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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1869-4179
First Published
30 Jan 1936
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
German, English

Search

Volume 69 (2011): Issue 3 (June 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1869-4179
First Published
30 Jan 1936
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
German, English

Search

12 Articles

Editorial

access type Open Access

A Brief Jacobsean Take on German Cities in Europe Through the Last Millennium

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 139 - 140

Abstract

Wissenschaftlicher Beitrag

access type Open Access

Introduction: German Cities in the World City Network

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 141 - 146

Abstract

Abstract

This introduction to the special issue “German cities in the world city network” provides an overview of the current status of research on urban systems in the knowledge economy, with a particular focus on the German urban system. The first part identifies the knowledge economy, particularly the requirements for geographical and relational proximity along the value chain, as a key driver of contemporary urban development. The second part clarifies the concept of polycentricity, distinguishing between its political and analytical roots, while considering its application on different spatial scales. Based on this discussion, the third part emphasizes the importance of relational thinking in analyzing polycentric urban systems and functional urban hierarchies. This is followed by an outline of the specific contribution of each paper to our understanding of the relational geographies of the German urban space-economy.

Keywords

  • Germany
  • Knowledge economy
  • Proximity
  • Polycentricity
  • Relational economic geography
access type Open Access

External Relations of German Cities Through Intra-firm Networks—A Global Perspective

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 147 - 159

Abstract

Abstract

This paper adopts a global perspective to investigate external relations of German cities, both transnationally and on the national scale. At the centre of the analysis are the locational strategies of major advanced producer service firms that link the cities in which they operate through a multitude of flows. Using an interlocking network model and data on the organizational structure of leading business service firms, the paper measures and interprets the extent to which German cities were integrated in the world city network in 2008. The global positions and national network patterns of 14 major German cities are explored, as well as the sectoral strengths and geographical orientations of their external relations. The paper concludes with an assessment of the trajectory of German cities in the world city network between the turn of the twenty-first century and the onset of the current financial crisis. The analysis reveals a geography of advanced producer services that is polycentric in character but does not map directly onto the distribution of other metropolitan functions. In a longitudinal perspective, German cities experienced an absolute and relative decline in global network connectivity between 2000 and 2008, which raises questions about the changing strategic importance of German cities in the world city network.

Keywords

  • Advanced producer services
  • Cities
  • Connectivity
  • Germany
  • Globalization
  • Intra-firm networks
access type Open Access

Interlocking Firm Networks in the German Knowledge Economy. On Local Networks and Global Connectivity

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 161 - 174

Abstract

Abstract

The knowledge economy is a key driver of spatial development in metropolitan regions. A relational perspective on its business activities emphasizes the importance of knowledge-intensive firms and their networking strategies. The aim of this paper is to analyse the spatial networking patterns created by the interaction of knowledge-intensive firms and to place these activities in the theoretical context of the knowledge economy. Our central question is which large-scale interlocking networks and functional urban hierarchies are produced by Advanced Producer Services and High-Tech firms located in Germany. The intra-firm locational networks of these companies are analysed on three spatial scales: global, national and regional. The empirical findings show that the functional urban hierarchy in the German city system proves to be steeper than is claimed by the political debate on German Mega-City Regions.

Keywords

  • Germany
  • Knowledge economy
  • Advanced Producer Services firms
  • High-Tech firms
  • Interlocking firm networks
access type Open Access

Knowledge Hubs in the German Urban System: Identifying Hubs by Combining Network and Territorial Perspectives

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 175 - 185

Abstract

Abstract

This paper identifies hubs of knowledge-based labour in the German urban system from two perspectives: the importance of a metropolitan region as a place and the importance of a metropolitan region as an organisational node. This combination of a network perspective with a territorial perspective enables the identification of hubs. From the functional perspective, hubs are understood as important nodes of national and global networks, established by flows of people, goods, capital and information as well as by organisational and power relations. From the territorial perspective, hubs are understood as spatial clusters of organisations (firms, public authorities, non-governmental organisations). The functional focus of the paper lies on knowledge-based services. Based on data about employment and multi-branch advanced producer service firms, four main types of metropolitan regions are identified: growing knowledge hubs, stagnating knowledge hubs, stagnating knowledge regions and catch-up knowledge regions. The results show an affinity between knowledge-based work and bigger metropolitan regions as well as an east-west divide in the German urban system.

