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Volume 11 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 10 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 9 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 8 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 7 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)
World of Slavs

Volume 6 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-9391
First Published
15 Dec 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 8 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-9391
First Published
15 Dec 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

21 Articles
Open Access

Myths and the American Nation: Jefferson’s Declaration and the development of American nationalism

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 7 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

The USA as a multinational country of immigrants is nevertheless a fertile ground for competing nationalist ideologies and the consequently competing myth-building that surrounds the construction of national identity. The myth of the 1776 Declaration of Independence as an important founding document for domestic politics in the United States continues to spread through popular culture and academic textbooks. The claim of the Jefferson’s Declaration as an aspirational founding document helped establish a myth supporting creedal nationalism, but obscures the arc of the ideological debate over national identity.

Keywords

  • American nationalism
  • myth
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Declaration of Independence
  • creedal nationalism
Open Access

Byzantine spirit of the Undead and its legacy in the Sick Man of Europe

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 21 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

This paper examines the source and consequences of permanent liminality in the political-legal administration of the Byzantine Empire. The paper argues ambiguous and incomplete identities of individuals, groups, and society associated with certain authoritarian political arrangements and consequent arrested liminal period(s) contributed to the decline of the Empire. Further, and significantly, the unresolved situation of disaggregated identity, or spirited away demos, persisted in the Ottoman Era and continues to infect contemporary socio-political affairs in regions in the Balkans and other countries of the former Soviet Union which now seek to balance the interests of a nation-state with the diversity of Europe. The paper does not consider the Orthodox Spirit, but rather analyzes the role of pseudo-intellectuals and sophists who derail the democratic and philosophical Hellenist traditions with authoritarian policies and tools. The research compares and links the institutional attempts of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires to manage and manipulate differences and distinctions through mechanisms such as theatricalization and the millets. The argument concludes that these strategies created the basis for the perpetualization of the sick man of Europe to the extent they focused on juggling the distinctions and identities of the empires rather than pursuing the development of the democratic self. Thus, in liminality is revealed and contained undead and viral authoritarian spirits, sometimes manifested in populist or extremist ethnic leaders, whose technologies trick the demos and disrupt the democratic imagination.

Keywords

  • Byzantine
  • Ottoman
  • liminality
  • demos
  • millets
Open Access

A New Social Class: From Proletariat to Precariat

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 39 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with the emergence of a new social class, precariat, explains the causes that brought it into being, its structure and key characteristics. It traces the maturing of the idea of precariat in scientific thought, in world and Russian social practice. The main features of this class are revealed and a comparison is made with other social groups. The article reveals the specificities of this class, its place and role in contemporary divisionof labour, its position in the labour market and the first sprouts of its self-awarenessas “a class for itself.” The consequences of the existence and functioning of the precariat are discussed.

Keywords

  • society
  • social class
  • precariat
  • proletariat
  • labour market
  • employment
Open Access

Stateless Zionism: Old traditions, new ideologies

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 53 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

This essay aims at exploring Zionist currents that resisted the establishment of a Jewish nation-state, their non-statist vision of Zionism and its roots in Jewish conditions and political traditions, as well as in European anti-statist ideologies and national patterns. First, the non-Zionist diaspora nationalism of Simon Dubnow will be examined, as an important point of reference of non-statist Zionisms; then, the reservations of Ahad Ha’am, founder of “spiritual Zionism”, from the vision of a nation-state and the Marxian anti-statism of Ber Borochov and his socialist followers will be observed.

Thereafter, the anarchism of Martin Buber and his followers in the binational factions “Brit Shalom and Ihud” will be discussed; here anti-statism is manifestly theological. Lastly, the current manifestations of non-statist Jewish nationalism will be succinctly explored, focusing on two religious-Zionist rabbis, the late Menachem Fruman and Shimon Gershon Rosenberg, and the American historian David N. Myers.

Keywords

  • Ahad Ha’am (Asher Ginzberg)
  • Ber Borochov
  • Simon Dubnow
  • Martin Buber
  • Brit Shalom
  • nationalism
  • Zionism
Open Access

Determinant factors of multiculturalism in Switzerland

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 83 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

Switzerland consists of different regions, cultures and languages. The minorities in Switzerland are in the first place ethno-linguistic minorities, whose are unified by a common language. Therefore, since the foundation of the Confederation in 1848 the Helvetic state has been considered a multilingual country. The confederation and cantons are obliged to protect linguistic minorities. The grounds of the Swiss social structure, with traditional multiculturalism and four national languages are two principles: language freedom (Sprachenfreiheit) and territoriality (Territorialitätsprinzip). Switzerland has no official state religion. Predominant religion is Christianity, the largest religious minorities is established by Islam. The largest Christian denominations are Catholic Church (37.7%) and Swiss Reformed Church (25.5%). The influx of new cultural minorities to Switzerland began aXer the Second World War and was directly connected with economic migration, with the large influx of gastarbeiters from southern European countries and refugees from the Third World and from the former Yugoslavia. International law includes the protection of national, yet not cultural minorities. In Switzerland the protection of national minorities is also based on international standards. The necessity for systematic integration policy in Switzerland appeared in the nineties of the twentieth century, after removing the anti-immigration tendencies and hostile attitude towards foreigners. There is a conflict of interest between democracy and state under the rule of law, and between majoritarian democratic politics and liberal principles. The conflict can be controlled; however it can not be resolved. The principle of the Swiss “unity in multiplicity” is best reflected in the multiculturalism and multilingualism of Switzerland, but also a relatively high percentage of the foreigners.

