, these practices constitute transient, multi-local activity spaces in the labour market in which action is more effective when combined with a relatively stable home base.

Keywords

  • Vulnerability
  • Resilience
  • Creative economy
  • Musical
  • Labour market
Open Access

Regional Structural Change and Resilience

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 363 - 375

Abstract

Abstract

The terms "resilience" and "vulnerability" have both acquired prominence in recent academic and political debate. Originating in the natural sciences, they have meanwhile established themselves not only in the social sciences, but also—and more recently—in the areas of economic geography, as well as urban and regional development. Nevertheless, as is the case with many of the issues adopted from the natural sciences, the social sciences have had to struggle to fully capture and conceptualise the theoretical meaning of the terms. The present article will explore the added-value and limits of using the notions of resilience and vulnerability in relation to structural change in old industrial regions. It will also draw on empirical information from a qualitative case study of Lusatian Lakeland, a former lignite mining region in Eastern Germany that is currently being turned into a tourist destination. Research focuses on analysing the sectoral and regional cooperation between various actors in the region. The introduction of the terms resilience and vulnerability in this case study raises some interesting questions about the nature and interpretation of regional development processes that are characterised by a high degree of uncertainty and severe structural change. The research results also highlight the conceptual difficulties these terms present, particularly in the context of structural transformation.

Keywords

  • Post-mining landscapes
  • Transformation
  • Adaptability
  • Old industrial regions
  • Policy coordination
Open Access

Resource Efficiency of Settlement Structures: Terms, Conceptual Implications and Connecting Factors to the Resilience Debate

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 377 - 386

Abstract

Abstract

Sustainable development, the great challenge of the twentyfirst century, requires a long-term economic use of valuable, increasingly scarce resources: land, materials, and energy. In Germany, a large share of resources is used for buildings and the related infrastructure; therefore the development of settlements is of crucial relevance in this context. Despite this utilization of resources, questions concerning resource efficiency have predominantly focused on consumer goods. Due to the specific nature of the topic "built environment", we have to consider that the concepts used and the results gained so far are not directly applicable for an analysis of settlement structures. From the perspective of spatial sciences, foundational orientation becomes necessary against this backdrop. This paper systematically introduces basic concepts for resource efficiency, starting with the separate concepts of "resources", "efficiency", and "built environment". Building on these, an integrated concept, "resource efficiency of the built environment", is outlined before some limitations of an efficiency perspective are brought forth. Among several challenges, the criticism of the static nature of classical efficiency concepts stands out. In contrast to efficiency considerations for short-term consumer goods with a defined benefit, in the case of the "built environment" efficiency analyses have to deal with a considerable degree of uncertainty, due to the longer life span of the "product". This especially refers to possibly changing users' expectations and demand preferences. Reflecting on these conceptual restrictions, initial considerations are presented for discussion, outlining to what extent the concept of "resilience" might be suitable for the extension and improvement of an efficiency-driven analysis of the built environment.

Keywords

  • Efficiency
  • Built environment
  • Resilience
  • Resources
  • Settlement development

Rezension

12 Articles

Editorial

Open Access

Vulnerability and Resilience

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 257 - 258

Abstract

Wissenschaftlicher Beitrag

Open Access

Vulnerability and Resilience in a Socio-Spatial Perspective

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 259 - 272

Abstract

Abstract

This paper argues that the conceptions of "vulnerability" and "resilience", which have been strongly influenced by ecology and natural hazards research, have been widely used in an essentialist manner. Thus, vulnerability is treated as the factual susceptibility and resilience as the factual adaptive capacity of systems, which are measurable by certain indicators. Although in the meantime social dimensions have received greater consideration than previously and although both notions have been transferred to a wider field of phenomena ranging from technology to economy and society, the conception of vulnerability and resilience still lacks the dimension of the social construction of reality that implies that actors may develop different perceptions of potential threats and of the precautionary measures that are to be adopted—even though the nature of an endangerment seems clear and proven. In this contribution we identify major conceptual desiderata and suggest a social science based conception of vulnerability and resilience addressing them. We take up ideas from social constructivism in the form pointed out in actor-network theory. We dissolve the tired dichotomy between social and material entities and instead emphasise that all kinds of entities have the same ontological status and thus interact directly with one another on the same level ('flat ontology')- Against the background of a generic definition of governance, questions of agency in networks will be addressed. Based on a relational understanding of space, a spatial research perspective will be developed also taking into account the dimension of time. Finally the conception comprises an empirical strategy for investigating vulnerability and resilience.