Keywords

  • Hubs
  • Space of places
  • Space of flows
  • Knowledge economy
  • Metropolitan regions
  • Germany
access type Open Access

Germany’s Polycentric Metropolitan Regions in the World City Network

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 187 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

On a regional scale, two types of polycentricity can be observed. The first involves polycentric metropolitan regions that have evolved in the course of post-suburban development around a previously monocentric city, whereas the second type involves neighbouring metropolises evolving into a multi-core polycentric metropolitan region due to an increase in the functional interaction between each other. The German urban system is characterised by both types of polycentricity. In this paper I examine the role of these two types of polycentricity within the context of globalisation. I address the question of whether individual metropolitan cores and metropolitan cores and their associated post-suburban areas share the global functions of a metropolitan region or whether such functions are concentrated in a single city within the metropolitan region. To this end, I analyse the locations of leading global advanced producer service firms in Germany in their role as sub-nodes of the world city network. Finally, I discuss the empirical findings in the context of modelling the world city network.

Keywords

  • Polycentricity
  • Metropolitan regions
  • World city network
  • Germany

Schlagwörter

  • Polyzentralität
  • Metropolräume
  • World city network
  • Deutschland
access type Open Access

Changes in the German Urban System—A Financial-Sector Perspective

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 201 - 211

Abstract

Abstract

Urban systems analysis and especially the seminal contributions of the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) so far mainly rely on the analysis of national and international office geographies of advanced producer services firms. This paper shows how the geography of demand-supply relationships and associated knowledge flows adds important qualitative information to the office geographies of the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. It contributes to our understanding of intercity relations and networks—and thus of urban systems more generally. We illustrate our approach by looking at private equity firms and their knowledge management strategies in Germany. Empirically, we analyze private equity firms’ business relations and networks with external partners as well as their geographical organization. While private equity firms’ geographical organization in Germany is characterized by decentralized concentration with nodes in Frankfurt and regional financial centres, there is evidence that among the latter Munich plays a special role. Only in Munich has private equity—cross-fertilized by other local financial actors—initiated a self-supporting development which strengthens Munich as a financial centre. The paper illustrates how the dynamics of private equity and its knowledge management lead to Germany’s financial system having a more tiered structure and how qualitative network analysis can help deepen our understanding of urban systems development.

Keywords

  • Urban system
  • Financial centre
  • Financial sector
  • Private equity
  • Knowledge management
  • Network analysis
  • Germany

Schlagwörter

  • Städtesystem
  • Finanzzentrum
  • Finanzsektor
  • Private Equity
  • Wissensmanagement
  • Netzwerkanalyse
  • Deutschland
access type Open Access

German Cities in the World City Network

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 213 - 217

Abstract

Abstract

This paper provides a brief critical appraisal of the relationality of German cities in the world city network. The paper is divided into four parts. After the introduction, part two highlights the major findings of each individual contribution to this special issue, and teases out the major patterns of German world city connectivity at both the international and domestic scale. This is followed in part three by a critical evaluation of the sum of all the individual paper findings, which comments on their aggregated contribution to three significant themes in world city studies: methods and empirics, theory and policy. The final part of the paper considers an alternative research agenda, calling for more qualitative research and engagement with in-depth, process-based studies of German world city networks, which will analyse both attributive and relational data.

Keywords

  • World city network
  • Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC)
  • Germany
  • Polycentricity
  • Advanced producer services

Schlagwörter

  • Netzwerk globaler Städte
  • Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC)
  • Deutschland
  • Polyzentralität
  • Wissensintensive Dienstleistungen