Keywords

  • Switzerland
  • Swiss minorities
  • direct democracy
  • cultural minorities
  • Swiss integration policy
  • protection of minorities
  • unity in multiplicity
Open Access

Separatist and autonomous tendencies in modern Italy

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 103 - 118

Abstract

Abstract

The article focuses on the autonomous and separatist pursuits that occur in present day Italy. The work was inspired by the consultative referendums of 2017 in the regions of Veneto and Lombardia. Their aim was to give the residents a chance to express their views regarding the possible expansion of the autonomy of these two administrative units. As a result of the plebiscites, a significant majority voted for the expansion of the autonomy, which might trigger the pursuit of more permissions for the regions. One has to remember that in accordance with the constitution, Italy is a unanimous and non-divisible state. However, this does not mean that presently (as well as in the future) there are no separatist and autonomous tendencies. The tendencies have historical, economical, cultural, social or political reasons. The aim of the article is to analyze these tendencies on the basis subject literature and sources.

Keywords

  • Italian Republic
  • autonomy
  • separatism
  • Italian regions
  • Lega Nord
Open Access

Perspectives of the Kurdish knot in the Middle East

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 119 - 132

Abstract

Abstract

For centuries, Kurds have been carrying out activities aimed at obtaining their own state. Due to the cooperation of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria, it was impossible in the twentieth century. As a result of Operation Desert Storm, a Kurdish enclave was created in the north of Iraq, which over the years developed and allowed for real dreams of recognized independence, at least for some of the Kurds living in the Middle East. A&er the overthrow of Saddam Hussein and the withdrawal of US troops from Iraq in 2011, there was a political vacuum in which we observe the weakening of the Iraqi state, the outbreak of the Arab Spring and the emergence of the Islamic State, which also had direct consequences for the Kurds. The weakness of the central government in Baghdad, the need to fight the Kurdish army against IS fighters raised the importance of arguments for the proclamation of an independent Kurdish state in the Middle East, or maybe even two, including the possible division of Syria.

Keywords

  • Kurds
  • The Middle East
  • Arab Spring
  • Iraq
  • Kurdistan Regional Government
Open Access

Nationalism and the issue of nation-building in the nineteenth century’s Georgian political thought

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 133 - 147

Abstract

Abstract

In this article, we discuss two different directions about the Georgian nationalism of the 19th century: first we consider, thetrinity of language, homeland, faith – maybe one of the best classical formulations of nationalist project. And second, in the process of creation of the nation, in the course of research of the Georgian nation-building of that period, we can not avoid the role of printed media. Georgian intellectuals published their opinions on general internal problems or foreign policy processes and all the most important ideas expressed by them were widespread by the printed media. Under strict censorship, discussing foreign policy processes was an indirect way to disclose the attitudes of Georgian intellectuals to the building Georgian nation, restoration of state, territorial integrity and independence, as well as to the colonial politics in generall.

“Let’s be self-sufficient” is a phrase best describing the main purpose of Georgian intellectuals. However, it is noteworthy that the creators of that time Georgian nationalismprimarily sought to gain autonomy within the Russian Empire, while full political independence was due to the reality a far and difficult goal. Generally, Georgian nationalism developed during that period was clearly mild and was far from ethno-cultural discrimination that is o”en characteristic for nationalism.

Keywords

  • Nationalism
  • nation-building
  • education
  • language
  • orthodoxy
Open Access

Kurds in the Middle East in the context of plurality of identities

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 149 - 156

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyzes the ethnic, linguistic and religious aspects of the Kurdish region19. It explains the issue of the tribal identity of Kurdish communities in the Middle East and points to the phenomenon of tribalism as a key factor affecting the degree of ethnic and political consistency of Kurdistan20.

Keywords

  • Kurds
  • Kurdish
  • Iraqi Kurdistan
  • Kurdish identity
  • tribalism
Open Access

Trapped within the law. Will the Kurdish Jews return to their homeland?

