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Volume 3 (2020): Issue 1 (August 2020)

Volume 2 (2019): Issue 2 (December 2019)

Volume 2 (2019): Issue 1 (October 2019)

Volume 1 (2018): Issue 1 (October 2018)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2545-2843
First Published
30 Sep 2018
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 2 (2019): Issue 2 (December 2019)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2545-2843
First Published
30 Sep 2018
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

34 Articles

Selected Aspects of Production Engineering in Management and Materials Engineering, Editor: Tadeusz Frączek

Open Access

Recycling of the Steelmaking by-products into the Oxygen Converter Charge

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 1 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

In the technological process of the steelmaking plant, secondary products are produced in parallel with the production of the main product, which have the character of secondary by products or industrial waste. The major secondary products of steelmaking production include waste gases, process fluids, flue dust, sludge, slags and mill scales. The paper presents the results of research project directed to the utilization of demetallized steelmaking slag and oxygen converter flue dust in charge of top blowed oxygen converter. The influence of demetallized slag additions on slag regime in converter and chemical composition of final slag is described and discussed. Recommendations concerning amount of demetallized slag additions are also presented. Flue dust was recycled in form of briquettes. No significant effect of the recycling demetallized converter slag and flue dust briquette on process of hot metal refining and on quality of produced steel were recorded. Regarding the achieved results it can be confirmed that the use of the secondary products like demetallized slag and convertor flue dust in form briquettes, is environmentally acceptable as well as the use of natural materials and poses no increased risk to human health or the environment.

Keywords

  • oxygen converter
  • demetallized slag
  • flue dust
  • recycling
Open Access

Safety Mechanisms in Relational Database as Part of the IT System of the Enterprise

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 12 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

The work examines the effectiveness of the replication mechanism of the X production company database. In order to extend the functionality of the computer database of the enterprise, a model of its resource flow was created and an intensional and extensional part was created for a test database based on real enterprise resources. The model has been simplified to 3-rd normal form. The implementation was done in the MySQL database system. Two different operating systems were selected for testing: Windows and Linux. The database management system (DBMS) is working under the GPL license. MySQL DBMS offers many security mechanisms, and to secure the database, system of users permissions to objects have been selected and also an encryption of access passwords for users and connections to servers was used. A replication engine based on the binary log and the model “main server and backup server” was used to create a copy of the enterprise data.

Keywords

  • enterprise database
  • MySQL
  • data replication
  • data security
Open Access

Defects and Incompatibilities of Pipes Manufactured by Pilgrim Method

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 24 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

The increase in the quality requirements for the pipes and the increasing needs to reduce production costs, while increasing the efficiency of the process in market of hot rolled pipes are observed. One of the cost reduction factors is the reduction of the number of defects by early detection and, if possible, the removal of non-conformities. Incompatibility is an error that can be removed in accordance with the performance standard that does not cause defects (Norma API). The defect is imperfection that is so important that it is the basis for the removal of the product or its part based on the criteria set out in the performance standards. In pipe manufacturing processes, defects and batch incompatibilities can be distinguished, which arise in the steelworks during metal solidification and roll forming in the course of metal processing. The defect may also arise as a result of removing steel material or result from rolling processes defects. The paper presents the analysis of the process of quality control of pipes manufactured using the pilgrim method on the basis of real process data. The analysis were involved 1070 pieces of ingots from 11 different melts for rolling pipes. At various stages of production, discrepancies and defects were revealed, which were caused by metallurgical or technological defects associated with rolling pipes. The total amount of discrepancies and defects eliminated 168 pieces of finished pipes. The aim of the work is to show that by means of appropriately selected methods of eliminating imperfections, it is possible to increase the efficiency of the manufacturing process.

Keywords

  • rolling process
  • pilgrim method
  • defects
  • seamless tube
  • pipe
Open Access

Effect of Steel Cord Tension During the Lapping on Steel Cord Straightness After Lapping

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 36 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

One of the variable parameters in steel cord twisting technologies is the steel cord tension before final reel. Changing this parameter is used to produce steel cord with high quality of straightness. Steel cord straightness is the most important technological parameter after tensile strength. It is simple to change the value of steel cord tension with special mechanisms or devices in composition of cable machines and twisting machines. It is very important to know the measures of tension setting. Low tension causes bad quality of steel cord and defects. High tension may brake steel cord during the twisting and lapping. Also high tension may change the mechanical properties of steel wire in the steel cord construction. The influence of steel cord tension in the range from 9 N to 30 N on active equivalent stresses in wire cross section and macro displacements of wire contact points in steel cord construction was shown. Effect of steel cord tension during the lapping on steel cord straightness after lapping was shown. In this research the optimal tension for producing steel cord 2x0.30HT was defined with numerical simulation, finite element analysis and criteria method. The optimal value of tension for other steel cord constructions will change, because of number of wires and its hardness.

Keywords

  • cord
  • stresses
  • tension
  • straightness
  • macro displacements
Open Access

Study of the Vision System’s Impact on Increasing the Reliability of the Production System

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 46 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to present the validity of the investment of a production plant in the development of production automation. The optimal use of production lines is the way to achieve the right return on investment and profits. Any unplanned stops reduce profitability of production and do not allow to achieve high production output. The introduction of various types of safety devices and process automation allows to prevent unwanted events. In particular, relieving employees of their responsibility and thus avoiding breakdowns caused by operator error can lead to an effective increase in Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). The publication presents a study of the impact of the use of a vision system on increasing the reliability of the production system. As a result, an effective vision system based on a 3D sensor has been developed, which protects the production line against collision of the robot’s chuck plate with final products, thus not leading to the collision and destruction of the robot’s tools. The camera has been implemented in the robot’s control system, which excludes the need to change the settings, because the necessary change of work parameters is made automatically via the communication interface, thus making the work easier for employees when retooling the production machine between orders. Increasing the Overall Equipment Effectiveness and high level of Return Of Investment (ROI) allow for an unequivocal decision on the importance of the investment decision. The financial expense allowed for increasing the efficiency and productivity of production line, which contributes to the growth of the company’s competitiveness. The predictability of lead time has been significantly improved, which led to an increase in customer satisfaction.

Keywords

  • vision
  • production
  • OEE
  • automation
  • reliability
Open Access

The use of the TWI Method to Improve Safety at the Work Station

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 57 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Ensuring work safety in manufacturing enterprises is one of the employer’s basic obligations under legal provisions. Actions taken in this area translate into a reduction in the number of registered accidents at work, occupational diseases or potentially accidental events. Limiting these types of events is possible by implementing preventive solutions to reduce the risk, employers ‘and employees’ cooperation in the field of occupational health and safety. These activities may take the form of technical solutions, but above all organizational. Enterprises use various management concepts that have an impact on improving work safety. One of the solutions eliminating or reducing hazards occurring at workplaces is the TWI (Training Within Industry) program. The TWI program is the foundation of a management culture based on continuous improvement and a continuous learning process. It is considered the starting point to implement the Lean Manufacturing concept. One of the TWI modules is aimed to creating a safe workplace, i.e. TWI-Job Safety (TWI-JS). The publication presents the results of the analysis of operations performed at a selected workstation in the production enterprise in the aspect of identifying and eliminating or limiting possible direct and indirect causes of hazards that may lead to accidents at work. For this purpose, a four-step TWI-JS method was used.

Keywords

  • the TWI method
  • Lean Manufacturing
  • work safety
Open Access

The Economic Aspect in Improving the Production Process

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 69 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

In the paper there was presented the role and importance of choosing appropriate quality management methods in making decisions on implementing corrective actions on the example of a selected metallurgical company. There was presented application of the results of production process improving methods, such as 5 Why and FMEA, to indicate corrective actions. Moreover, it was analyzed whether, after introducing these activities, it was possible to eliminate or limit defects in the production process. For this purpose, the level of the RPN index was recalculated – after the changes were introduced. Furthermore, the costs of defects before and after the introduction of corrective actions were estimated.

Keywords

  • improvement
  • quality management
  • process
  • production
Open Access

Low-carbon Transport in Czech-Polish Cross Border Area: Attitude of Czech and Polish Public to Electromobility

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 79 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

The chapter deals with results of cooperation within the project Electromobility in Czech-Polish Cross border Area. The electromobility is presented in comprehensive environmental and social background. The introduction is aimed at transport emission of exhaust gases resulting in global warming and harmful impact on the environment quality. The environment analysis is reflected in view of transport and passenger cars production. The chapter presents results of society analysis defining its attitude to electromobility in the region. The methodology of public questioning was chosen to reveal possibilities for electromobility development in Czech-Polish cross border area. The questions of the survey were formulated to record a public attitude and view of electromobility. The respondents’ answers reflect their awareness of this new sustainable transport.

Keywords

  • electromobility
  • emission
  • greenhouse gas
  • society
  • survey
Open Access

Analysis of Fire Hazards in a Selected Plant

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 89 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

The work identifies and analyzes fire hazards in a selected plant - the fuel base. On this basis, the risk of these risks was estimated and methods of their prevention were established using the PHA method.