Rezension

access type Open Access

Planen – Bauen – Umwelt. Ein Handbuch

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 219 - 220

Abstract

access type Open Access

Allgemeine Siedlungsgeographie

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 221 - 223

Abstract

access type Open Access

Regionale Anpassungsstrategien an den Klimawandel – Akteure und Prozess

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 225 - 227

Abstract

access type Open Access

Die Gestaltung der Leere: Zum Umgang mit einer neuen städtischen Wirklichkeit

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 229 - 230

Abstract

12 Articles

Editorial

access type Open Access

A Brief Jacobsean Take on German Cities in Europe Through the Last Millennium

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 139 - 140

Abstract

Wissenschaftlicher Beitrag

access type Open Access

Introduction: German Cities in the World City Network

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 141 - 146

Abstract

Abstract

This introduction to the special issue “German cities in the world city network” provides an overview of the current status of research on urban systems in the knowledge economy, with a particular focus on the German urban system. The first part identifies the knowledge economy, particularly the requirements for geographical and relational proximity along the value chain, as a key driver of contemporary urban development. The second part clarifies the concept of polycentricity, distinguishing between its political and analytical roots, while considering its application on different spatial scales. Based on this discussion, the third part emphasizes the importance of relational thinking in analyzing polycentric urban systems and functional urban hierarchies. This is followed by an outline of the specific contribution of each paper to our understanding of the relational geographies of the German urban space-economy.

Keywords

  • Germany
  • Knowledge economy
  • Proximity
  • Polycentricity
  • Relational economic geography
access type Open Access

External Relations of German Cities Through Intra-firm Networks—A Global Perspective

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 147 - 159

Abstract

Abstract

This paper adopts a global perspective to investigate external relations of German cities, both transnationally and on the national scale. At the centre of the analysis are the locational strategies of major advanced producer service firms that link the cities in which they operate through a multitude of flows. Using an interlocking network model and data on the organizational structure of leading business service firms, the paper measures and interprets the extent to which German cities were integrated in the world city network in 2008. The global positions and national network patterns of 14 major German cities are explored, as well as the sectoral strengths and geographical orientations of their external relations. The paper concludes with an assessment of the trajectory of German cities in the world city network between the turn of the twenty-first century and the onset of the current financial crisis. The analysis reveals a geography of advanced producer services that is polycentric in character but does not map directly onto the distribution of other metropolitan functions. In a longitudinal perspective, German cities experienced an absolute and relative decline in global network connectivity between 2000 and 2008, which raises questions about the changing strategic importance of German cities in the world city network.

Keywords

  • Advanced producer services
  • Cities
  • Connectivity
  • Germany
  • Globalization
  • Intra-firm networks
access type Open Access

Interlocking Firm Networks in the German Knowledge Economy. On Local Networks and Global Connectivity

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 161 - 174

Abstract

Abstract

The knowledge economy is a key driver of spatial development in metropolitan regions. A relational perspective on its business activities emphasizes the importance of knowledge-intensive firms and their networking strategies. The aim of this paper is to analyse the spatial networking patterns created by the interaction of knowledge-intensive firms and to place these activities in the theoretical context of the knowledge economy. Our central question is which large-scale interlocking networks and functional urban hierarchies are produced by Advanced Producer Services and High-Tech firms located in Germany. The intra-firm locational networks of these companies are analysed on three spatial scales: global, national and regional. The empirical findings show that the functional urban hierarchy in the German city system proves to be steeper than is claimed by the political debate on German Mega-City Regions.

Keywords

  • Germany
  • Knowledge economy
  • Advanced Producer Services firms
  • High-Tech firms
  • Interlocking firm networks
access type Open Access

Knowledge Hubs in the German Urban System: Identifying Hubs by Combining Network and Territorial Perspectives

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 175 - 185

Abstract

Abstract

This paper identifies hubs of knowledge-based labour in the German urban system from two perspectives: the importance of a metropolitan region as a place and the importance of a metropolitan region as an organisational node. This combination of a network perspective with a territorial perspective enables the identification of hubs. From the functional perspective, hubs are understood as important nodes of national and global networks, established by flows of people, goods, capital and information as well as by organisational and power relations. From the territorial perspective, hubs are understood as spatial clusters of organisations (firms, public authorities, non-governmental organisations). The functional focus of the paper lies on knowledge-based services. Based on data about employment and multi-branch advanced producer service firms, four main types of metropolitan regions are identified: growing knowledge hubs, stagnating knowledge hubs, stagnating knowledge regions and catch-up knowledge regions. The results show an affinity between knowledge-based work and bigger metropolitan regions as well as an east-west divide in the German urban system.