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 157 - 166

Abstract

Abstract

Jews have lived in Iraq and Kurdistan for thousands of years. The vision of the founding of the State of Israel and the emergence of the Nazi ideology in Europe caused that the participation of Jews in social and cultural life and contribution to the development of education and the economy in Iraq ceased to have meaning. The strong influence of Nazi and anti-Zionist ideology led to discrimination and persecution of the Jewish minority in this country. The effect of this was the establishment of laws in the 1950s, which in exchange for permission to travel to Israel deprived Jews of Iraqi citizenship. Nowadays, the legal situation in Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan has changed aTher the overthrow of Saddam Hussein’s regime. Currently, Kurdish law allows the appointment of representatives of ethnic and religious minorities, the creation of a cultural centres and the reconstruction of important places of worship, as well as obtaining compensation for lost property as a result of repression of previous Iraqi governments. However, the Iraqi New Constitution of 2005 and the Act of 2006, superior to Kurdish law, provide the opportunity to return and regain citizenship to those who lost it, but the exception is Jews who renounced their citizenship on the basis of the 1950 and 1952 laws. Despite the still strong ties with Iraq and Arab culture, Jews, especially Israeli, are deprived of the opportunity to return, regain their citizenship and claim their right to lost property.

Keywords

  • Kurdish Jews
  • homeland
  • Iraqi Kurdistan
  • Islamic State
  • Mansani
Open Access

Geostationary Belt – State’s Territory or Province of Mankind?

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 167 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

The geostationary orbit is a special area in outer space. Because of its distinctive characteristics, it has constantly been the subject of economic and political desirability. Space powers, taking advantage of their technological superiority and rules applied by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) retained a privileged position. Developing countries, responding to this state of affairs, have taken a number of measures to improve their positions. Some of them posed a challenge to the main regulation of space law (Bogota declaration was an attempt to exercise a national sovereignty over the segments of the geostationary orbit), some are based on the use of the legal gaps in ITU regulations. Given these circumstances, the specific case of geostationary belt contributes to the debate on the regulations governing space exploration.

Keywords

  • Geostationary orbit
  • paper satellites
  • orbital slots
  • Bogota declaration
Open Access

Italian migration policy: Changes and effects

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 181 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

The phenomenon of Italian migration is characterized by a clear caesura, which makes Italy a country with a long history of emigration and a much shorter experience of immigration. The mid-1970s are considered a breakthrough, when the zero-migration balance was recorded for the first time. The growing wave of arriving foreigners forced the rulers to change the current immigration policy, which rarely responded to the needs of both foreigners and citizens of the Republic. Subsequent laws, usually created in extraordinary circumstances, were also subject to the process of alternating power. Lack of legislative continuity and insufficient social integration gave birth to additional tensions around the observed influx of refugees. In this situation, it seems that the management of the migration crisis is no longer the responsibility of a single nation, but should be an action taken at the level of solutions of the European community.

Keywords

  • Italian political system
  • migration policy
  • migration history (emigration and immigration)
  • theories of migration
  • migration crisis
Open Access

The Methodist Church in Poland in reality of liquidation policy. Operation “Moda” (1949-1955)

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 199 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article is to analyze the determinants and other conditions of the religious policy of the Polish state towards the Methodist Church in the Stalinist period. The author took into account conceptual, programmatic, executive and operational activities undertaken by a complex subject of power, formed by three structures: party, administrative and special services. In his opinion, the liquidation direction of religious policy towards the Methodist Church was determined primarily by two factors: 1) the activity of Methodists in Masuria, which was assessed as “harmful activities” because they were competitive to the activity of the Evangelical-Augsburg Church (in which the authorities placed great hopes for effective repolonization of the native population), 2) strong links between the Methodist Church in Poland and the Methodist Church in the West (United States of America, Canada, Great Britain, Sweden). The liquidationa ctivities have been depicted primarily on the basis of solutions included in the action of special services under the codename “Moda”. The author also explains the reasons for the final resignation from the liquidation policy towards Polish Methodism and the inclusion of the Methodist Church in the direction of the rationing policy.

Keywords

  • religious policy
  • liquidation policy
  • regulatory policy
  • special services
  • Methodism
  • Methodist Church
Open Access

Corruption in Spain and Catalonia after 2008

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 225 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The authors decided to deal with the theme of the influence of corruption on the political processes in contemporary Spain and Catalonia. The investigation of this problem requires the reference to both: a political situation in entire state and in the peripheral region, included in the territorial range of Spain.

Therefore, the main objective of the article is the attempt to answer three questions: 1) What is the corruptive phenomenon based on and why a public sphere is endangered with it to such a degree?, 2) How did the Spanish citizens react to corruptive processes after 2008?, 3) Did Catalonia, whose politicians regard this region as definitely separate from Spain, differ considerably from a political centre and other regions of the country within intensity of the occurrence of corruptive phenomena after 2008?

Keywords

  • Catalonia
  • Spain
  • corruption
  • economic crisis of 2008
Open Access

Economic expansion of China in Ukraine. Can the New Silk Road project support Ukrainian statehood?