Keywords

  • risk map
  • hazard map
  • risk management
Open Access

Cloud Computing as a Prospect for the Sector of Small – and Medium-Size Companies in the Polish Market

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 103 - 113

Abstract

Abstract

Efficient functioning in the contemporary market is a fundamental need of every organization. In times of globalization and an intensive technological and engineering progress, attaining a proper position and retaining it is a big challenge in almost every branch of industry. This is especially difficult for the SME sector, as it requires financial expenditures on system solutions and the IT base, among other things. This is where “Cloud Computing” comes in. Cloud computing services consist in providing and making available IT resources (efficient, scalable and tailored to the customer’s needs) through the Web. Thanks to wide access to intensively developing mobile systems, the low costs of computer components and the associated increasingly common use of Internet of Things (IoT) in numerous devices connected to the Internet, data processing is being gradually moved onto the Web peripheries. The purpose of the study is to highlight advantages and possible threats associated with the use of Cloud Computing-based solutions for aiding the activity of enterprises at a varying organizational level following the 4th industrial revolution.

Keywords

  • cloud computing
  • globalization
  • threats
  • SMEs
  • Industry 4.0
Open Access

Study of Technology for Ultrafine-Grained Materials for Usage as Materials in Nuclear Power

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 114 - 125

Abstract

Abstract

Nuclear power is associated with great environmental risks. In many cases, the problem of accidents of nuclear power plants is related to the use of materials that do not fully meet the following requirements: high corrosion resistance; high temperature resistance; creep resistance; fracture toughness; stability of structure and properties under irradiation. Therefore, studies aimed at finding materials that can withstand long-term loads at high temperatures, aggressive environment and gradual structural degradation under the influence of radiation are relevant. One of the structural materials, which has high resistance to radiation, is austenitic stainless steel. And one of the ways to increase the radiation resistance of parts made of this steel grade is to grind its microstructure to ultra-fine-grained state. Such structures provide a combination of a high level of strength characteristics with high plasticity, which distinguishes such materials from their coarse-grained counterparts. Also, numerous grain boundaries serve as runoff surfaces for radiation defects, preserving the structure, which causes their increased radiation resistance. From all methods for producing sub-ultra-finegrained materials the most promising is the severe plastic deformation (SPD), which can be implemented in the metal in various ways, including radial-shear rolling. This paper presents the results of studies of the process of radial-shear rolling on the mill SVP-08 and its effect on the microstructure and properties of austenitic stainless steel. During the study, bars with a diameter of 13 mm from AISI-321 steel with a grain size of 300-600 nm were obtained, while the mechanical properties increased more than 2 times compared to the initial values.

Keywords

  • radial-shear rolling
  • austenitic stainless steel
  • severe plastic deformation
  • ultrafine-grained materials
Open Access

Modern Trends in Occupational Safety Management

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 126 - 138

Abstract

Abstract

Problems related to work safety have been accompanying humanity since the dawn of time. In times before the Industrial Revolution, human and animal muscle strength was used to work, and “safe work” solutions were developed and introduced individually by the user or supervising the work. Only a change in the way work was done due to the industrial revolution, the introduction of new energy sources, the transformation of manufactories into factories and the birth of the working class brought about greater, concrete changes. It was at that time that various machines and devices began to be introduced into the workplace, which on the one hand improved work and on the other hand created more and more potentially dangerous situations. Security was started holistically and institutionally. With the transformation and return of capitalism, the subject of real work safety returned. Health and safety was to be not only a fashionable slogan, but a value that was supposed to guarantee profit – in accordance with the principle that accidents reduce productivity. It was also connected with the process of adapting Polish law in the field of health and safety to the law of the European Union (EU), which resulted from Poland’s pursuit of EU membership. Moreover, an important factor initiating these changes was the interest of enterprises in quality management systems compliant with the ISO 9000 series and environmental management systems compliant with the ISO 14000 series, and related attempts to adapt the system management concept to the area of occupational health and safety, resulting in PN-N standards 18000 series. This publication analyzes the new standard PN-ISO 45001:2018 – “Occupational health and safety management systems – Requirements with guidance for use” comparing it with the standard PN-N 18001:2004 – “Occupational health and safety management. Requirements”.

Keywords

  • occupational safety
  • management systems
  • standard ISO45001
  • context of the organization
Open Access

Reduced Vibrations and Noise During Grinding

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 139 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

It is the duty of every employer to provide its employees with safe, hygienic and ergonomic working conditions. Available information suggests that working conditions in Poland improve each year, thanks to the ever-growing security culture prevailing in Polish enterprises. In spite of everything, there is still a problem of hazards in the workplace, and special attention should be paid to acoustic threats - vibrations and audible noise. Although entities operating on the market offering comprehensive services to reduce the exposure of employees to vibroacoustic hazards, there is still a need to develop new methods to protect the health of employees. Excessive exposure to vibrations and noise is associated with negative health effects that are exposed to, among others, employees involved in the mechanical processing of steel structures. Employees also experience the impact of local and general vibrations. Local vibrations can be relatively easily eliminated using anti-vibration gloves, while the reduction of general vibrations is often an unresolved problem for employees and employers. The publication presents the results of research on the development of the method of damping mechanical vibrations generated during grinding steel constructions. The research included several stages, among others: selection and preparation of the research material, design and construction of the test stand, measurements of vibration acceleration and industrial verification of the obtained results.

Keywords

  • vibrations
  • noise
  • work safety
Open Access

Work Safety During Usage, Repair and Maintenance of Machines – a Review of Work Safety in the Aspect of Accidents at Work

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 151 - 161

Abstract

Abstract

The usage, repair and maintenance of machines is one of the areas in which it still records a significant number of accident events. The occurrence of accidents at work generates social and economic costs for the enterprise. Therefore, employers should be take measures to improve safety at the workplace. The publication presents an accident analysis based on a comparison of the following measures: accident rates (i.e. number of accidents, event effects) and ratio analysis (frequency rate indicator and total accident rate indicator). Calculated indicators allowed to determine the accident rate during the usage, repair and maintenance of machines. The analysis covered a five-year period – i.e. 2013-2017. On the basis of the analyzes carried out, the proposal was presented of possible prevention solutions to reduce the number of accidents at work.

Keywords

  • accident rate
  • safety at work
  • usage
  • repair and maintenance of machines
Open Access

Management Styles as Element of Shaping Company Organizational Culture

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 162 - 172

Abstract

Abstract

The basis for the functioning of every organization and achieving the set goals are employees. It is they who shape the image, create the organizational culture and reputation of the company in the environment. Their competences, knowledge and skills determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization’s operations. Thanks to their work, products and services are created that meet social needs and thus organizational progress. The aim of this work was to conduct research on the organization’s ability to identify and retain the best employees, the ability to promote desired attitudes and behaviors, as well as to create a friendly and rewarding work environment that are key factors for business success. Updating the knowledge possessed by employees and developing new skills is often crucial in keeping the organization on the market.

Keywords

  • management styles
  • organizational culture
  • human resource management
Open Access

The Influence of the Number of Polyurethane Anti-Vibration Mount on the Vibration Damping Efficiency of Steel Structure

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 173 - 183

Abstract

Abstract

The publication presents the results of research on the statistically significant impact of the number of layers on vibration damping properties of vibroacoustic mats. The research was carried out on the author’s research stand. The research was carried out on sandwich systems made of polyurethane foam. The impact force of the analyzed variables was determined on the basis of constructed multiple regression models, the so-called multifactor models and determination of the standardized value β. The research was carried out using the PQStat software. In the models being built, the significance level was p < 0.05.

Three statistically significant linear multivariate models for one-third frequencies were constructed:

• 0-20000 Hz – a model for the entire frequency spectrum analysed during the tests,

• 0-400 Hz – a model for frequencies generating construction vibrations that may affect the worker as general vibrations,

• 50-20000 Hz – a model for frequencies that generate construction vibrations that can cause auditory sensations (noise).

It was found: positive correlation of the number of layers in vibration damping systems with a third octave frequency of up to 400 Hz; negative correlation of the number of layers in vibration damping systems with a third octave frequency of 50 to 20000 Hz.

Keywords

  • anti-vibration
  • polyurethane
  • steel
Open Access

Environmental Protection in Industry 4.0. Opportunities and Threats in Selected Areas

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 184 - 194

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, the importance of production in cyberphysical systems – CPS characteristic of the new industry concept, which is Industry 4.0 – I 4.0, is gaining importance. Industry 4.0 enforces modification of traditional perception of production. The basis for changes in Industry 4.0 has become Internet of Things – IoT, which gives the opportunity to connect and communicate with each other such areas as mobile solutions, cloud computing, sensors, analytics and cyber security. By new technology, areas that previously operated in enterprises as separate systems can be combined and create new opportunities for industrial production (modernization of production methods and reduce employment). Industry 4.0 brings with it a number of new challenges for producers in the field of environmental protection, and related to the inclusion of cybernetic technology in physical production processes as well as distribution. Production starts and ends on the customer. Industry 4.0 is a collective term for technologies and concepts of value chain organization. The United Nations Organization for Industrial Development indicates the following environmental aspects in the perspective of the development of Industry 4.0, such as: climate change and limited access to resources, primarily to clean energy. It is assumed that changes in the production and functioning of economies will result in a decrease in the emission of harmful compounds into the atmosphere and increase the flexibility of activities for environmental protection. The purpose of this work is to present general directions of changes in the field of environmental protection in Industry 4.0. Authors present the following areas of change: energy management and material management. These areas are opportunities for environmental. In the category of threats, the growing costs of environmental protection and household expenses are pointed out. The work is based on a literature study and statistical data. Statistical data are used: integrated technologies, expenditure and costs of environmental protection, recycling of secondary raw materials and energy consumption for the EU and Poland.