Keywords

  • Vulnerability
  • Resilience
  • Knowledge
  • Social constructivism
  • Nature-culture dichotomy
  • Actor-network theory
Open Access

Societal Aspects of Vulnerability to Natural Hazards

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 273 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

To date, social vulnerability research has focused primarily on the individual and household levels, and on social institutions relevant to these two benchmarks. In this paper, a widening of the perspective of social vulnerability to natural hazards is proposed to include socio-structural aspects. For a number of reasons, the sociological system theory, which is inextricably linked with the name of Niklas Luhmann, is an obvious choice for this undertaking. Firstly, Luhmann developed a consistent social theoretical definition of risk, which has significantly influenced risk and hazard research in social science. Furthermore, the system theory provides a theory of society that claims to be able to cover all social levels and to describe all social phenomena. The system theory assumes that in modern society social systems are formed of communications. Therefore, in this paper the view is taken that a system-theoretical inspired concept of social vulnerability must also assess communication. First, this paper describes empirical observations about the vulnerability of social systems. This is achieved on the one hand through a categorisation of four forms of social vulnerability. On the other hand, it is based on examples of vulnerability to flood risks in selected social systems. Finally, consideration is given to a system-theoretical concept of social vulnerability that sees the sensitivity of a social system in each of the respective system structures. Vulnerabilities can only be observed for a particular social system, because the configuration of system structures differs from system to system. These fundamental considerations have to be further explored infuture work on a consistent social theoretical concept of vulnerability.

Keywords

  • Social vulnerability
  • Risk
  • Society
  • System theory
  • Floods
Open Access

How do cities and regions adapt to socio-economic crisis? Towards an institutionalist approach to urban and regional resilience

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 285 - 291

Abstract

Abstract

This paper depicts resilience as a systemic 'adaptive capacity' to cope with social and economic crisis situations at the urban and regional level. It argues that the notion of resilience has to be conceptualised in such a way that processes of and (institutional) frameworks for decision making are recognized. Such an understanding suggests a new institutionalist approach to governance may be useful, one highlighting dominant norms, perceptions and paradigms leading to particular forms of action. Under the axiom of a socially constructed world the benefit of the notion of resilience as an analytical tool in urban and regional studies lies in a better understanding of change in complex systems of socio-spatial interdependencies. It thus has the potential to fill a gap in new institutional theory and contemporary governance research.

Keywords

  • Resilience
  • Urban and regional development
  • Economic crisis
  • Governance
  • New institutional theory
Open Access

Tools for Resilience Building and Adaptive Spatial Governance

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 293 - 308

Abstract

Abstract

Climate change, resilience building and vulnerability reduction are emerging issues in spatial development and spatial planning in Germany, the European Union and globally. This paper introduces different concepts of and views on adaptation, vulnerability and resilience and outlines their implications for spatial planning in the context of a changing climate. On the basis of a conceptual discussion of key terms, the authors underscore the importance of assessing vulnerability as baseline information for the promotion of resilience and the enhancing of adaptation. The challenges of identifying and assessing vulnerability are illustrated through a case study of local flood vulnerability in Cologne with a specific focus on the vulnerability of different population groups as well as critical infrastructures. The respective key elements and phases of such assessments are identified. New challenges with regard to systemic risks are addressed and recommendations for improved linkages between spatial planning and civil protection formulated. The final part of the paper evaluates the upcoming challenges for adaptive planning in the context of climate change adaptation, for example regarding scenario development and its application.

Keywords

  • Resilience
  • Vulnerability
  • Adaptation
  • Governance
  • Critical infrastructures
Open Access

Vulnerability Through Resilience?

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 309 - 321

Abstract

Abstract

In dealing with perceived threats and hazards by coordinating and bundling diverse actors' efforts, governance approaches potentially face a problem. Perceptions of threats as well as adequate action strategies aiming to build up resilience are both based on processes of social construction. Therefore, what at first sight seem to be promising strategies for building resilience for all actors can conversely be considered as new threats and vulnerabilities by particular actors due to their differing perceptions. Within the context of a governance that intends to increase resilience this can potentially cause counterproductive effects. This paper demonstrates this possibility by means of a social constructivist notion of vulnerability and resilience. Socio-spatial identity building processes between the "International Building Exhibition" ("Internationale Bauausstellung": IBA) and actors in the local area of Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg are used as an empirical example. This paper illustrates that historically developed social knowledge in the form of socio-spatial identities and local discourses can play an important role because it influences the specific perceptions of local actors.

Keywords

  • Vulnerability
  • Resilience
  • Governance
  • International Building Exhibition Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg
  • Local actors
  • Socio-spatial identity
  • Discourse
Open Access

Governance and Design of Urban Infostructures

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 323 - 336

Abstract

Abstract

Information, communication and knowledge creation are at the core of urban stakeholder interactions enabling the identification of vulnerabilities and the design of adequate responses to them. Urban infostructures play a crucial role within these processes, interfacing between a city's ecological, social, technical, economic and political networks. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the governance and design of urban infostructures from a socio-technical systems perspective. It, therefore, reviews pertinent technology components, as well as institutional and discursive frameworks and their respective influence on the identification and assessment of vulnerabilities and resilience building in cities. It concludes that approaches to developing urban infostructures should be a major concern when addressing urban resilience. There is a need to fully account for the hybrid character of urban infostructures as socio-technical systems, while also seizing opportunities for targeted transformation.

