Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 73 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 72 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 71 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2657-3628
First Published
27 Feb 2019
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 72 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2657-3628
First Published
27 Feb 2019
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

11 Articles
access type Open Access

Editorial by Dr James Underwood

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 1 - 4

Abstract

access type Open Access

Social Media Networks and Community Development in Work-based Undergraduate Students

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 5 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to explore how students on two related work-based degree courses with limited opportunities for face to face interaction used social media platforms to support their experiences and learning. The students involved work as teaching assistants in a range of mainstream and special schools in the East Midlands and attend classes one day a week. It was noted by tutors that students made frequent references to using various social media platforms for sharing student-to-student information relating to the taught sessions or assignments in preference to the university’s virtual learning environment. To investigate this phenomenon, a case study approach, using focus groups and a paired interview, was adopted. The entire student population on the courses was invited to participate, so the sample was self-selecting and a total of 11% of the students volunteered, participating in either a focus group discussion or paired interview. The study found that students made extensive use of social media platforms, mainly Facebook and Whatsapp, for academic and affective support. Students found this to be an effective way to keep in touch with one another away from university, to share resources and experiences and felt that it helped with their identity as a higher education student.

Keywords

  • community of practice
  • community of study
  • learning networks
  • online communities
  • Social learning
access type Open Access

Enhancing Learning for Early Years Foundation Degree Students: Empowerment through Heutagogy and Reflecting on the Notion of Knowledgeable Others

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 24 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

This paper reports on a small-scale practitioner enquiry undertaken with 17 work-based learners studying on a two-year Early Years Foundation Degree programme in a higher education institution in England. The first aim of the enquiry was to identify the perspectives of a cohort of work-based Early Years Foundation Degree students on teaching strategies they experienced at a higher education institution in the English midlands. The second aim was to identify how the findings could be applied to curricular and andragogic enhancements for future students. Beliefs and attitudes questionnaires were administered to the students half way through their programme. Findings indicate that students valued strategies that included the direct input of the lecturers they regarded as ‘more knowledgeable others’ (Vygotsky, 1978), yet they rated peer support as less effective for their learning. Findings indicate that early years students’ applications of learned theory to work-based practice may need to go beyond a singular notion of ‘communities of practice’ (Lave & Wenger, 1991). Although these students are positioned and position themselves as more knowledgeable others in their own workplace communities, they regard themselves as lacking knowledge in their higher education community. As members of these various communities, they straddle heutagogic and andragogic approaches in their respective communities of practice. In recognition of this, the paper argues that not only should higher education lecturers working with work-based students adopt andragogic strategies but they should also promote heutagogic approaches that increase student autonomy. They should also communicate explicitly to their students the value of such strategies for learning in the field, both in theory and practice.

Keywords

  • Early Years Foundation Degree
  • work-based learning
  • andragogy
  • heutagogy
  • more knowledgeable other
  • communities of practice
  • knowledge creation
access type Open Access

Language Taught to Students with Refugee Background Integration. The Context and the Importance of Developing Intercultural Communication Competence in School Education

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 45 - 63

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to show the importance of developing intercultural communication competences in the use of the language of the host society among students with refugee backgrounds. The article begins with the presentation of the fundamental role of language. This research paper aims to analyse the relationship between culture and communication. The problems being presented revolve around the nature of the acculturation process and signal the connection between its successful course and the development of intercultural communication competences. The considerations undertaken in the text are illustrated by fragments of narrative from students with refugee migration experiences (from Chechnya and Ukraine) in the context of learning Polish in school education.

Keywords

  • intercultural communicational competence
  • acculturation
  • integration
  • education
  • students with refugee background
access type Open Access

Teachers’ Conceptions of Assessment for Learning: What are the Implications for Children?