Keywords

  • Industry 4.0
  • environment
  • protection
  • resources
  • economy
Open Access

Risk Map for a Selected Organization

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 195 - 204

Abstract

Abstract

The publication presents a risk map for a selected organization concerning external hazards, i.e. those whose source is not derived from the internal conditions of the functioning of the organization. To this end, a risk management process was carried out, consisting in the identification of hazards, their analysis, risk assessment, and risk response. The risk map shows a visual presentation of these hazards together with the defined risk level. This map is used to identify hazard zones within the examined organization, serving as a database also for all entities interested in the business activity of the organization, the entities neighboring the facility, or private persons. Furthermore, this tool is particularly useful for local government administration units for the purpose of proper crisis management within the administered area. The risk map is also used to identify internal risk areas in the organization.

Keywords

  • risk map
  • hazard map
  • risk management
Open Access

Inconsistencies in the Production Process Resulting From the Employment Structure

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 205 - 213

Abstract

Abstract

Underestimating the duration of the production process is one of the basic factors determining the occurrence of delays in the duration of individual operations included in the production process. Occurrence of underestimation of production time brings many negative effects, which include, among others: underestimation of the company’s production capacity, accumulation of intermediate stocks, impeded planning of the production process (scheduling of the production process) and increase of production costs. The problem of erroneous estimation of the duration of the production process is most often found in production plants specializing in serial or mass production, implemented in a parallel or series-parallel system. The basic causes that underestimate the duration of the production process include errors in production scheduling, incorrect determination of durations of individual operations carried out as part of the analyzed production process, complexity of production operations and employment structure. The occurrence of delays in the production process can also be affected by accident events that generate underestimation and costs for the enterprise (including social and economic costs). In many cases, many algorithms are used to reduce underestimation and optimization and scheduling of the entire production process. The publication presents an analysis of the production process in which the duration of the production process is underestimated, taking into account the employment structure in the manufacturing company. The analyzes allow to determine the level of underestimation of operations of the production process depending on the form of employment (steel workers – employed under a contract of employment in the production plant, and temporary workers employed by temporary work agencies), identification of the reasons for the underestimation of individual production positions and the length of their time occurrence.

Keywords

  • production
  • production planning
  • underestimation
Open Access

Solvent Extraction of Metal Ions from Sulfate Solutions Obtained in Leaching of Spent Ni-MH Batteries

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 214 - 221

Abstract

Abstract

The nickel metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH) are used in many electronic equipment, like cell phones, computers, cameras as well as hybrid cars. Spent batteries can be a rich source of many metals, especially rare earth elements (REE), such as lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), samarium (Sm), gadolinium (Gd). Ni-MH batteries also contain iron (Fe) as well as non-ferrous metals, i.e. nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), etc. Leaching of such waste with sulfuric acid solutions is one among many methods recovering of useful metals in hydrometallurgical processes. The main aim of this work was separation of metal ions from pregnant leach liquor (PLL) by solvent extraction using phosphorous compounds and ionic liquids (ILs). The initial pH of the aqueous solution was 0.1. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA), bis (2,2,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), and phosphoniumionic liquid – trihexyl (tetradecyl) phosphonium bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate (Cyphos IL 104) were used as the selective extractants. The initial concentration of the extractants in an organic phase was equal to 0.1 mol∙dm−3. The obtained results show that the highest extraction efficiency was obtained for Fe(III) and Zn(II) in extraction experiments with 0.1 M D2EHPA at pH of 0.1. Ni(II), Co(II) and REE remained in the aqueous solutions. In the next stage, REE were extracted with the mixture of 0.1 M Cyanex 272 and 0.1 M Cyphos IL 104 at pH equal to 3.8. Finally, Ni(II) and Co(II) ions were efficiently removed from the aqueous phase using 0.1 M solution of Cyphos IL 104 at pH around 5.4.

Keywords

  • solvent extraction
  • rare earth metals
  • nickel metal hydride batteries
Open Access

Analysis of Selected Aspects of Knowledge Management in the Context of Their Impact on the Quality Level in Metallurgical Enterprises

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 222 - 231

Abstract

Abstract

The review of definitions allows to state that knowledge management in enterprises is a complex, multi-aspect process requiring the implementation of a number of interrelated mechanisms and instruments. Sharing knowledge can increase employee productivity, team performance and the ability to transform diversity into creativity and organizational innovation. Sharing of knowledge in the enterprise should be implemented both in a formal and informal way and be supported by appropriate communication mechanisms, employee exchange programs, job rotation, mentoring relations, techniques Only a well-constructed, implemented and modified system can ensure achieving the intended goals related, among other things, to ensuring the proper functioning of quality assurance mechanisms. and tools for assessing teamwork, a z system promoting creativity and cooperation. The main purpose of the publication is to present the results of research conducted on a sample of 22 enterprises regarding the analysis of the extent of enterprises’ use of knowledge and human capital potential to improve the quality management. The research focused mainly on the impact of selected elements of management of knowledge and human capital on the level of employee awareness, as well as the number and type of non-compliance of products. The study used a questionnaire and statistical analysis of data from manufacturing processes.

Keywords

  • quality management
  • metallurgical enterprise
  • knowledge management
Open Access

The Anthracite as Sinter Fuels

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 232 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

The chapter deals with the use of traditional carbonaceous fuels in the production of agglomerates. An important part is focused primarily on the use of these carbonaceous fuels in the production of various types of agglomerate. Anthracite together with coke breeze was tested as a fuel to assess the substitution of coke dust by anthracite for technological and qualitative parameters of sintering.

Keywords

  • coke breeze
  • anthracite
  • sinter
Open Access

Analysis of use of Methods and Quality Management Tools in a Group of Production Enterprises

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 241 - 253

Abstract

Abstract

The publication presents the results of research on the scope of practical use of available methods and tools of quality management by enterprises. The analysis was based on surveys conducted at the Production Management Institute of the Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology of the Częstochowa University of Technology. The presented study applies only to the information collected so far as the research work commenced is still being continued. Currently, data (correctly completed questionnaires) has been collected from fifty one small, medium and large production companies located primarily in the Śląskie and Łódzkie region. Both the organizations surveyed for the needs of this project and the cases cited in the literature indicate that the group of the most commonly used tools and methods is quite limited and in a sense comes down to the most known. This situation may partly result from the specifics of the industry and the nature of production. In addition, providing questionnaire response suggestions (as examples, the most frequently used methods and techniques) may have influenced the choices made by the respondents. At the same time, in some cases, low awareness or insufficient substantive knowledge may have contributed to the belief among the respondents that the techniques are implemented in the enterprise while in reality these techniques have never been used. All remarks and observations noticed at this stage of the research will be taken into account in subsequent analyzes.

Keywords

  • quality management
  • methods
  • standards
Open Access

Role and Competence of the Manager of the Example of a Production Enterprise

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 254 - 266

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the subject matter in scope of human resources management in an exemplary production enterprise. The company under study is a production enterprise that produces: juice, nectars, drinks and mineral waters. The characteristics, skills and activities that constitute model attitudes of the management were determined, as well as the ways of management that exist in the selected company were identified. The paper also presents the results of a questionnaire survey in which employees’ opinions on specific managerial behaviors and their impact on work efficiency were presented. Additionally, the employees’ expectations regarding managerial behaviors are described. The survey was completed by 40 employees of the company who voluntarily and anonymously agreed to participate in the study. They were people working in various departments of the company.

Keywords

  • competences
  • human resources management
  • management styles
Open Access

Analysis of Roll Wear Costs During Multi-Strand Rolling of Ribbed Bars Using New Slitting Pass System

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 267 - 278

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a modification of the slitting pass system, which ensured a reduction in roll wear during three-strand rolling of ribbed bars with a diameter of 16 mm, and thus reduced the associated costs. The theoretical and experimental research on the rolling process of ribbed bars with a diameter of 16 mm rolled in three-strand technology was carried out on a D350 18-stand continuous bar rolling mill conditions. To determine the cost of slitting pass wear, the results of numerical calculations of the frictional force unit of work obtained using the Forge2011® computer program was used, as well as empirical calculations.

Keywords

  • slitting passes
  • wear of rolls
  • costs
  • FEM
Open Access

Management of the Size of the Supply Under the Conditions of Inflation

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 279 - 288

Abstract

Abstract

The publication describes two ways of shopping, taking into account the CPI (Consumer Price Index) inflation rate. In the first case, changes in the sales price are made in a continuous manner in accordance with the inflation rate, and therefore it is better to make larger purchases. In the second case, it is better to carry out smaller purchases, because it is characterized by one-time adjustment of sales prices to the entire purchased a lot of goods. Both cases were verified based on the Solver tool, using non-linear, integer-based optimization. The final result was to determine the optimal purchase quantities with the minimum inventory costs.