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 237 - 249

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to present the current condition of Ukrainian-Chinese economic relations, in particular initiatives related to the New Silk Road project. The author describes the main areas of cooperation between China and Ukraine, the results of individual initiatives, as well as the difficulties faced by some areas of bilateral cooperation. China turns out to be essential for Ukraine in a period when its relations with Russia have deteriorated and the European Union cannot provide Ukraine with sufficient support. The authorities in Beijing are aware of the strategic position of Ukraine, considering this country as an important link with Central and Western Europe. “is makes the bilateral cooperation very promising, and the increase of Chinese influence in Ukraine is an almost natural consequence of the good collaboration. An increasingly closer Ukrainian-Chinese cooperation results in a number of significant changes in Ukraine and its stronger statehood. According to the author, in the foreseeable future there will be further development of China’s economic expansion in Ukraine. The prospects for cooperation between these two countries are based on the current, multidimensional collaboration, which, however, encounters numerous barriers resulting from the economic weakness and the social capital of Ukraine.

Keywords

  • Ukraine
  • China
  • economy
  • New Silk Road
  • statehood
Open Access

The Polish People’s Republic State Apparatus and the Roma people in the Lubuskie Region

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 251 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

The article analyzes the situation of the Roma people in the Lubuskie Region in the years 1945-1989. Being part of the so-called “Western Territories”, the Lubuskie Region, first as the Zielona Góra Voivodship and later divided into Zielona Góra Voivodship and Gorzów Voivodship, attracted a number of ethnic minorities, including Gypsies. “e article presents how local political and security authorities reacted to the presence of the Roma people, adapting central laws, most notably the 1964 forced settlement bill, to local situation. In their analysis, the authors use documents held in various local and central archives, including the Institute of National Remembrance archive and Ministry of the Interior archive.

Keywords

  • Gypsies
  • ethnic minorities
  • Roma people
  • Edward Dębicki
  • security policy
  • local policy
Open Access

The Role of Female Poets in Modern Kurdish Literature

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 265 - 277

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses upon some of the female poets in Kurdish literature who have played a major role in establishing Kurdish women’s poetry and their poetic texts, and how their voices become deeper and more feminine. The study will encompass the earliest Kurdish female poet from the classic period -Masture-y Ardalani (1805–1848), one of the most prominent Kurdish poets - and four poets from the modern period, namely Diya Ciwan (b. 1953), Kazhal Ahmed (b. 1967), Nezend Begikhani (b. 1964), and Mahabad Qaradaghi (b. 1966). The existence of feminine poetry in Kurdish literature is considered new born, but in fact the real emergence of women’s poetry in Kurdish literature dates back to the early 1990s, aTher the liberation of southern Kurdistan from the Saddam Hussein regime. Additionally, it is important to note that the Kurdish political and creative history is not without women’s presence.

Keywords

  • female poets
  • kurdish literature
  • Diya Ciwan
  • Kazhal Ahmed
  • Nezend Begikhani
  • Mahabad Qaradaghi
Open Access

Refugee crisis – casus of Cottbus

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 279 - 292

Abstract

Abstract

The fact that about 4000 immigrants are placed in Cottbus, situated 192 km from Poznań and 83 km from Zielona Góra, makes us feel it is necessary to analyze modus operandi of the entities legitimizing or delegitimizing the Open Door policy of the Chancellor Angela Merkel. To explain their position, political actors refer to the diverse narratives that Rolf Peter Sieferle classified as: the refugee narrative; a narrative recalling the demographic problem; a narrative referring to problems in the labor market and a lack of qualified employees; a narrative referring to the essence of multiculturalism. Difficulties in absorbing immigrants caused a discussion about fatigue both in political parties and in the media, but they showed the potential of social initiatives and movements, for example the organization “Future of the Fatherland”, led by Hans-Christoph Berndt. His views combined with the statements of Dietmar Woidke, the Prime Minister of Brandenburg, or Jörg Steinbach, the President of the Brandenburg University of Technology, reflect the diversity of the assessment of migration policy in a micro-scale.

Keywords

  • refugee crisis
  • extremism
Open Access

A report on the Lemko Association and the Carpathian Institute of the USA in 2017

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 293 - 300

Abstract

Abstract

This paper reports on the recent revival of the Lemko Association (Lemko Soyuz) in North America, under the auspices of the Carpathian Institute, a US federal and Connecticut state recognized tax-exempt, non-profit, non-political, non-sectarian educational corporation. The Lemko Association, founded in 1929, had become essentially defunct by the end of 2009. Beginning in 2010, however, in a new location and new legal status it has been revived, publishing a quarterly, “Karpatska Rus’”, books, pamphlets and flags and arranging for lectures.

Keywords

  • Lemko Association
  • Carpathian Institute
  • Lemkos
  • United States of America
Open Access

Lemkos – the rediscovered nation

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 303 - 311

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes the basic problems of the Lemko community in Central Europe, with particular emphasis on the population living in Poland, its fate, history and contemporary position in Poland, recalling, among other things, the activities of associations (the Association of Lemkos, the Union of Lemkos, organization of Watra). The author presented literature by analyzing the content of Marek Koprowski’s book.