Published Online: 31 Mar 2020
Page range: 64 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

This paper describes a multi-case study which linked conceptions and practices of assessment for learning to developing learner autonomy within UK primary mathematics classrooms. The project explored the use of assessment for learning in mathematics lessons with Year 5 (9–10 years old) children and their teachers. Four cases were studied in depth to understand how conceptions and practices impacted upon autonomy and control for teachers and learners. A typology of assessment for learning in mathematics is proposed, along with what this might mean for both teachers and learners in terms of the balance between control and autonomy. One case in particular, that of teacher Alex, is highlighted as it exemplified the expert teacher through the conceptions and use of assessment for learning, which led to the children becoming expert learners of mathematics. The class ethos was one of value for personal autonomy. Responsibility and control of learning was a shared endeavour within a community of learners. Community in this respect was broadened to include the environment and resources within the classroom and so demonstrated learners working within an expert classroom. This article was developed from a paper first presented at the ICME 13 conference (O’Shea, 2016).

Keywords

  • assessment for learning
  • formative assessment
  • self-regulation
  • learner autonomy
  • case study
  • learning as inquiry
  • compliance
access type Open Access

Experiential Learning and Educational Tools for Self-assessment in Schools

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 79 - 93

Abstract

Abstract

The school as a laboratory is the place where not only knowledge is processed, but also a set of training opportunities, to produce new knowledge and develop new skills; it therefore becomes a space for dialectical interaction, between theoretical and practical knowledge. Learning, within such a framework, becomes an active process, in which students build new ideas, and concepts based on their current / past knowledge. In the educational sphere, the concept of efficacy has assumed ever greater importance; therefore, there is a need to specify valid and reliable results indicators, capable of promoting the accountability process, to which the education system is subjected. This is also to be able to indicate the relationship between education processes and learning levels among students. In this direction, a useful tool can be represented by the self-assessment sections, capable of promoting reflection and / or revision of the goals achieved. In this regard, the conclusions of a study on Active Citizenship Education, promoted by the „Directorate-General for Culture and Education“ of the European Commission, which examined more than 100 projects in 33 countries, analyzing quality and governance factors, are used.

Keywords

  • Events learning
  • evaluation of school learning
  • self-assessment
  • skills assessment levels
access type Open Access

Legal Aspects of Participation Practices in the Albanian Education Context

Published Online: 31 Mar 2020
Page range: 94 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

The article aims to provide an analysis of Albanian legislation regarding children’s and parents’ participation in education, by taking into account their respective roles and duties as known in the legal framework, as well as their on-going functional role as participants in practice. This research will analyse Albanian legislation and policies as regards the educational system, shedding light on the steps needed to be taken towards achieving international standards regarding the promotion of the participation of children and parents in education. Albania was under a communist regime, in which parental participation in the educational system was extremely limited and information given to parents was only regarding the progress of their child. After the fall of this monist regime changes did not happen immediately in the Albanian education system. The Convention on the Rights of the Child was one of the first international instruments ratified by the Albanian government focusing on the sanctioning and protection of the rights of the child, in a time when these rights were considered non-existent. Sanctioning the right of the child to express freely his or her own views in various issues where the child’s opinion is necessary requires that Albanian legislation includes the participation of children in every field especially in education. A general principle of the Convention is that the child’s right to be heard be considered as one of the four principles needed for the interpretation of all other articles. Research also demonstrates that effective schools have high levels of children’s and parental involvement. Despite the fact that legal steps have been taken towards recognition of the involvement of children and parents in education creating bodies such as the pupils’ government, school boards, parental councils, and lately the national council of parents, there are still unclear legal ways to implement their participation in the Albanian education system. In order to make participation possible, first and foremost, it is important to provide information regarding school activities, processes and decisions which must be transmitted to the children and parents, by creating routes of communication. This can be achieved by setting up some useful mechanisms that promote children’s and parents’ participation in education.