Keywords

  • CPI index
  • EOQ
  • Solver application
  • purchase optimization
Open Access

Peculiarities of Alloying Effect on the Eutectic Cementite Behavior Under Hot Rolling

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 289 - 300

Abstract

Abstract

Currently, cast iron remains one of the major modern casting materials in metallurgy and machine-building industry and is sure to take the lead in the future. Chilled cast iron has high hardness and wear resistance due to a large number of carbide phases in its structure. However, low ductility and impact hardness essentially limit its applicability in terms of processing. Hot plastic working, under which the eutectic net crushing is observed, appears to be one of the most effective means of the eutectic alloy products shape and microstructure transformation. Chilled cast iron properties fundamentally improve after hot plastic working: ductility, strength and impact hardness increase by 2-3 times on retention of the high hardness factor. Chilled cast iron ductility increase can be attained when using phase transformations in eutectic cementite under lean alloying with carbide forming elements. The purpose of the paper is to study alloying effect on the chilled cast iron ductility as well as eutectic cementite behavior under hot rolling. In the paper hardening and softening of the structural components in chilled cast iron under hot working have been studied. The deformation texture forming in eutectic cementite under hot rolling has been revealed, which is connected with the dynamic softening and depends on the degree and the nature of its alloying. The mechanism and regularities of the phase transformation effect in cementite on its behavior under plastic deformation and on the alloys ductility in general have been studied. In cementite chromium alloying initiates processes, that can be characterized as the pre-precipitation stage of the new phases, and this way it contributes to the cast iron ductility reduction and embrittles cementite. Carbide transformation, that occurs in eutectic cementite under alloying with vanadium, stimulates softening of the alloy and increases its ductility level. Moreover, the multiple glide planes {130},{011},{112} in cementite have been determined. It has been found out, that in supersaturated cementite vanadium carbides precipitation stimulates the extra glide plane {111} occurrence under hot rolling. The essence of the carbide transformation phenomenon is that under hot working there occurs the lubricating effect at the transition of the metastable iron carbide condition, which is strengthened with vanadium supersaturation and mechanical hardening, to a more stable condition due to precipitation of the proeutectoid constituents on the one hand, and because of the dynamic softening processes on the other hand. At that, the autocatalyticity effect is observed: there is precipitation of carbides with hardening and softening, similar to the processes that arise as a result of the superplastic effect induced by phase transformations.

Keywords

  • cast iron
  • cementite
  • deformation
  • phase transformations
  • ductility
Open Access

Research of the Impact of the Heating Rate on Adhesion of Scale Arising in the Process of Heating of the Steel Charge Before the Plastic Reworking

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 301 - 311

Abstract

Abstract

Before steel materials are subjected to an appropriate heat treatment, they must be preheated. During this process scale is formed, which can be a problem in the proper heat treatment of the steel charge. The preheating process of the steel charge is carried out under specific conditions – parameters. These conditions determine certain properties of scale. One of the most important issues in this context, important from the point of view of the potential removal of scale from the charge surface, is the correlation of the heating process temperature and the adherence of the scale to the steel substrate. The paper presents the results of such research and their discussion. In addition, the methodology for measuring the scale adhesion to steel substrate is presented. Mathematical relations endearing impact of heating rate on the scale adhesion have been developed.

Keywords

  • heating of charge
  • preheating rate
  • heating technology
  • loss of steel
  • adhesion of scale
Open Access

Microstate of Basic Phase of High-Alloyed Ferritic Steels

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 312 - 320

Abstract

Abstract

In according with the stated conception the purpose of the present work is the reconstruction of some of innumerable microstates of α phase of ferritic steels, definition of its macroparameters and their subsequent comparison with indicators of mechanical properties of industrially let out steels. The establishment of a correlation between the measured indicators of mechanical properties of already created materials and the calculated state parameters of their basic phase opens an opportunity of mechanical properties prediction of materials in dependence on their prehistory that as a matter of fact represents the central task of material science. Simulation of α-phase state of series of industrially let out ferritic steels and alloys is executed in the assumption of identity of its composition to composition of steel or alloy as a whole. The correlation between indicators of mechanical properties of steels and alloys and state parameters of their basic phase is traced.

Keywords

  • high-alloyed ferritic steels
  • atomic-discrete simulation
  • crystal lattice of BP
Open Access

The Rolling Tool Development in Order to Improve the Geometry of a Tube Profile and to Reduce the Wear of Mill Rolls

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 321 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

Increasing the accuracy of the geometrical parameters of tube profiles is one of the priority areas of modern tube industry. The profile of the calibers of rolls of the reeling mill exerts a significant influence over the distribution of stresses that appear in metal during the deformation process and the process of formation of the correct geometry of the obtained rough tube. The method for determining the optimal geometry of a mill roll profile has been developed. In accordance with this method the geometry of the calibers of the continuous three roll reeling mill was calculated. The research of the influence of geometrical parameters of the calibers of mill rolls on the accuracy of the obtained tube profile, the load of the rolling tool and the wear rate of the contact surface of mill rolls and a mandrel was carried out. The numerical simulation method was chosen as a research method. This method allows to carry out rather accurate analysis and to obtain reliable results on the stress-strain and thermal states of a billet during the material processing, gives the possibility to obtain numerical values of stresses, deformations, load parameters of the process, as well as allows to visualize the results that is essential for assessing the accuracy of the tube profile geometry. Numerical experiments of the elongating process of a rough tube on the three roll continuous reeling mill with different grooving of mill rolls were carried out. It was determined that using of the developed grooving will allow to get a rough tube of a higher accuracy with the minimal deviation from the shape of the profile. The use of the developed method of calculating the geometric parameters of the calibers of the continuous reeling mill will allow to obtain calibers with a high degree of resistance to wear due to the reduction of the resistance of the flow of metal and a uniform filling of the calibers in the deformation zone. The use of this grooving of mill rolls will reduce the load acting on the rolling tool during the production of hot-deformed seamless tubes.

Keywords

  • seamless pipes
  • continuous elongating process
  • calibers of mill rolls
  • accuracy of a tube profile
Open Access

Analysis of Circumstances and Causes of Accidents Working in a Selected Industrial Undertaking

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 331 - 340

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of this publication is to analyze the circumstances and causes of accidents at work in a selected industrial enterprise that provides services in the field of waterjet cutting and laser beam. The paper present the statutory definition of an accident at work and its basic categories (light, heavy, mortal and collective accident). It also discusses the most popular accident investigation method – the TOL method, which classifies the causes of accidents into three basic groups: material-technical, organizational and human. In the further part of the work the characteristics of the waterjet operator’s work station were made, including the scope of activities, possible occupational hazards and preventive actions. Next, the results of the analysis of the circumstances and causes of accidents at work were presented. In the period from 2013 to 2018 eight accidents were reported, resulting in minor injuries, such as cuts and cuts, fracture of the phalanx, overloading of the spine, leg twisting or knee injury.

Keywords

  • accident at work
  • accident prophylaxis
  • examination of the circumstances and causes of the accident
  • waterjet operator
  • water jet cutting
Open Access

Evaluation of Noise Level at the Position of Water Cutter Operator at Selected Enterprise

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 341 - 349

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of this publication is to assess the exposure of the waterjet operator to the noise hazard. The publication presents basic information about noise in the work environment. Next, the procedure of noise measurement in the work environment was discussed and the results of tests carried out at the waterjet operator’s station for three basic activities were presented, ie: (1) plotter support, supervision of the cutting process, loading and receiving material, (2) auxiliary, transport and cleaning, (3) computer service, keeping documentation, hygienic and social break. The noise level test included the determination of: the maximum sound level A LA max, the peak sound level C LCpeak, the noise exposure level related to the 8-hour work day LEX,8h. Based on the obtained measurement results, it can be stated that the exposure to noise at the station of the waterjet operator is at an acceptable level.

Keywords

  • noise
  • noise measurement
  • harmful factors
  • hazards in the work environment
  • waterjet operator
Open Access

Food Safety as a Key Factor in the Supply Chain

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 350 - 360

Abstract

Abstract

Food production system, due to the mass scale of its manufacturing, distribution, and consumption, is subject to rigorous protection and control. The analysis of food safety presented in the foregoing publication shows that legal and organizational regulations are not alone sufficient to ensure that the quality of products does not pose a health and environmental threat. The results of the study conducted with the participation of 15 subjects make it evident that the issue of food safety is complex and requires continual monitoring because of ever changing conditions. It is increasingly seen that food safety is a key factor in supply chains, becoming the overriding element of production systems. Production companies spend more and more money on control and modernization of the entire production-related system so that food safety is 100% guaranteed. In the last few years, it can be seen that audits in manufacturing companies that deal with the production and sale of food are largely focused on food safety, process monitoring systems and employee access controls to individual production zones. Not without significance is the fact that additional departments are created in manufacturing companies, whose main task is to control production processes in terms of food safety, both from the side of the safe use of raw materials, packaging and the interference of unauthorized persons. It is absolutely necessary to emphasize that the paper also shows some examples that can already be treated as the first symptoms of food terrorism, which is becoming a deadly tool for current and future food terrorists. The publication emphasizes that food safety in the market reality of that time may be of paramount importance in the supply chains, given the importance and consequences of possible mass contamination of food.

Keywords

  • production
  • food
  • supply chain
  • safety
  • logistics
  • legal regulations
  • organizational requirements
  • terrorism
Open Access

Innovated Technologies of Recycling of Metallic Wastes – Modification of Existing Industrial Processes

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 361 - 367

Abstract

Abstract

This paper describes interesting operational experiments have been performed in the scope of the project where the process of melting deoxidation was used under improvised conditions of cold blast cupola furnace. The goal was to find out metallurgical effects of added selfreducing briquettes prepared from steel sludge into cupola furnace charge and above all to verify the grade of deoxidation of oxides of iron at keeping output quality of cast metal. Present state of research and development of technologies of iron production in the area of commercial exploitation of these technologies is not in such a position that we could realistically assess their efficiency, investment costs and economic impacts. Moreover, an unequivocal requirement on minimization of CO2 emissions, mainly by its recycling, is here more and more promoted.