Keywords

  • Lemkos
  • orthodoxy
  • nation
  • ethnic minority
  • language
Open Access

Benjamin J. Cohen, Advanced introduction to international policy economy, Elgar 2014, pp. 151

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 315 - 320

Abstract

21 Articles
Open Access

Myths and the American Nation: Jefferson’s Declaration and the development of American nationalism

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 7 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

The USA as a multinational country of immigrants is nevertheless a fertile ground for competing nationalist ideologies and the consequently competing myth-building that surrounds the construction of national identity. The myth of the 1776 Declaration of Independence as an important founding document for domestic politics in the United States continues to spread through popular culture and academic textbooks. The claim of the Jefferson’s Declaration as an aspirational founding document helped establish a myth supporting creedal nationalism, but obscures the arc of the ideological debate over national identity.

Keywords

  • American nationalism
  • myth
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Declaration of Independence
  • creedal nationalism
Open Access

Byzantine spirit of the Undead and its legacy in the Sick Man of Europe

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 21 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

This paper examines the source and consequences of permanent liminality in the political-legal administration of the Byzantine Empire. The paper argues ambiguous and incomplete identities of individuals, groups, and society associated with certain authoritarian political arrangements and consequent arrested liminal period(s) contributed to the decline of the Empire. Further, and significantly, the unresolved situation of disaggregated identity, or spirited away demos, persisted in the Ottoman Era and continues to infect contemporary socio-political affairs in regions in the Balkans and other countries of the former Soviet Union which now seek to balance the interests of a nation-state with the diversity of Europe. The paper does not consider the Orthodox Spirit, but rather analyzes the role of pseudo-intellectuals and sophists who derail the democratic and philosophical Hellenist traditions with authoritarian policies and tools. The research compares and links the institutional attempts of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires to manage and manipulate differences and distinctions through mechanisms such as theatricalization and the millets. The argument concludes that these strategies created the basis for the perpetualization of the sick man of Europe to the extent they focused on juggling the distinctions and identities of the empires rather than pursuing the development of the democratic self. Thus, in liminality is revealed and contained undead and viral authoritarian spirits, sometimes manifested in populist or extremist ethnic leaders, whose technologies trick the demos and disrupt the democratic imagination.

Keywords

  • Byzantine
  • Ottoman
  • liminality
  • demos
  • millets
Open Access

A New Social Class: From Proletariat to Precariat

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 39 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with the emergence of a new social class, precariat, explains the causes that brought it into being, its structure and key characteristics. It traces the maturing of the idea of precariat in scientific thought, in world and Russian social practice. The main features of this class are revealed and a comparison is made with other social groups. The article reveals the specificities of this class, its place and role in contemporary divisionof labour, its position in the labour market and the first sprouts of its self-awarenessas “a class for itself.” The consequences of the existence and functioning of the precariat are discussed.

Keywords

  • society
  • social class
  • precariat
  • proletariat
  • labour market
  • employment
Open Access

Stateless Zionism: Old traditions, new ideologies

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 53 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

This essay aims at exploring Zionist currents that resisted the establishment of a Jewish nation-state, their non-statist vision of Zionism and its roots in Jewish conditions and political traditions, as well as in European anti-statist ideologies and national patterns. First, the non-Zionist diaspora nationalism of Simon Dubnow will be examined, as an important point of reference of non-statist Zionisms; then, the reservations of Ahad Ha’am, founder of “spiritual Zionism”, from the vision of a nation-state and the Marxian anti-statism of Ber Borochov and his socialist followers will be observed.

Thereafter, the anarchism of Martin Buber and his followers in the binational factions “Brit Shalom and Ihud” will be discussed; here anti-statism is manifestly theological. Lastly, the current manifestations of non-statist Jewish nationalism will be succinctly explored, focusing on two religious-Zionist rabbis, the late Menachem Fruman and Shimon Gershon Rosenberg, and the American historian David N. Myers.

Keywords

  • Ahad Ha’am (Asher Ginzberg)
  • Ber Borochov
  • Simon Dubnow
  • Martin Buber
  • Brit Shalom
  • nationalism
  • Zionism
Open Access

Determinant factors of multiculturalism in Switzerland

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 83 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

Switzerland consists of different regions, cultures and languages. The minorities in Switzerland are in the first place ethno-linguistic minorities, whose are unified by a common language. Therefore, since the foundation of the Confederation in 1848 the Helvetic state has been considered a multilingual country. The confederation and cantons are obliged to protect linguistic minorities. The grounds of the Swiss social structure, with traditional multiculturalism and four national languages are two principles: language freedom (Sprachenfreiheit) and territoriality (Territorialitätsprinzip). Switzerland has no official state religion. Predominant religion is Christianity, the largest religious minorities is established by Islam. The largest Christian denominations are Catholic Church (37.7%) and Swiss Reformed Church (25.5%). The influx of new cultural minorities to Switzerland began aXer the Second World War and was directly connected with economic migration, with the large influx of gastarbeiters from southern European countries and refugees from the Third World and from the former Yugoslavia. International law includes the protection of national, yet not cultural minorities. In Switzerland the protection of national minorities is also based on international standards. The necessity for systematic integration policy in Switzerland appeared in the nineties of the twentieth century, after removing the anti-immigration tendencies and hostile attitude towards foreigners. There is a conflict of interest between democracy and state under the rule of law, and between majoritarian democratic politics and liberal principles. The conflict can be controlled; however it can not be resolved. The principle of the Swiss “unity in multiplicity” is best reflected in the multiculturalism and multilingualism of Switzerland, but also a relatively high percentage of the foreigners.