Keywords

  • participation in education
  • legal framework
  • Albania
access type Open Access

A Case Study Exploring the Impact of Valuing Practices and Emotional Labour on the Well-being of one Senior Leader

Published Online: 31 Mar 2020
Page range: 109 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

This article examines the theoretical frameworks of valuing practices and emotional labour in relation to a managerial position within a Higher Education setting. Positive aspects of these frameworks are explored along with challenges that can be faced by those striving to implement these management strategies in their practice. The methods used provided both qualitative and quantitative data via key vocabulary and phrases related to valuing practice and emotional labour as identified through observation and semi-structured interview, and the frequency of key vocabulary being used. The study takes the form of a case study. There is one participant who is a Higher Education employee working in a senior managerial position, line managing a small number of staff. This individual was chosen in order to explore their use of valuing practices and emotional labour within his management approaches. Analysis of the data identified a higher range of vocabulary relating to valuing practices than emotional labour. Overall conclusions are that valuing practices support the well-being of both leaders and staff through the motivation that is inspired by knowledgeable praise. Yet the possible risks of valuing practices should also be considered, such as non-engagement of staff. Emotional labour risks the well-being of leaders more so due to a difference in organisation and individual believes and ethos.

Keywords

  • Valuing practices
  • emotional labour
  • well-being
  • path-goal theory
  • emotional intelligence
  • leadership
access type Open Access

Empowering Voices of Students with Learning Difficulties – Implementing Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in a Special School through Participatory Action Research

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 125 - 144

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses on how self-regulated learning strategies can provide opportunities for students with learning difficulties to express their ideas and reflect on their learning progress. A qualitative, multiple-method research design was used for this participatory action research in a special school in Hong Kong. Data were collected for an academic year in a Form 5 (Year 12 in the UK) class setting. The ‘C. Ind. Le Coding Scheme’ from Whitebread et al. (2009) was used in the data analysis, providing an indicator of verbal and non-verbal self-regulation. My study indicates that the teachers’ guidance and feedback could foster the students’ expressive capability. The students actively shared their ideas, and appreciated everyone’s uniqueness in their school learning. This paper offers examples of how to implement self-regulated learning strategies at subject teaching (teacher-level) and learning (student-level), this promotes and supports the voices of students with learning difficulties in a special educational context.

Keywords

  • students with learning difficulties
  • student voice
  • self-regulated learning strategies
  • special educational curriculum design
  • Hong Kong
access type Open Access

Conceptualising Teachers’ Knowledge when Crossing National Boundaries

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 145 - 161

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this paper was to examine the meaning and function of “teachers knowledge”, both as a foundational tool used by teachers as professionals and the ways in which such knowledge is acquired, shared, and bettered. To help guide this discussion, the paper reviews the literature on related topics whilst also providing other insights and recommendations for further research. The topics have been broken down into two main parts: conceptualising teachers’ professional knowledge; and the sharing of knowledge internationally. The second of these examines the history of the topic whilst also critiquing the methods and effectiveness of sharing strategies. We find that the ways professional knowledge have been defined in public discourse are often inappropriate for the specific context of teaching. Furthermore, we find that sharing experience and knowledge between teachers is a foundational concept yet not always a straightforward matter and knowledge/experience can be a very difficult thing to transfer between one another. These obstacles can be exacerbated when it comes to the sharing of knowledge internationally, as economic disparities between participating nations can be vast and differences in culture challenging to overcome. Some nations additionally struggle in their authenticity to learn from each other. Ultimately, it is clear that “teacher knowledge” is a concept that is an area in need of further research, particularly as education reforms and curriculum adjustments are of great concern to both developing nations and their wealthier counterparts.

Keywords

  • knowledge communities
  • codified knowledge
  • teachers’ knowledge
  • analogies of knowledge
  • international networking
  • knowledge networks
access type Open Access

Cross-cultural Education in the Formation of Supranational Communal Competence

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 162 - 172

Abstract

Abstract

The text presents the assumptions of cross-cultural education, emphasizing that in the multicultural world it is necessary to look for solutions used in the past as regards the formation and functioning of supranational communities. The author believes that currently, in light of increasing nationalisms, cross-cultural competence that enables the formation of supranational communities is indispensable.

He points out that we should refer to the tradition of the Commonwealth of many nations in this respect. He considers the functioning of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, experiences of the multicultural policy of that time, where other nations were treated with appreciation and respect, as something that should be accomplished by contemporary cross-cultural education. He highlights the need to draw on that multicultural experiment, to reflect on it and analyze it in order to realize the essence of tradition of civil liberties and relationships between free people and communities based on freedom.