Keywords

  • technologies
  • iron
  • wastes
34 Articles

Selected Aspects of Production Engineering in Management and Materials Engineering, Editor: Tadeusz Frączek

Open Access

Recycling of the Steelmaking by-products into the Oxygen Converter Charge

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 1 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

In the technological process of the steelmaking plant, secondary products are produced in parallel with the production of the main product, which have the character of secondary by products or industrial waste. The major secondary products of steelmaking production include waste gases, process fluids, flue dust, sludge, slags and mill scales. The paper presents the results of research project directed to the utilization of demetallized steelmaking slag and oxygen converter flue dust in charge of top blowed oxygen converter. The influence of demetallized slag additions on slag regime in converter and chemical composition of final slag is described and discussed. Recommendations concerning amount of demetallized slag additions are also presented. Flue dust was recycled in form of briquettes. No significant effect of the recycling demetallized converter slag and flue dust briquette on process of hot metal refining and on quality of produced steel were recorded. Regarding the achieved results it can be confirmed that the use of the secondary products like demetallized slag and convertor flue dust in form briquettes, is environmentally acceptable as well as the use of natural materials and poses no increased risk to human health or the environment.

Keywords

  • oxygen converter
  • demetallized slag
  • flue dust
  • recycling
Open Access

Safety Mechanisms in Relational Database as Part of the IT System of the Enterprise

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 12 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

The work examines the effectiveness of the replication mechanism of the X production company database. In order to extend the functionality of the computer database of the enterprise, a model of its resource flow was created and an intensional and extensional part was created for a test database based on real enterprise resources. The model has been simplified to 3-rd normal form. The implementation was done in the MySQL database system. Two different operating systems were selected for testing: Windows and Linux. The database management system (DBMS) is working under the GPL license. MySQL DBMS offers many security mechanisms, and to secure the database, system of users permissions to objects have been selected and also an encryption of access passwords for users and connections to servers was used. A replication engine based on the binary log and the model “main server and backup server” was used to create a copy of the enterprise data.

Keywords

  • enterprise database
  • MySQL
  • data replication
  • data security
Open Access

Defects and Incompatibilities of Pipes Manufactured by Pilgrim Method

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 24 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

The increase in the quality requirements for the pipes and the increasing needs to reduce production costs, while increasing the efficiency of the process in market of hot rolled pipes are observed. One of the cost reduction factors is the reduction of the number of defects by early detection and, if possible, the removal of non-conformities. Incompatibility is an error that can be removed in accordance with the performance standard that does not cause defects (Norma API). The defect is imperfection that is so important that it is the basis for the removal of the product or its part based on the criteria set out in the performance standards. In pipe manufacturing processes, defects and batch incompatibilities can be distinguished, which arise in the steelworks during metal solidification and roll forming in the course of metal processing. The defect may also arise as a result of removing steel material or result from rolling processes defects. The paper presents the analysis of the process of quality control of pipes manufactured using the pilgrim method on the basis of real process data. The analysis were involved 1070 pieces of ingots from 11 different melts for rolling pipes. At various stages of production, discrepancies and defects were revealed, which were caused by metallurgical or technological defects associated with rolling pipes. The total amount of discrepancies and defects eliminated 168 pieces of finished pipes. The aim of the work is to show that by means of appropriately selected methods of eliminating imperfections, it is possible to increase the efficiency of the manufacturing process.

Keywords

  • rolling process
  • pilgrim method
  • defects
  • seamless tube
  • pipe
Open Access

Effect of Steel Cord Tension During the Lapping on Steel Cord Straightness After Lapping

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 36 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

One of the variable parameters in steel cord twisting technologies is the steel cord tension before final reel. Changing this parameter is used to produce steel cord with high quality of straightness. Steel cord straightness is the most important technological parameter after tensile strength. It is simple to change the value of steel cord tension with special mechanisms or devices in composition of cable machines and twisting machines. It is very important to know the measures of tension setting. Low tension causes bad quality of steel cord and defects. High tension may brake steel cord during the twisting and lapping. Also high tension may change the mechanical properties of steel wire in the steel cord construction. The influence of steel cord tension in the range from 9 N to 30 N on active equivalent stresses in wire cross section and macro displacements of wire contact points in steel cord construction was shown. Effect of steel cord tension during the lapping on steel cord straightness after lapping was shown. In this research the optimal tension for producing steel cord 2x0.30HT was defined with numerical simulation, finite element analysis and criteria method. The optimal value of tension for other steel cord constructions will change, because of number of wires and its hardness.

Keywords

  • cord
  • stresses
  • tension
  • straightness
  • macro displacements
Open Access

Study of the Vision System’s Impact on Increasing the Reliability of the Production System

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 46 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to present the validity of the investment of a production plant in the development of production automation. The optimal use of production lines is the way to achieve the right return on investment and profits. Any unplanned stops reduce profitability of production and do not allow to achieve high production output. The introduction of various types of safety devices and process automation allows to prevent unwanted events. In particular, relieving employees of their responsibility and thus avoiding breakdowns caused by operator error can lead to an effective increase in Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). The publication presents a study of the impact of the use of a vision system on increasing the reliability of the production system. As a result, an effective vision system based on a 3D sensor has been developed, which protects the production line against collision of the robot’s chuck plate with final products, thus not leading to the collision and destruction of the robot’s tools. The camera has been implemented in the robot’s control system, which excludes the need to change the settings, because the necessary change of work parameters is made automatically via the communication interface, thus making the work easier for employees when retooling the production machine between orders. Increasing the Overall Equipment Effectiveness and high level of Return Of Investment (ROI) allow for an unequivocal decision on the importance of the investment decision. The financial expense allowed for increasing the efficiency and productivity of production line, which contributes to the growth of the company’s competitiveness. The predictability of lead time has been significantly improved, which led to an increase in customer satisfaction.

Keywords

  • vision
  • production
  • OEE
  • automation
  • reliability
Open Access

The use of the TWI Method to Improve Safety at the Work Station

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 57 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Ensuring work safety in manufacturing enterprises is one of the employer’s basic obligations under legal provisions. Actions taken in this area translate into a reduction in the number of registered accidents at work, occupational diseases or potentially accidental events. Limiting these types of events is possible by implementing preventive solutions to reduce the risk, employers ‘and employees’ cooperation in the field of occupational health and safety. These activities may take the form of technical solutions, but above all organizational. Enterprises use various management concepts that have an impact on improving work safety. One of the solutions eliminating or reducing hazards occurring at workplaces is the TWI (Training Within Industry) program. The TWI program is the foundation of a management culture based on continuous improvement and a continuous learning process. It is considered the starting point to implement the Lean Manufacturing concept. One of the TWI modules is aimed to creating a safe workplace, i.e. TWI-Job Safety (TWI-JS). The publication presents the results of the analysis of operations performed at a selected workstation in the production enterprise in the aspect of identifying and eliminating or limiting possible direct and indirect causes of hazards that may lead to accidents at work. For this purpose, a four-step TWI-JS method was used.

Keywords

  • the TWI method
  • Lean Manufacturing
  • work safety
Open Access

The Economic Aspect in Improving the Production Process

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 69 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

In the paper there was presented the role and importance of choosing appropriate quality management methods in making decisions on implementing corrective actions on the example of a selected metallurgical company. There was presented application of the results of production process improving methods, such as 5 Why and FMEA, to indicate corrective actions. Moreover, it was analyzed whether, after introducing these activities, it was possible to eliminate or limit defects in the production process. For this purpose, the level of the RPN index was recalculated – after the changes were introduced. Furthermore, the costs of defects before and after the introduction of corrective actions were estimated.

Keywords

  • improvement
  • quality management
  • process
  • production
Open Access

Low-carbon Transport in Czech-Polish Cross Border Area: Attitude of Czech and Polish Public to Electromobility

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 79 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

The chapter deals with results of cooperation within the project Electromobility in Czech-Polish Cross border Area. The electromobility is presented in comprehensive environmental and social background. The introduction is aimed at transport emission of exhaust gases resulting in global warming and harmful impact on the environment quality. The environment analysis is reflected in view of transport and passenger cars production. The chapter presents results of society analysis defining its attitude to electromobility in the region. The methodology of public questioning was chosen to reveal possibilities for electromobility development in Czech-Polish cross border area. The questions of the survey were formulated to record a public attitude and view of electromobility. The respondents’ answers reflect their awareness of this new sustainable transport.

Keywords

  • electromobility
  • emission
  • greenhouse gas
  • society
  • survey
Open Access

Analysis of Fire Hazards in a Selected Plant

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 89 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

The work identifies and analyzes fire hazards in a selected plant - the fuel base. On this basis, the risk of these risks was estimated and methods of their prevention were established using the PHA method.

Keywords

  • risk map
  • hazard map
  • risk management
Open Access

Cloud Computing as a Prospect for the Sector of Small – and Medium-Size Companies in the Polish Market

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 103 - 113

Abstract

Abstract

Efficient functioning in the contemporary market is a fundamental need of every organization. In times of globalization and an intensive technological and engineering progress, attaining a proper position and retaining it is a big challenge in almost every branch of industry. This is especially difficult for the SME sector, as it requires financial expenditures on system solutions and the IT base, among other things. This is where “Cloud Computing” comes in. Cloud computing services consist in providing and making available IT resources (efficient, scalable and tailored to the customer’s needs) through the Web. Thanks to wide access to intensively developing mobile systems, the low costs of computer components and the associated increasingly common use of Internet of Things (IoT) in numerous devices connected to the Internet, data processing is being gradually moved onto the Web peripheries. The purpose of the study is to highlight advantages and possible threats associated with the use of Cloud Computing-based solutions for aiding the activity of enterprises at a varying organizational level following the 4th industrial revolution.