Keywords

  • Switzerland
  • Swiss minorities
  • direct democracy
  • cultural minorities
  • Swiss integration policy
  • protection of minorities
  • unity in multiplicity
Open Access

Separatist and autonomous tendencies in modern Italy

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 103 - 118

Abstract

Abstract

The article focuses on the autonomous and separatist pursuits that occur in present day Italy. The work was inspired by the consultative referendums of 2017 in the regions of Veneto and Lombardia. Their aim was to give the residents a chance to express their views regarding the possible expansion of the autonomy of these two administrative units. As a result of the plebiscites, a significant majority voted for the expansion of the autonomy, which might trigger the pursuit of more permissions for the regions. One has to remember that in accordance with the constitution, Italy is a unanimous and non-divisible state. However, this does not mean that presently (as well as in the future) there are no separatist and autonomous tendencies. The tendencies have historical, economical, cultural, social or political reasons. The aim of the article is to analyze these tendencies on the basis subject literature and sources.

Keywords

  • Italian Republic
  • autonomy
  • separatism
  • Italian regions
  • Lega Nord
Open Access

Perspectives of the Kurdish knot in the Middle East

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 119 - 132

Abstract

Abstract

For centuries, Kurds have been carrying out activities aimed at obtaining their own state. Due to the cooperation of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria, it was impossible in the twentieth century. As a result of Operation Desert Storm, a Kurdish enclave was created in the north of Iraq, which over the years developed and allowed for real dreams of recognized independence, at least for some of the Kurds living in the Middle East. A&er the overthrow of Saddam Hussein and the withdrawal of US troops from Iraq in 2011, there was a political vacuum in which we observe the weakening of the Iraqi state, the outbreak of the Arab Spring and the emergence of the Islamic State, which also had direct consequences for the Kurds. The weakness of the central government in Baghdad, the need to fight the Kurdish army against IS fighters raised the importance of arguments for the proclamation of an independent Kurdish state in the Middle East, or maybe even two, including the possible division of Syria.

Keywords

  • Kurds
  • The Middle East
  • Arab Spring
  • Iraq
  • Kurdistan Regional Government
Open Access

Nationalism and the issue of nation-building in the nineteenth century’s Georgian political thought

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 133 - 147

Abstract

Abstract

In this article, we discuss two different directions about the Georgian nationalism of the 19th century: first we consider, thetrinity of language, homeland, faith – maybe one of the best classical formulations of nationalist project. And second, in the process of creation of the nation, in the course of research of the Georgian nation-building of that period, we can not avoid the role of printed media. Georgian intellectuals published their opinions on general internal problems or foreign policy processes and all the most important ideas expressed by them were widespread by the printed media. Under strict censorship, discussing foreign policy processes was an indirect way to disclose the attitudes of Georgian intellectuals to the building Georgian nation, restoration of state, territorial integrity and independence, as well as to the colonial politics in generall.

“Let’s be self-sufficient” is a phrase best describing the main purpose of Georgian intellectuals. However, it is noteworthy that the creators of that time Georgian nationalismprimarily sought to gain autonomy within the Russian Empire, while full political independence was due to the reality a far and difficult goal. Generally, Georgian nationalism developed during that period was clearly mild and was far from ethno-cultural discrimination that is o”en characteristic for nationalism.

Keywords

  • Nationalism
  • nation-building
  • education
  • language
  • orthodoxy
Open Access

Kurds in the Middle East in the context of plurality of identities

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 149 - 156

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyzes the ethnic, linguistic and religious aspects of the Kurdish region19. It explains the issue of the tribal identity of Kurdish communities in the Middle East and points to the phenomenon of tribalism as a key factor affecting the degree of ethnic and political consistency of Kurdistan20.

Keywords

  • Kurds
  • Kurdish
  • Iraqi Kurdistan
  • Kurdish identity
  • tribalism
Open Access

Trapped within the law. Will the Kurdish Jews return to their homeland?