Keywords

  • cross-cultural education
  • culture
  • nation
  • community
  • cross-cultural competence
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
11 Articles
access type Open Access

Editorial by Dr James Underwood

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 1 - 4

Abstract

access type Open Access

Social Media Networks and Community Development in Work-based Undergraduate Students

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 5 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to explore how students on two related work-based degree courses with limited opportunities for face to face interaction used social media platforms to support their experiences and learning. The students involved work as teaching assistants in a range of mainstream and special schools in the East Midlands and attend classes one day a week. It was noted by tutors that students made frequent references to using various social media platforms for sharing student-to-student information relating to the taught sessions or assignments in preference to the university’s virtual learning environment. To investigate this phenomenon, a case study approach, using focus groups and a paired interview, was adopted. The entire student population on the courses was invited to participate, so the sample was self-selecting and a total of 11% of the students volunteered, participating in either a focus group discussion or paired interview. The study found that students made extensive use of social media platforms, mainly Facebook and Whatsapp, for academic and affective support. Students found this to be an effective way to keep in touch with one another away from university, to share resources and experiences and felt that it helped with their identity as a higher education student.

Keywords

  • community of practice
  • community of study
  • learning networks
  • online communities
  • Social learning
access type Open Access

Enhancing Learning for Early Years Foundation Degree Students: Empowerment through Heutagogy and Reflecting on the Notion of Knowledgeable Others

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 24 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

This paper reports on a small-scale practitioner enquiry undertaken with 17 work-based learners studying on a two-year Early Years Foundation Degree programme in a higher education institution in England. The first aim of the enquiry was to identify the perspectives of a cohort of work-based Early Years Foundation Degree students on teaching strategies they experienced at a higher education institution in the English midlands. The second aim was to identify how the findings could be applied to curricular and andragogic enhancements for future students. Beliefs and attitudes questionnaires were administered to the students half way through their programme. Findings indicate that students valued strategies that included the direct input of the lecturers they regarded as ‘more knowledgeable others’ (Vygotsky, 1978), yet they rated peer support as less effective for their learning. Findings indicate that early years students’ applications of learned theory to work-based practice may need to go beyond a singular notion of ‘communities of practice’ (Lave & Wenger, 1991). Although these students are positioned and position themselves as more knowledgeable others in their own workplace communities, they regard themselves as lacking knowledge in their higher education community. As members of these various communities, they straddle heutagogic and andragogic approaches in their respective communities of practice. In recognition of this, the paper argues that not only should higher education lecturers working with work-based students adopt andragogic strategies but they should also promote heutagogic approaches that increase student autonomy. They should also communicate explicitly to their students the value of such strategies for learning in the field, both in theory and practice.

Keywords

  • Early Years Foundation Degree
  • work-based learning
  • andragogy
  • heutagogy
  • more knowledgeable other
  • communities of practice
  • knowledge creation
access type Open Access

Language Taught to Students with Refugee Background Integration. The Context and the Importance of Developing Intercultural Communication Competence in School Education

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 45 - 63

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to show the importance of developing intercultural communication competences in the use of the language of the host society among students with refugee backgrounds. The article begins with the presentation of the fundamental role of language. This research paper aims to analyse the relationship between culture and communication. The problems being presented revolve around the nature of the acculturation process and signal the connection between its successful course and the development of intercultural communication competences. The considerations undertaken in the text are illustrated by fragments of narrative from students with refugee migration experiences (from Chechnya and Ukraine) in the context of learning Polish in school education.

Keywords

  • intercultural communicational competence
  • acculturation
  • integration
  • education
  • students with refugee background
access type Open Access

Teachers’ Conceptions of Assessment for Learning: What are the Implications for Children?