Keywords

  • cloud computing
  • globalization
  • threats
  • SMEs
  • Industry 4.0
Open Access

Study of Technology for Ultrafine-Grained Materials for Usage as Materials in Nuclear Power

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 114 - 125

Abstract

Abstract

Nuclear power is associated with great environmental risks. In many cases, the problem of accidents of nuclear power plants is related to the use of materials that do not fully meet the following requirements: high corrosion resistance; high temperature resistance; creep resistance; fracture toughness; stability of structure and properties under irradiation. Therefore, studies aimed at finding materials that can withstand long-term loads at high temperatures, aggressive environment and gradual structural degradation under the influence of radiation are relevant. One of the structural materials, which has high resistance to radiation, is austenitic stainless steel. And one of the ways to increase the radiation resistance of parts made of this steel grade is to grind its microstructure to ultra-fine-grained state. Such structures provide a combination of a high level of strength characteristics with high plasticity, which distinguishes such materials from their coarse-grained counterparts. Also, numerous grain boundaries serve as runoff surfaces for radiation defects, preserving the structure, which causes their increased radiation resistance. From all methods for producing sub-ultra-finegrained materials the most promising is the severe plastic deformation (SPD), which can be implemented in the metal in various ways, including radial-shear rolling. This paper presents the results of studies of the process of radial-shear rolling on the mill SVP-08 and its effect on the microstructure and properties of austenitic stainless steel. During the study, bars with a diameter of 13 mm from AISI-321 steel with a grain size of 300-600 nm were obtained, while the mechanical properties increased more than 2 times compared to the initial values.

Keywords

  • radial-shear rolling
  • austenitic stainless steel
  • severe plastic deformation
  • ultrafine-grained materials
Open Access

Modern Trends in Occupational Safety Management

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 126 - 138

Abstract

Abstract

Problems related to work safety have been accompanying humanity since the dawn of time. In times before the Industrial Revolution, human and animal muscle strength was used to work, and “safe work” solutions were developed and introduced individually by the user or supervising the work. Only a change in the way work was done due to the industrial revolution, the introduction of new energy sources, the transformation of manufactories into factories and the birth of the working class brought about greater, concrete changes. It was at that time that various machines and devices began to be introduced into the workplace, which on the one hand improved work and on the other hand created more and more potentially dangerous situations. Security was started holistically and institutionally. With the transformation and return of capitalism, the subject of real work safety returned. Health and safety was to be not only a fashionable slogan, but a value that was supposed to guarantee profit – in accordance with the principle that accidents reduce productivity. It was also connected with the process of adapting Polish law in the field of health and safety to the law of the European Union (EU), which resulted from Poland’s pursuit of EU membership. Moreover, an important factor initiating these changes was the interest of enterprises in quality management systems compliant with the ISO 9000 series and environmental management systems compliant with the ISO 14000 series, and related attempts to adapt the system management concept to the area of occupational health and safety, resulting in PN-N standards 18000 series. This publication analyzes the new standard PN-ISO 45001:2018 – “Occupational health and safety management systems – Requirements with guidance for use” comparing it with the standard PN-N 18001:2004 – “Occupational health and safety management. Requirements”.

Keywords

  • occupational safety
  • management systems
  • standard ISO45001
  • context of the organization
Open Access

Reduced Vibrations and Noise During Grinding

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 139 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

It is the duty of every employer to provide its employees with safe, hygienic and ergonomic working conditions. Available information suggests that working conditions in Poland improve each year, thanks to the ever-growing security culture prevailing in Polish enterprises. In spite of everything, there is still a problem of hazards in the workplace, and special attention should be paid to acoustic threats - vibrations and audible noise. Although entities operating on the market offering comprehensive services to reduce the exposure of employees to vibroacoustic hazards, there is still a need to develop new methods to protect the health of employees. Excessive exposure to vibrations and noise is associated with negative health effects that are exposed to, among others, employees involved in the mechanical processing of steel structures. Employees also experience the impact of local and general vibrations. Local vibrations can be relatively easily eliminated using anti-vibration gloves, while the reduction of general vibrations is often an unresolved problem for employees and employers. The publication presents the results of research on the development of the method of damping mechanical vibrations generated during grinding steel constructions. The research included several stages, among others: selection and preparation of the research material, design and construction of the test stand, measurements of vibration acceleration and industrial verification of the obtained results.

Keywords

  • vibrations
  • noise
  • work safety
Open Access

Work Safety During Usage, Repair and Maintenance of Machines – a Review of Work Safety in the Aspect of Accidents at Work

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 151 - 161

Abstract

Abstract

The usage, repair and maintenance of machines is one of the areas in which it still records a significant number of accident events. The occurrence of accidents at work generates social and economic costs for the enterprise. Therefore, employers should be take measures to improve safety at the workplace. The publication presents an accident analysis based on a comparison of the following measures: accident rates (i.e. number of accidents, event effects) and ratio analysis (frequency rate indicator and total accident rate indicator). Calculated indicators allowed to determine the accident rate during the usage, repair and maintenance of machines. The analysis covered a five-year period – i.e. 2013-2017. On the basis of the analyzes carried out, the proposal was presented of possible prevention solutions to reduce the number of accidents at work.

Keywords

  • accident rate
  • safety at work
  • usage
  • repair and maintenance of machines
Open Access

Management Styles as Element of Shaping Company Organizational Culture

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 162 - 172

Abstract

Abstract

The basis for the functioning of every organization and achieving the set goals are employees. It is they who shape the image, create the organizational culture and reputation of the company in the environment. Their competences, knowledge and skills determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization’s operations. Thanks to their work, products and services are created that meet social needs and thus organizational progress. The aim of this work was to conduct research on the organization’s ability to identify and retain the best employees, the ability to promote desired attitudes and behaviors, as well as to create a friendly and rewarding work environment that are key factors for business success. Updating the knowledge possessed by employees and developing new skills is often crucial in keeping the organization on the market.

Keywords

  • management styles
  • organizational culture
  • human resource management
Open Access

The Influence of the Number of Polyurethane Anti-Vibration Mount on the Vibration Damping Efficiency of Steel Structure

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 173 - 183

Abstract

Abstract

The publication presents the results of research on the statistically significant impact of the number of layers on vibration damping properties of vibroacoustic mats. The research was carried out on the author’s research stand. The research was carried out on sandwich systems made of polyurethane foam. The impact force of the analyzed variables was determined on the basis of constructed multiple regression models, the so-called multifactor models and determination of the standardized value β. The research was carried out using the PQStat software. In the models being built, the significance level was p < 0.05.

Three statistically significant linear multivariate models for one-third frequencies were constructed:

• 0-20000 Hz – a model for the entire frequency spectrum analysed during the tests,

• 0-400 Hz – a model for frequencies generating construction vibrations that may affect the worker as general vibrations,

• 50-20000 Hz – a model for frequencies that generate construction vibrations that can cause auditory sensations (noise).

It was found: positive correlation of the number of layers in vibration damping systems with a third octave frequency of up to 400 Hz; negative correlation of the number of layers in vibration damping systems with a third octave frequency of 50 to 20000 Hz.

Keywords

  • anti-vibration
  • polyurethane
  • steel
Open Access

Environmental Protection in Industry 4.0. Opportunities and Threats in Selected Areas

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 184 - 194

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, the importance of production in cyberphysical systems – CPS characteristic of the new industry concept, which is Industry 4.0 – I 4.0, is gaining importance. Industry 4.0 enforces modification of traditional perception of production. The basis for changes in Industry 4.0 has become Internet of Things – IoT, which gives the opportunity to connect and communicate with each other such areas as mobile solutions, cloud computing, sensors, analytics and cyber security. By new technology, areas that previously operated in enterprises as separate systems can be combined and create new opportunities for industrial production (modernization of production methods and reduce employment). Industry 4.0 brings with it a number of new challenges for producers in the field of environmental protection, and related to the inclusion of cybernetic technology in physical production processes as well as distribution. Production starts and ends on the customer. Industry 4.0 is a collective term for technologies and concepts of value chain organization. The United Nations Organization for Industrial Development indicates the following environmental aspects in the perspective of the development of Industry 4.0, such as: climate change and limited access to resources, primarily to clean energy. It is assumed that changes in the production and functioning of economies will result in a decrease in the emission of harmful compounds into the atmosphere and increase the flexibility of activities for environmental protection. The purpose of this work is to present general directions of changes in the field of environmental protection in Industry 4.0. Authors present the following areas of change: energy management and material management. These areas are opportunities for environmental. In the category of threats, the growing costs of environmental protection and household expenses are pointed out. The work is based on a literature study and statistical data. Statistical data are used: integrated technologies, expenditure and costs of environmental protection, recycling of secondary raw materials and energy consumption for the EU and Poland.