Keywords

  • Hubs
  • Space of places
  • Space of flows
  • Knowledge economy
  • Metropolitan regions
  • Germany
access type Open Access

Germany’s Polycentric Metropolitan Regions in the World City Network

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 187 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

On a regional scale, two types of polycentricity can be observed. The first involves polycentric metropolitan regions that have evolved in the course of post-suburban development around a previously monocentric city, whereas the second type involves neighbouring metropolises evolving into a multi-core polycentric metropolitan region due to an increase in the functional interaction between each other. The German urban system is characterised by both types of polycentricity. In this paper I examine the role of these two types of polycentricity within the context of globalisation. I address the question of whether individual metropolitan cores and metropolitan cores and their associated post-suburban areas share the global functions of a metropolitan region or whether such functions are concentrated in a single city within the metropolitan region. To this end, I analyse the locations of leading global advanced producer service firms in Germany in their role as sub-nodes of the world city network. Finally, I discuss the empirical findings in the context of modelling the world city network.

Keywords

  • Polycentricity
  • Metropolitan regions
  • World city network
  • Germany

Schlagwörter

  • Polyzentralität
  • Metropolräume
  • World city network
  • Deutschland
access type Open Access

Changes in the German Urban System—A Financial-Sector Perspective

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 201 - 211

Abstract

Abstract

Urban systems analysis and especially the seminal contributions of the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) so far mainly rely on the analysis of national and international office geographies of advanced producer services firms. This paper shows how the geography of demand-supply relationships and associated knowledge flows adds important qualitative information to the office geographies of the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. It contributes to our understanding of intercity relations and networks—and thus of urban systems more generally. We illustrate our approach by looking at private equity firms and their knowledge management strategies in Germany. Empirically, we analyze private equity firms’ business relations and networks with external partners as well as their geographical organization. While private equity firms’ geographical organization in Germany is characterized by decentralized concentration with nodes in Frankfurt and regional financial centres, there is evidence that among the latter Munich plays a special role. Only in Munich has private equity—cross-fertilized by other local financial actors—initiated a self-supporting development which strengthens Munich as a financial centre. The paper illustrates how the dynamics of private equity and its knowledge management lead to Germany’s financial system having a more tiered structure and how qualitative network analysis can help deepen our understanding of urban systems development.

Keywords

  • Urban system
  • Financial centre
  • Financial sector
  • Private equity
  • Knowledge management
  • Network analysis
  • Germany

Schlagwörter

  • Städtesystem
  • Finanzzentrum
  • Finanzsektor
  • Private Equity
  • Wissensmanagement
  • Netzwerkanalyse
  • Deutschland
access type Open Access

German Cities in the World City Network

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 213 - 217

Abstract

Abstract

This paper provides a brief critical appraisal of the relationality of German cities in the world city network. The paper is divided into four parts. After the introduction, part two highlights the major findings of each individual contribution to this special issue, and teases out the major patterns of German world city connectivity at both the international and domestic scale. This is followed in part three by a critical evaluation of the sum of all the individual paper findings, which comments on their aggregated contribution to three significant themes in world city studies: methods and empirics, theory and policy. The final part of the paper considers an alternative research agenda, calling for more qualitative research and engagement with in-depth, process-based studies of German world city networks, which will analyse both attributive and relational data.

Keywords

  • World city network
  • Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC)
  • Germany
  • Polycentricity
  • Advanced producer services

Schlagwörter

  • Netzwerk globaler Städte
  • Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC)
  • Deutschland
  • Polyzentralität
  • Wissensintensive Dienstleistungen

Rezension

access type Open Access

Planen – Bauen – Umwelt. Ein Handbuch

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 219 - 220

Abstract

access type Open Access

Allgemeine Siedlungsgeographie

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 221 - 223

Abstract

access type Open Access

Regionale Anpassungsstrategien an den Klimawandel – Akteure und Prozess

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 225 - 227

Abstract

access type Open Access

Die Gestaltung der Leere: Zum Umgang mit einer neuen städtischen Wirklichkeit

Published Online: 30 Jun 2011
Page range: 229 - 230

Abstract

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