Published Online: 31 Mar 2020
Page range: 64 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

This paper describes a multi-case study which linked conceptions and practices of assessment for learning to developing learner autonomy within UK primary mathematics classrooms. The project explored the use of assessment for learning in mathematics lessons with Year 5 (9–10 years old) children and their teachers. Four cases were studied in depth to understand how conceptions and practices impacted upon autonomy and control for teachers and learners. A typology of assessment for learning in mathematics is proposed, along with what this might mean for both teachers and learners in terms of the balance between control and autonomy. One case in particular, that of teacher Alex, is highlighted as it exemplified the expert teacher through the conceptions and use of assessment for learning, which led to the children becoming expert learners of mathematics. The class ethos was one of value for personal autonomy. Responsibility and control of learning was a shared endeavour within a community of learners. Community in this respect was broadened to include the environment and resources within the classroom and so demonstrated learners working within an expert classroom. This article was developed from a paper first presented at the ICME 13 conference (O’Shea, 2016).

Keywords

  • assessment for learning
  • formative assessment
  • self-regulation
  • learner autonomy
  • case study
  • learning as inquiry
  • compliance
access type Open Access

Experiential Learning and Educational Tools for Self-assessment in Schools

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 79 - 93

Abstract

Abstract

The school as a laboratory is the place where not only knowledge is processed, but also a set of training opportunities, to produce new knowledge and develop new skills; it therefore becomes a space for dialectical interaction, between theoretical and practical knowledge. Learning, within such a framework, becomes an active process, in which students build new ideas, and concepts based on their current / past knowledge. In the educational sphere, the concept of efficacy has assumed ever greater importance; therefore, there is a need to specify valid and reliable results indicators, capable of promoting the accountability process, to which the education system is subjected. This is also to be able to indicate the relationship between education processes and learning levels among students. In this direction, a useful tool can be represented by the self-assessment sections, capable of promoting reflection and / or revision of the goals achieved. In this regard, the conclusions of a study on Active Citizenship Education, promoted by the „Directorate-General for Culture and Education“ of the European Commission, which examined more than 100 projects in 33 countries, analyzing quality and governance factors, are used.

Keywords

  • Events learning
  • evaluation of school learning
  • self-assessment
  • skills assessment levels
access type Open Access

Legal Aspects of Participation Practices in the Albanian Education Context

Published Online: 31 Mar 2020
Page range: 94 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

The article aims to provide an analysis of Albanian legislation regarding children’s and parents’ participation in education, by taking into account their respective roles and duties as known in the legal framework, as well as their on-going functional role as participants in practice. This research will analyse Albanian legislation and policies as regards the educational system, shedding light on the steps needed to be taken towards achieving international standards regarding the promotion of the participation of children and parents in education. Albania was under a communist regime, in which parental participation in the educational system was extremely limited and information given to parents was only regarding the progress of their child. After the fall of this monist regime changes did not happen immediately in the Albanian education system. The Convention on the Rights of the Child was one of the first international instruments ratified by the Albanian government focusing on the sanctioning and protection of the rights of the child, in a time when these rights were considered non-existent. Sanctioning the right of the child to express freely his or her own views in various issues where the child’s opinion is necessary requires that Albanian legislation includes the participation of children in every field especially in education. A general principle of the Convention is that the child’s right to be heard be considered as one of the four principles needed for the interpretation of all other articles. Research also demonstrates that effective schools have high levels of children’s and parental involvement. Despite the fact that legal steps have been taken towards recognition of the involvement of children and parents in education creating bodies such as the pupils’ government, school boards, parental councils, and lately the national council of parents, there are still unclear legal ways to implement their participation in the Albanian education system. In order to make participation possible, first and foremost, it is important to provide information regarding school activities, processes and decisions which must be transmitted to the children and parents, by creating routes of communication. This can be achieved by setting up some useful mechanisms that promote children’s and parents’ participation in education.

Keywords

  • participation in education
  • legal framework
  • Albania
access type Open Access

A Case Study Exploring the Impact of Valuing Practices and Emotional Labour on the Well-being of one Senior Leader

Published Online: 31 Mar 2020
Page range: 109 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

This article examines the theoretical frameworks of valuing practices and emotional labour in relation to a managerial position within a Higher Education setting. Positive aspects of these frameworks are explored along with challenges that can be faced by those striving to implement these management strategies in their practice. The methods used provided both qualitative and quantitative data via key vocabulary and phrases related to valuing practice and emotional labour as identified through observation and semi-structured interview, and the frequency of key vocabulary being used. The study takes the form of a case study. There is one participant who is a Higher Education employee working in a senior managerial position, line managing a small number of staff. This individual was chosen in order to explore their use of valuing practices and emotional labour within his management approaches. Analysis of the data identified a higher range of vocabulary relating to valuing practices than emotional labour. Overall conclusions are that valuing practices support the well-being of both leaders and staff through the motivation that is inspired by knowledgeable praise. Yet the possible risks of valuing practices should also be considered, such as non-engagement of staff. Emotional labour risks the well-being of leaders more so due to a difference in organisation and individual believes and ethos.