Keywords

  • Cities
  • Vulnerability
  • Resilience
  • Socio-technical systems
  • Local government
  • Information infrastructures
  • Spatial data infrastructures
  • Knowledge
  • Discourse
Open Access

Stigmatisation of Cities. The Vulnerability of Local Identities

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 337 - 347

Abstract

Abstract

The vulnerability of cities is often discussed in terms of physical hazards and disasters such as earthquakes, floods or terrorist attacks. In contrast, this paper opens up a social-constructivist perspective, describing the vulnerability of cities as a result of discursive based communications. The article looks at the extent to which collective identities in cities are vulnerable to stigmatisation in the media and the ways in which local actors find to cope with this. Key terms of stigma and identity research are presented and the transferability of stigma and identity concepts of social groups to cities is discussed. Taking the examples of Sangerhausen and Pirmasens, which have for several decades been affected by peripheralisation, the article describes stigma processes in the national media, how this is addressed in the city and what coping strategies the actors have developed. Finally the key findings are summarised and conclusions with regard to the vulnerability of collective identities are interpreted.

Keywords

  • Stigmatisation
  • Identity
  • Vulnerability
  • Sangerhausen
  • Pirmasens
Open Access

Acting on Multiple Stages

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 349 - 361

Abstract

Abstract

This paper takes a social-constructionist approach to the terms vulnerability and resilience in order to test their analytical potential within the frame of an empirical spatial-science study. The empirical object was deliberately chosen from a field untypical for vulnerability analyses: the volatile labour markets for musical actors. The paper draws on qualitative interviews to trace the actors' construction of labour-market related uncertainties, mainly caused by labour-market dynamics as well as institutional and territorial mismatches. Barely any resilience strategies exist for these forms of vulnerability. As a result, musical actors construct multiple identities from their bodies and talents, which they use in a targeted way within different spatial and social contexts. Two forms of network governance are additionally established to attenuate some of the competitive mechanisms. From a spatial viewpoint, these practices constitute transient, multi-local activity spaces in the labour market in which action is more effective when combined with a relatively stable home base.

Keywords

  • Vulnerability
  • Resilience
  • Creative economy
  • Musical
  • Labour market
Open Access

Regional Structural Change and Resilience

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 363 - 375

Abstract

Abstract

The terms "resilience" and "vulnerability" have both acquired prominence in recent academic and political debate. Originating in the natural sciences, they have meanwhile established themselves not only in the social sciences, but also—and more recently—in the areas of economic geography, as well as urban and regional development. Nevertheless, as is the case with many of the issues adopted from the natural sciences, the social sciences have had to struggle to fully capture and conceptualise the theoretical meaning of the terms. The present article will explore the added-value and limits of using the notions of resilience and vulnerability in relation to structural change in old industrial regions. It will also draw on empirical information from a qualitative case study of Lusatian Lakeland, a former lignite mining region in Eastern Germany that is currently being turned into a tourist destination. Research focuses on analysing the sectoral and regional cooperation between various actors in the region. The introduction of the terms resilience and vulnerability in this case study raises some interesting questions about the nature and interpretation of regional development processes that are characterised by a high degree of uncertainty and severe structural change. The research results also highlight the conceptual difficulties these terms present, particularly in the context of structural transformation.

Keywords

  • Post-mining landscapes
  • Transformation
  • Adaptability
  • Old industrial regions
  • Policy coordination
Open Access

Resource Efficiency of Settlement Structures: Terms, Conceptual Implications and Connecting Factors to the Resilience Debate

Published Online: 31 Aug 2012
Page range: 377 - 386

Abstract

Abstract

Sustainable development, the great challenge of the twentyfirst century, requires a long-term economic use of valuable, increasingly scarce resources: land, materials, and energy. In Germany, a large share of resources is used for buildings and the related infrastructure; therefore the development of settlements is of crucial relevance in this context. Despite this utilization of resources, questions concerning resource efficiency have predominantly focused on consumer goods. Due to the specific nature of the topic "built environment", we have to consider that the concepts used and the results gained so far are not directly applicable for an analysis of settlement structures. From the perspective of spatial sciences, foundational orientation becomes necessary against this backdrop. This paper systematically introduces basic concepts for resource efficiency, starting with the separate concepts of "resources", "efficiency", and "built environment". Building on these, an integrated concept, "resource efficiency of the built environment", is outlined before some limitations of an efficiency perspective are brought forth. Among several challenges, the criticism of the static nature of classical efficiency concepts stands out. In contrast to efficiency considerations for short-term consumer goods with a defined benefit, in the case of the "built environment" efficiency analyses have to deal with a considerable degree of uncertainty, due to the longer life span of the "product". This especially refers to possibly changing users' expectations and demand preferences. Reflecting on these conceptual restrictions, initial considerations are presented for discussion, outlining to what extent the concept of "resilience" might be suitable for the extension and improvement of an efficiency-driven analysis of the built environment.

Keywords

  • Efficiency
  • Built environment
  • Resilience
  • Resources
  • Settlement development

Rezension

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