Keywords

  • Industry 4.0
  • environment
  • protection
  • resources
  • economy
Open Access

Risk Map for a Selected Organization

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 195 - 204

Abstract

Abstract

The publication presents a risk map for a selected organization concerning external hazards, i.e. those whose source is not derived from the internal conditions of the functioning of the organization. To this end, a risk management process was carried out, consisting in the identification of hazards, their analysis, risk assessment, and risk response. The risk map shows a visual presentation of these hazards together with the defined risk level. This map is used to identify hazard zones within the examined organization, serving as a database also for all entities interested in the business activity of the organization, the entities neighboring the facility, or private persons. Furthermore, this tool is particularly useful for local government administration units for the purpose of proper crisis management within the administered area. The risk map is also used to identify internal risk areas in the organization.

Keywords

  • risk map
  • hazard map
  • risk management
Open Access

Inconsistencies in the Production Process Resulting From the Employment Structure

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 205 - 213

Abstract

Abstract

Underestimating the duration of the production process is one of the basic factors determining the occurrence of delays in the duration of individual operations included in the production process. Occurrence of underestimation of production time brings many negative effects, which include, among others: underestimation of the company’s production capacity, accumulation of intermediate stocks, impeded planning of the production process (scheduling of the production process) and increase of production costs. The problem of erroneous estimation of the duration of the production process is most often found in production plants specializing in serial or mass production, implemented in a parallel or series-parallel system. The basic causes that underestimate the duration of the production process include errors in production scheduling, incorrect determination of durations of individual operations carried out as part of the analyzed production process, complexity of production operations and employment structure. The occurrence of delays in the production process can also be affected by accident events that generate underestimation and costs for the enterprise (including social and economic costs). In many cases, many algorithms are used to reduce underestimation and optimization and scheduling of the entire production process. The publication presents an analysis of the production process in which the duration of the production process is underestimated, taking into account the employment structure in the manufacturing company. The analyzes allow to determine the level of underestimation of operations of the production process depending on the form of employment (steel workers – employed under a contract of employment in the production plant, and temporary workers employed by temporary work agencies), identification of the reasons for the underestimation of individual production positions and the length of their time occurrence.

Keywords

  • production
  • production planning
  • underestimation
Open Access

Solvent Extraction of Metal Ions from Sulfate Solutions Obtained in Leaching of Spent Ni-MH Batteries

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 214 - 221

Abstract

Abstract

The nickel metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH) are used in many electronic equipment, like cell phones, computers, cameras as well as hybrid cars. Spent batteries can be a rich source of many metals, especially rare earth elements (REE), such as lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), samarium (Sm), gadolinium (Gd). Ni-MH batteries also contain iron (Fe) as well as non-ferrous metals, i.e. nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), etc. Leaching of such waste with sulfuric acid solutions is one among many methods recovering of useful metals in hydrometallurgical processes. The main aim of this work was separation of metal ions from pregnant leach liquor (PLL) by solvent extraction using phosphorous compounds and ionic liquids (ILs). The initial pH of the aqueous solution was 0.1. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA), bis (2,2,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), and phosphoniumionic liquid – trihexyl (tetradecyl) phosphonium bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate (Cyphos IL 104) were used as the selective extractants. The initial concentration of the extractants in an organic phase was equal to 0.1 mol∙dm−3. The obtained results show that the highest extraction efficiency was obtained for Fe(III) and Zn(II) in extraction experiments with 0.1 M D2EHPA at pH of 0.1. Ni(II), Co(II) and REE remained in the aqueous solutions. In the next stage, REE were extracted with the mixture of 0.1 M Cyanex 272 and 0.1 M Cyphos IL 104 at pH equal to 3.8. Finally, Ni(II) and Co(II) ions were efficiently removed from the aqueous phase using 0.1 M solution of Cyphos IL 104 at pH around 5.4.

Keywords

  • solvent extraction
  • rare earth metals
  • nickel metal hydride batteries
Open Access

Analysis of Selected Aspects of Knowledge Management in the Context of Their Impact on the Quality Level in Metallurgical Enterprises

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 222 - 231

Abstract

Abstract

The review of definitions allows to state that knowledge management in enterprises is a complex, multi-aspect process requiring the implementation of a number of interrelated mechanisms and instruments. Sharing knowledge can increase employee productivity, team performance and the ability to transform diversity into creativity and organizational innovation. Sharing of knowledge in the enterprise should be implemented both in a formal and informal way and be supported by appropriate communication mechanisms, employee exchange programs, job rotation, mentoring relations, techniques Only a well-constructed, implemented and modified system can ensure achieving the intended goals related, among other things, to ensuring the proper functioning of quality assurance mechanisms. and tools for assessing teamwork, a z system promoting creativity and cooperation. The main purpose of the publication is to present the results of research conducted on a sample of 22 enterprises regarding the analysis of the extent of enterprises’ use of knowledge and human capital potential to improve the quality management. The research focused mainly on the impact of selected elements of management of knowledge and human capital on the level of employee awareness, as well as the number and type of non-compliance of products. The study used a questionnaire and statistical analysis of data from manufacturing processes.

Keywords

  • quality management
  • metallurgical enterprise
  • knowledge management
Open Access

The Anthracite as Sinter Fuels

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 232 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

The chapter deals with the use of traditional carbonaceous fuels in the production of agglomerates. An important part is focused primarily on the use of these carbonaceous fuels in the production of various types of agglomerate. Anthracite together with coke breeze was tested as a fuel to assess the substitution of coke dust by anthracite for technological and qualitative parameters of sintering.

Keywords

  • coke breeze
  • anthracite
  • sinter
Open Access

Analysis of use of Methods and Quality Management Tools in a Group of Production Enterprises

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 241 - 253

Abstract

Abstract

The publication presents the results of research on the scope of practical use of available methods and tools of quality management by enterprises. The analysis was based on surveys conducted at the Production Management Institute of the Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology of the Częstochowa University of Technology. The presented study applies only to the information collected so far as the research work commenced is still being continued. Currently, data (correctly completed questionnaires) has been collected from fifty one small, medium and large production companies located primarily in the Śląskie and Łódzkie region. Both the organizations surveyed for the needs of this project and the cases cited in the literature indicate that the group of the most commonly used tools and methods is quite limited and in a sense comes down to the most known. This situation may partly result from the specifics of the industry and the nature of production. In addition, providing questionnaire response suggestions (as examples, the most frequently used methods and techniques) may have influenced the choices made by the respondents. At the same time, in some cases, low awareness or insufficient substantive knowledge may have contributed to the belief among the respondents that the techniques are implemented in the enterprise while in reality these techniques have never been used. All remarks and observations noticed at this stage of the research will be taken into account in subsequent analyzes.

Keywords

  • quality management
  • methods
  • standards
Open Access

Role and Competence of the Manager of the Example of a Production Enterprise

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 254 - 266

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the subject matter in scope of human resources management in an exemplary production enterprise. The company under study is a production enterprise that produces: juice, nectars, drinks and mineral waters. The characteristics, skills and activities that constitute model attitudes of the management were determined, as well as the ways of management that exist in the selected company were identified. The paper also presents the results of a questionnaire survey in which employees’ opinions on specific managerial behaviors and their impact on work efficiency were presented. Additionally, the employees’ expectations regarding managerial behaviors are described. The survey was completed by 40 employees of the company who voluntarily and anonymously agreed to participate in the study. They were people working in various departments of the company.

Keywords

  • competences
  • human resources management
  • management styles
Open Access

Analysis of Roll Wear Costs During Multi-Strand Rolling of Ribbed Bars Using New Slitting Pass System

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 267 - 278

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a modification of the slitting pass system, which ensured a reduction in roll wear during three-strand rolling of ribbed bars with a diameter of 16 mm, and thus reduced the associated costs. The theoretical and experimental research on the rolling process of ribbed bars with a diameter of 16 mm rolled in three-strand technology was carried out on a D350 18-stand continuous bar rolling mill conditions. To determine the cost of slitting pass wear, the results of numerical calculations of the frictional force unit of work obtained using the Forge2011® computer program was used, as well as empirical calculations.

Keywords

  • slitting passes
  • wear of rolls
  • costs
  • FEM
Open Access

Management of the Size of the Supply Under the Conditions of Inflation

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 279 - 288

Abstract

Abstract

The publication describes two ways of shopping, taking into account the CPI (Consumer Price Index) inflation rate. In the first case, changes in the sales price are made in a continuous manner in accordance with the inflation rate, and therefore it is better to make larger purchases. In the second case, it is better to carry out smaller purchases, because it is characterized by one-time adjustment of sales prices to the entire purchased a lot of goods. Both cases were verified based on the Solver tool, using non-linear, integer-based optimization. The final result was to determine the optimal purchase quantities with the minimum inventory costs.