Keywords

  • Valuing practices
  • emotional labour
  • well-being
  • path-goal theory
  • emotional intelligence
  • leadership
access type Open Access

Empowering Voices of Students with Learning Difficulties – Implementing Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in a Special School through Participatory Action Research

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 125 - 144

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses on how self-regulated learning strategies can provide opportunities for students with learning difficulties to express their ideas and reflect on their learning progress. A qualitative, multiple-method research design was used for this participatory action research in a special school in Hong Kong. Data were collected for an academic year in a Form 5 (Year 12 in the UK) class setting. The ‘C. Ind. Le Coding Scheme’ from Whitebread et al. (2009) was used in the data analysis, providing an indicator of verbal and non-verbal self-regulation. My study indicates that the teachers’ guidance and feedback could foster the students’ expressive capability. The students actively shared their ideas, and appreciated everyone’s uniqueness in their school learning. This paper offers examples of how to implement self-regulated learning strategies at subject teaching (teacher-level) and learning (student-level), this promotes and supports the voices of students with learning difficulties in a special educational context.

Keywords

  • students with learning difficulties
  • student voice
  • self-regulated learning strategies
  • special educational curriculum design
  • Hong Kong
access type Open Access

Conceptualising Teachers’ Knowledge when Crossing National Boundaries

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 145 - 161

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this paper was to examine the meaning and function of “teachers knowledge”, both as a foundational tool used by teachers as professionals and the ways in which such knowledge is acquired, shared, and bettered. To help guide this discussion, the paper reviews the literature on related topics whilst also providing other insights and recommendations for further research. The topics have been broken down into two main parts: conceptualising teachers’ professional knowledge; and the sharing of knowledge internationally. The second of these examines the history of the topic whilst also critiquing the methods and effectiveness of sharing strategies. We find that the ways professional knowledge have been defined in public discourse are often inappropriate for the specific context of teaching. Furthermore, we find that sharing experience and knowledge between teachers is a foundational concept yet not always a straightforward matter and knowledge/experience can be a very difficult thing to transfer between one another. These obstacles can be exacerbated when it comes to the sharing of knowledge internationally, as economic disparities between participating nations can be vast and differences in culture challenging to overcome. Some nations additionally struggle in their authenticity to learn from each other. Ultimately, it is clear that “teacher knowledge” is a concept that is an area in need of further research, particularly as education reforms and curriculum adjustments are of great concern to both developing nations and their wealthier counterparts.

Keywords

  • knowledge communities
  • codified knowledge
  • teachers’ knowledge
  • analogies of knowledge
  • international networking
  • knowledge networks
access type Open Access

Cross-cultural Education in the Formation of Supranational Communal Competence

Published Online: 03 Apr 2020
Page range: 162 - 172

Abstract

Abstract

The text presents the assumptions of cross-cultural education, emphasizing that in the multicultural world it is necessary to look for solutions used in the past as regards the formation and functioning of supranational communities. The author believes that currently, in light of increasing nationalisms, cross-cultural competence that enables the formation of supranational communities is indispensable.

He points out that we should refer to the tradition of the Commonwealth of many nations in this respect. He considers the functioning of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, experiences of the multicultural policy of that time, where other nations were treated with appreciation and respect, as something that should be accomplished by contemporary cross-cultural education. He highlights the need to draw on that multicultural experiment, to reflect on it and analyze it in order to realize the essence of tradition of civil liberties and relationships between free people and communities based on freedom.

Keywords

  • cross-cultural education
  • culture
  • nation
  • community
  • cross-cultural competence
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

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