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 157 - 166

Abstract

Abstract

Jews have lived in Iraq and Kurdistan for thousands of years. The vision of the founding of the State of Israel and the emergence of the Nazi ideology in Europe caused that the participation of Jews in social and cultural life and contribution to the development of education and the economy in Iraq ceased to have meaning. The strong influence of Nazi and anti-Zionist ideology led to discrimination and persecution of the Jewish minority in this country. The effect of this was the establishment of laws in the 1950s, which in exchange for permission to travel to Israel deprived Jews of Iraqi citizenship. Nowadays, the legal situation in Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan has changed aTher the overthrow of Saddam Hussein’s regime. Currently, Kurdish law allows the appointment of representatives of ethnic and religious minorities, the creation of a cultural centres and the reconstruction of important places of worship, as well as obtaining compensation for lost property as a result of repression of previous Iraqi governments. However, the Iraqi New Constitution of 2005 and the Act of 2006, superior to Kurdish law, provide the opportunity to return and regain citizenship to those who lost it, but the exception is Jews who renounced their citizenship on the basis of the 1950 and 1952 laws. Despite the still strong ties with Iraq and Arab culture, Jews, especially Israeli, are deprived of the opportunity to return, regain their citizenship and claim their right to lost property.

Keywords

  • Kurdish Jews
  • homeland
  • Iraqi Kurdistan
  • Islamic State
  • Mansani
Open Access

Geostationary Belt – State’s Territory or Province of Mankind?

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 167 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

The geostationary orbit is a special area in outer space. Because of its distinctive characteristics, it has constantly been the subject of economic and political desirability. Space powers, taking advantage of their technological superiority and rules applied by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) retained a privileged position. Developing countries, responding to this state of affairs, have taken a number of measures to improve their positions. Some of them posed a challenge to the main regulation of space law (Bogota declaration was an attempt to exercise a national sovereignty over the segments of the geostationary orbit), some are based on the use of the legal gaps in ITU regulations. Given these circumstances, the specific case of geostationary belt contributes to the debate on the regulations governing space exploration.

Keywords

  • Geostationary orbit
  • paper satellites
  • orbital slots
  • Bogota declaration
Open Access

Italian migration policy: Changes and effects

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 181 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

The phenomenon of Italian migration is characterized by a clear caesura, which makes Italy a country with a long history of emigration and a much shorter experience of immigration. The mid-1970s are considered a breakthrough, when the zero-migration balance was recorded for the first time. The growing wave of arriving foreigners forced the rulers to change the current immigration policy, which rarely responded to the needs of both foreigners and citizens of the Republic. Subsequent laws, usually created in extraordinary circumstances, were also subject to the process of alternating power. Lack of legislative continuity and insufficient social integration gave birth to additional tensions around the observed influx of refugees. In this situation, it seems that the management of the migration crisis is no longer the responsibility of a single nation, but should be an action taken at the level of solutions of the European community.

Keywords

  • Italian political system
  • migration policy
  • migration history (emigration and immigration)
  • theories of migration
  • migration crisis
Open Access

The Methodist Church in Poland in reality of liquidation policy. Operation “Moda” (1949-1955)

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 199 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article is to analyze the determinants and other conditions of the religious policy of the Polish state towards the Methodist Church in the Stalinist period. The author took into account conceptual, programmatic, executive and operational activities undertaken by a complex subject of power, formed by three structures: party, administrative and special services. In his opinion, the liquidation direction of religious policy towards the Methodist Church was determined primarily by two factors: 1) the activity of Methodists in Masuria, which was assessed as “harmful activities” because they were competitive to the activity of the Evangelical-Augsburg Church (in which the authorities placed great hopes for effective repolonization of the native population), 2) strong links between the Methodist Church in Poland and the Methodist Church in the West (United States of America, Canada, Great Britain, Sweden). The liquidationa ctivities have been depicted primarily on the basis of solutions included in the action of special services under the codename “Moda”. The author also explains the reasons for the final resignation from the liquidation policy towards Polish Methodism and the inclusion of the Methodist Church in the direction of the rationing policy.

Keywords

  • religious policy
  • liquidation policy
  • regulatory policy
  • special services
  • Methodism
  • Methodist Church
Open Access

Corruption in Spain and Catalonia after 2008

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 225 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The authors decided to deal with the theme of the influence of corruption on the political processes in contemporary Spain and Catalonia. The investigation of this problem requires the reference to both: a political situation in entire state and in the peripheral region, included in the territorial range of Spain.

Therefore, the main objective of the article is the attempt to answer three questions: 1) What is the corruptive phenomenon based on and why a public sphere is endangered with it to such a degree?, 2) How did the Spanish citizens react to corruptive processes after 2008?, 3) Did Catalonia, whose politicians regard this region as definitely separate from Spain, differ considerably from a political centre and other regions of the country within intensity of the occurrence of corruptive phenomena after 2008?

Keywords

  • Catalonia
  • Spain
  • corruption
  • economic crisis of 2008
Open Access

Economic expansion of China in Ukraine. Can the New Silk Road project support Ukrainian statehood?