Keywords

  • CPI index
  • EOQ
  • Solver application
  • purchase optimization
Open Access

Peculiarities of Alloying Effect on the Eutectic Cementite Behavior Under Hot Rolling

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 289 - 300

Abstract

Abstract

Currently, cast iron remains one of the major modern casting materials in metallurgy and machine-building industry and is sure to take the lead in the future. Chilled cast iron has high hardness and wear resistance due to a large number of carbide phases in its structure. However, low ductility and impact hardness essentially limit its applicability in terms of processing. Hot plastic working, under which the eutectic net crushing is observed, appears to be one of the most effective means of the eutectic alloy products shape and microstructure transformation. Chilled cast iron properties fundamentally improve after hot plastic working: ductility, strength and impact hardness increase by 2-3 times on retention of the high hardness factor. Chilled cast iron ductility increase can be attained when using phase transformations in eutectic cementite under lean alloying with carbide forming elements. The purpose of the paper is to study alloying effect on the chilled cast iron ductility as well as eutectic cementite behavior under hot rolling. In the paper hardening and softening of the structural components in chilled cast iron under hot working have been studied. The deformation texture forming in eutectic cementite under hot rolling has been revealed, which is connected with the dynamic softening and depends on the degree and the nature of its alloying. The mechanism and regularities of the phase transformation effect in cementite on its behavior under plastic deformation and on the alloys ductility in general have been studied. In cementite chromium alloying initiates processes, that can be characterized as the pre-precipitation stage of the new phases, and this way it contributes to the cast iron ductility reduction and embrittles cementite. Carbide transformation, that occurs in eutectic cementite under alloying with vanadium, stimulates softening of the alloy and increases its ductility level. Moreover, the multiple glide planes {130},{011},{112} in cementite have been determined. It has been found out, that in supersaturated cementite vanadium carbides precipitation stimulates the extra glide plane {111} occurrence under hot rolling. The essence of the carbide transformation phenomenon is that under hot working there occurs the lubricating effect at the transition of the metastable iron carbide condition, which is strengthened with vanadium supersaturation and mechanical hardening, to a more stable condition due to precipitation of the proeutectoid constituents on the one hand, and because of the dynamic softening processes on the other hand. At that, the autocatalyticity effect is observed: there is precipitation of carbides with hardening and softening, similar to the processes that arise as a result of the superplastic effect induced by phase transformations.

Keywords

  • cast iron
  • cementite
  • deformation
  • phase transformations
  • ductility
Open Access

Research of the Impact of the Heating Rate on Adhesion of Scale Arising in the Process of Heating of the Steel Charge Before the Plastic Reworking

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 301 - 311

Abstract

Abstract

Before steel materials are subjected to an appropriate heat treatment, they must be preheated. During this process scale is formed, which can be a problem in the proper heat treatment of the steel charge. The preheating process of the steel charge is carried out under specific conditions – parameters. These conditions determine certain properties of scale. One of the most important issues in this context, important from the point of view of the potential removal of scale from the charge surface, is the correlation of the heating process temperature and the adherence of the scale to the steel substrate. The paper presents the results of such research and their discussion. In addition, the methodology for measuring the scale adhesion to steel substrate is presented. Mathematical relations endearing impact of heating rate on the scale adhesion have been developed.

Keywords

  • heating of charge
  • preheating rate
  • heating technology
  • loss of steel
  • adhesion of scale
Open Access

Microstate of Basic Phase of High-Alloyed Ferritic Steels

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 312 - 320

Abstract

Abstract

In according with the stated conception the purpose of the present work is the reconstruction of some of innumerable microstates of α phase of ferritic steels, definition of its macroparameters and their subsequent comparison with indicators of mechanical properties of industrially let out steels. The establishment of a correlation between the measured indicators of mechanical properties of already created materials and the calculated state parameters of their basic phase opens an opportunity of mechanical properties prediction of materials in dependence on their prehistory that as a matter of fact represents the central task of material science. Simulation of α-phase state of series of industrially let out ferritic steels and alloys is executed in the assumption of identity of its composition to composition of steel or alloy as a whole. The correlation between indicators of mechanical properties of steels and alloys and state parameters of their basic phase is traced.

Keywords

  • high-alloyed ferritic steels
  • atomic-discrete simulation
  • crystal lattice of BP
Open Access

The Rolling Tool Development in Order to Improve the Geometry of a Tube Profile and to Reduce the Wear of Mill Rolls

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 321 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

Increasing the accuracy of the geometrical parameters of tube profiles is one of the priority areas of modern tube industry. The profile of the calibers of rolls of the reeling mill exerts a significant influence over the distribution of stresses that appear in metal during the deformation process and the process of formation of the correct geometry of the obtained rough tube. The method for determining the optimal geometry of a mill roll profile has been developed. In accordance with this method the geometry of the calibers of the continuous three roll reeling mill was calculated. The research of the influence of geometrical parameters of the calibers of mill rolls on the accuracy of the obtained tube profile, the load of the rolling tool and the wear rate of the contact surface of mill rolls and a mandrel was carried out. The numerical simulation method was chosen as a research method. This method allows to carry out rather accurate analysis and to obtain reliable results on the stress-strain and thermal states of a billet during the material processing, gives the possibility to obtain numerical values of stresses, deformations, load parameters of the process, as well as allows to visualize the results that is essential for assessing the accuracy of the tube profile geometry. Numerical experiments of the elongating process of a rough tube on the three roll continuous reeling mill with different grooving of mill rolls were carried out. It was determined that using of the developed grooving will allow to get a rough tube of a higher accuracy with the minimal deviation from the shape of the profile. The use of the developed method of calculating the geometric parameters of the calibers of the continuous reeling mill will allow to obtain calibers with a high degree of resistance to wear due to the reduction of the resistance of the flow of metal and a uniform filling of the calibers in the deformation zone. The use of this grooving of mill rolls will reduce the load acting on the rolling tool during the production of hot-deformed seamless tubes.

Keywords

  • seamless pipes
  • continuous elongating process
  • calibers of mill rolls
  • accuracy of a tube profile
Open Access

Analysis of Circumstances and Causes of Accidents Working in a Selected Industrial Undertaking

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 331 - 340

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of this publication is to analyze the circumstances and causes of accidents at work in a selected industrial enterprise that provides services in the field of waterjet cutting and laser beam. The paper present the statutory definition of an accident at work and its basic categories (light, heavy, mortal and collective accident). It also discusses the most popular accident investigation method – the TOL method, which classifies the causes of accidents into three basic groups: material-technical, organizational and human. In the further part of the work the characteristics of the waterjet operator’s work station were made, including the scope of activities, possible occupational hazards and preventive actions. Next, the results of the analysis of the circumstances and causes of accidents at work were presented. In the period from 2013 to 2018 eight accidents were reported, resulting in minor injuries, such as cuts and cuts, fracture of the phalanx, overloading of the spine, leg twisting or knee injury.

Keywords

  • accident at work
  • accident prophylaxis
  • examination of the circumstances and causes of the accident
  • waterjet operator
  • water jet cutting
Open Access

Evaluation of Noise Level at the Position of Water Cutter Operator at Selected Enterprise

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 341 - 349

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of this publication is to assess the exposure of the waterjet operator to the noise hazard. The publication presents basic information about noise in the work environment. Next, the procedure of noise measurement in the work environment was discussed and the results of tests carried out at the waterjet operator’s station for three basic activities were presented, ie: (1) plotter support, supervision of the cutting process, loading and receiving material, (2) auxiliary, transport and cleaning, (3) computer service, keeping documentation, hygienic and social break. The noise level test included the determination of: the maximum sound level A LA max, the peak sound level C LCpeak, the noise exposure level related to the 8-hour work day LEX,8h. Based on the obtained measurement results, it can be stated that the exposure to noise at the station of the waterjet operator is at an acceptable level.

Keywords

  • noise
  • noise measurement
  • harmful factors
  • hazards in the work environment
  • waterjet operator
Open Access

Food Safety as a Key Factor in the Supply Chain

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 350 - 360

Abstract

Abstract

Food production system, due to the mass scale of its manufacturing, distribution, and consumption, is subject to rigorous protection and control. The analysis of food safety presented in the foregoing publication shows that legal and organizational regulations are not alone sufficient to ensure that the quality of products does not pose a health and environmental threat. The results of the study conducted with the participation of 15 subjects make it evident that the issue of food safety is complex and requires continual monitoring because of ever changing conditions. It is increasingly seen that food safety is a key factor in supply chains, becoming the overriding element of production systems. Production companies spend more and more money on control and modernization of the entire production-related system so that food safety is 100% guaranteed. In the last few years, it can be seen that audits in manufacturing companies that deal with the production and sale of food are largely focused on food safety, process monitoring systems and employee access controls to individual production zones. Not without significance is the fact that additional departments are created in manufacturing companies, whose main task is to control production processes in terms of food safety, both from the side of the safe use of raw materials, packaging and the interference of unauthorized persons. It is absolutely necessary to emphasize that the paper also shows some examples that can already be treated as the first symptoms of food terrorism, which is becoming a deadly tool for current and future food terrorists. The publication emphasizes that food safety in the market reality of that time may be of paramount importance in the supply chains, given the importance and consequences of possible mass contamination of food.

Keywords

  • production
  • food
  • supply chain
  • safety
  • logistics
  • legal regulations
  • organizational requirements
  • terrorism
Open Access

Innovated Technologies of Recycling of Metallic Wastes – Modification of Existing Industrial Processes

Published Online: 04 Dec 2019
Page range: 361 - 367

Abstract

Abstract

This paper describes interesting operational experiments have been performed in the scope of the project where the process of melting deoxidation was used under improvised conditions of cold blast cupola furnace. The goal was to find out metallurgical effects of added selfreducing briquettes prepared from steel sludge into cupola furnace charge and above all to verify the grade of deoxidation of oxides of iron at keeping output quality of cast metal. Present state of research and development of technologies of iron production in the area of commercial exploitation of these technologies is not in such a position that we could realistically assess their efficiency, investment costs and economic impacts. Moreover, an unequivocal requirement on minimization of CO2 emissions, mainly by its recycling, is here more and more promoted.

Keywords

  • technologies
  • iron
  • wastes

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