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 237 - 249

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to present the current condition of Ukrainian-Chinese economic relations, in particular initiatives related to the New Silk Road project. The author describes the main areas of cooperation between China and Ukraine, the results of individual initiatives, as well as the difficulties faced by some areas of bilateral cooperation. China turns out to be essential for Ukraine in a period when its relations with Russia have deteriorated and the European Union cannot provide Ukraine with sufficient support. The authorities in Beijing are aware of the strategic position of Ukraine, considering this country as an important link with Central and Western Europe. “is makes the bilateral cooperation very promising, and the increase of Chinese influence in Ukraine is an almost natural consequence of the good collaboration. An increasingly closer Ukrainian-Chinese cooperation results in a number of significant changes in Ukraine and its stronger statehood. According to the author, in the foreseeable future there will be further development of China’s economic expansion in Ukraine. The prospects for cooperation between these two countries are based on the current, multidimensional collaboration, which, however, encounters numerous barriers resulting from the economic weakness and the social capital of Ukraine.

Keywords

  • Ukraine
  • China
  • economy
  • New Silk Road
  • statehood
Open Access

The Polish People’s Republic State Apparatus and the Roma people in the Lubuskie Region

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 251 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

The article analyzes the situation of the Roma people in the Lubuskie Region in the years 1945-1989. Being part of the so-called “Western Territories”, the Lubuskie Region, first as the Zielona Góra Voivodship and later divided into Zielona Góra Voivodship and Gorzów Voivodship, attracted a number of ethnic minorities, including Gypsies. “e article presents how local political and security authorities reacted to the presence of the Roma people, adapting central laws, most notably the 1964 forced settlement bill, to local situation. In their analysis, the authors use documents held in various local and central archives, including the Institute of National Remembrance archive and Ministry of the Interior archive.

Keywords

  • Gypsies
  • ethnic minorities
  • Roma people
  • Edward Dębicki
  • security policy
  • local policy
Open Access

The Role of Female Poets in Modern Kurdish Literature

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 265 - 277

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focuses upon some of the female poets in Kurdish literature who have played a major role in establishing Kurdish women’s poetry and their poetic texts, and how their voices become deeper and more feminine. The study will encompass the earliest Kurdish female poet from the classic period -Masture-y Ardalani (1805–1848), one of the most prominent Kurdish poets - and four poets from the modern period, namely Diya Ciwan (b. 1953), Kazhal Ahmed (b. 1967), Nezend Begikhani (b. 1964), and Mahabad Qaradaghi (b. 1966). The existence of feminine poetry in Kurdish literature is considered new born, but in fact the real emergence of women’s poetry in Kurdish literature dates back to the early 1990s, aTher the liberation of southern Kurdistan from the Saddam Hussein regime. Additionally, it is important to note that the Kurdish political and creative history is not without women’s presence.

Keywords

  • female poets
  • kurdish literature
  • Diya Ciwan
  • Kazhal Ahmed
  • Nezend Begikhani
  • Mahabad Qaradaghi
Open Access

Refugee crisis – casus of Cottbus

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 279 - 292

Abstract

Abstract

The fact that about 4000 immigrants are placed in Cottbus, situated 192 km from Poznań and 83 km from Zielona Góra, makes us feel it is necessary to analyze modus operandi of the entities legitimizing or delegitimizing the Open Door policy of the Chancellor Angela Merkel. To explain their position, political actors refer to the diverse narratives that Rolf Peter Sieferle classified as: the refugee narrative; a narrative recalling the demographic problem; a narrative referring to problems in the labor market and a lack of qualified employees; a narrative referring to the essence of multiculturalism. Difficulties in absorbing immigrants caused a discussion about fatigue both in political parties and in the media, but they showed the potential of social initiatives and movements, for example the organization “Future of the Fatherland”, led by Hans-Christoph Berndt. His views combined with the statements of Dietmar Woidke, the Prime Minister of Brandenburg, or Jörg Steinbach, the President of the Brandenburg University of Technology, reflect the diversity of the assessment of migration policy in a micro-scale.

Keywords

  • refugee crisis
  • extremism
Open Access

A report on the Lemko Association and the Carpathian Institute of the USA in 2017

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 293 - 300

Abstract

Abstract

This paper reports on the recent revival of the Lemko Association (Lemko Soyuz) in North America, under the auspices of the Carpathian Institute, a US federal and Connecticut state recognized tax-exempt, non-profit, non-political, non-sectarian educational corporation. The Lemko Association, founded in 1929, had become essentially defunct by the end of 2009. Beginning in 2010, however, in a new location and new legal status it has been revived, publishing a quarterly, “Karpatska Rus’”, books, pamphlets and flags and arranging for lectures.

Keywords

  • Lemko Association
  • Carpathian Institute
  • Lemkos
  • United States of America
Open Access

Lemkos – the rediscovered nation

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 303 - 311

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes the basic problems of the Lemko community in Central Europe, with particular emphasis on the population living in Poland, its fate, history and contemporary position in Poland, recalling, among other things, the activities of associations (the Association of Lemkos, the Union of Lemkos, organization of Watra). The author presented literature by analyzing the content of Marek Koprowski’s book.

Keywords

  • Lemkos
  • orthodoxy
  • nation
  • ethnic minority
  • language
Open Access

Benjamin J. Cohen, Advanced introduction to international policy economy, Elgar 2014, pp. 151

Published Online: 14 Feb 2019
Page range: 315 - 320

Abstract

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