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Volume 4 (2021): Issue 1 (September 2021)

Volume 3 (2020): Issue 1 (September 2020)

Volume 2 (2019): Issue 1 (September 2019)

Volume 1 (2018): Issue 1 (September 2018)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2545-2827
First Published
30 Sep 2018
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 2 (2019): Issue 1 (September 2019)

Conference Details
Format
Conference
eISSN
2545-2827
First Published
30 Sep 2018
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

61 Articles

Part 1: Engineering and Technology, Editor: Witold Biały

Open Access

Improvement of grinding technology with vortex cooling of steels that are liable to crack propagation

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 9 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

Complexity of grinding process and phenomena entailing it not always allow reaching required technological results, especially while machining surfaces of parts made of tough-to-machine steels, which are liable to crack propagation. Cracks can occur in these parts during grinding due to considerable temperature difference along the section, which can cause formation of high temporary internal tensile stress. Application of cooled air in grinding process exerts considerable influence over temperature decrease in cutting area. In addition, it depends not only on heat exchange, but also on properties of cold air flow. The greatest effect of temperature decrease can be reached by injection of cold air flow in cutting area with implementation of vortex effect, which occurs in swirl flow of compressed air originating in vortex tube. The study of heat generation during machining by tools with discontinuous cutting surface and vortex air cooling was carried out. Obtained thermophysical parameters of vortex air cooling (increase in speed of stream flowing, expansion degree, share of cold stream and decrease in humidity of air stream) allow reducing heat density due to growth of cooling effect in grinding zone. On the base of experimental studies we developed recommendations for choice of optimal grinding modes by tool with discontinuous cutting surface and vortex air cooling of flat parts made of steels being liable to cracking.

Keywords

  • steel
  • grinding
  • temperature
  • vortex cooling
  • wheel
Open Access

Computational equation discovery of relationships between container ship fuel consumption and hull and propeller fouling phenomena

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 24 - 30

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, when we try to automatize all activities, there is a growing demand for energy in all forms. Increasingly we reach for new energy sources that can be problematic to store or to transport, owing to their toxicity or explosive propensity. The article examines the issues of determining danger zones occurring as a result of liquefied natural gas (LNG) release. The range of danger zones caused through LNG release depends on a multitude of factors. The basic parameter that needs to be considered is a type of the released substance as well as the manner of its release. The range of a danger zone is determined by, inter alia, the concentration of a released substance and the atmospheric conditions existing at the time when depressurization occurs. The article analyses the problem of the range of danger zones in a function of wind speed and surface roughness with a defined value of Pasquill stability for various LNG types, starting with pure methane, and ending with the so-called LNG-heavy. The difficulty of the task becomes more complicated when the analysed surface over which a depressurization incident takes place involves water. The problem deepens even further when the analysed substance possesses explosive properties. Then, apart from regular substance concentration, upper and lower flammability limit ought to be considered. Calculations were conducted with DNV-Phast software, version 7.11.

Keywords

  • LNG chemical composition
  • explosion risk area
  • upper and lower explosion limit
Open Access

Application of selected methods of multicriterial assessment in the selection process of equipment used at the extraction face – case study

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 31 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

Making decisions is a process that involves taking into account n acceptable variants of undertaken actions in view of m adopted assessment criteria and selecting the optimal variant (optimal variants). Due to the number of alternatives being assessed and the number of considered criteria, more and more frequently mathematical methods are used in this process. Basing on the example involving the selection of a mechanized longwall complex, the article presents the application of selected multicriteria methods: in the case of quantitative features – Hellwig's development measure method, and in the case of qualitative features – Promethee II method. In the case of Hellwig's development measure method, equipment variants were interpreted as points w in the multidimensional space, and then the distances between them and the point Po (perfect solution) were determined. In the case of the Promethee II method (discrete multicriteria decision support method), the equipment variants were compared with each other in pairs, which made it possible to determine the so-called net flows Φ(i). The obtained synthetic values mi and Φ(i) allowed to build rankings of equipment variants (objects) and to indicate the optimal variant.

Keywords

  • making decisions
  • the multicriteria methods
Open Access

Diagnostic benchmarks on dynamic characteristics of thin-walled marine damaged structures

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 38 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

Among structural health monitoring (SHM) methods of thin-walled structures, a vibrodiagnostic method is one of the most promising. The accelerometer recorded responses provide diagnostic information that requires mathematical processing to extract the essential dynamic characteristics. The authors have been looking for new parameters - diagnostic benchmarks which can be applied to non-destructive, automatic testing of thin-walled marine structures (especially their welded joints) like ship hulls. All characteristics have been based on recorded data generated during the vibration tests of welded joints with and without failures. For this purpose, the authors proposed method based on: FFT windowing analysis, benchmark with using 2D or 3D time – frequency dynamic characteristics and the determination of damping decrement in function of time. The work presents the algorithm and exemplary results obtained from the application of proposed method to several selected sample plates with different type of welds.

Keywords

  • thin-walled structures
  • welded joints
  • SHM
  • spectrum analysis
  • damping decrement
Open Access

Analysis of ergonomic work equipment lowering the static load based on trend of development of work activities

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 53 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

The issue of static load arises as a result of the optimization of activities and the natural development of industry towards digitization, implementation of technologies in the production process and elimination of manual work. Due to the inherent need to facilitate or completely replace manual work with machines, human activity focuses on the development, design, and management of these machines. This article presents the results of a survey of the representation of professions with the primary seated position in the selected industrial enterprise in comparison with the most frequently registered professions in specific sectors. Likewise, the authors also deal with the elimination of static loads arising from the performance of sedentary work through ergonomic chairs offered on the Slovak market. The paper presents the results of the market analysis focusing on the parameters of office chairs, which are marked as ergonomic or health. The findings of these surveys serve as one of the starting points for the design of a complex dynamic office workplace, which the authors deal with in research at the Department of Industrial Engineering at the University of Zilina.

Keywords

  • industrial engineering
  • ergonomics
  • office work
  • static load
  • ergonomic chairs
Open Access

Embedded image processing on Raspberry Pi connected to the industrial control system

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 62 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

This paper deals with the image processing from the camera for Raspberry Pi connected with real-time communication network to the control system (PLC). The low time delay for receiving and sending commands, data, etc. is very important in the automating production processes. This can be provided by industrial real-time network based on Ethernet. The Ethernet POWERLINK, which is supported on B&R PLCs, is one of them. It is a simple solution for a variety of applications because the POWERLINK is publicly available as the open source. Connecting the PLC and Raspberry Pi with Ethernet POWERLINK opens up many applications in industrial automation. For example, image data obtained using a camera attached to Raspberry Pi can be used to sense image of manufacturing processes and products and evaluate their quality in industrial automation. This article focuses on an image processing unit and the PLC system with CPU redundancy used in the industrial application. Vision systems are often used to improve products quality control, saving costs and time.

Keywords

  • image processing
  • PLC
  • measurement
  • Raspberry Pi
  • real-time
  • embedded system
  • openPOWERLINK
Open Access

Analysis of selected technologies of precious metal recovery processes

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 72 - 80

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the technologies of obtaining precious metals as a byproduct in the processing of copper concentrates in KGHM POLSKA MIEDŹ SA and in the processing of zinc and lead concentrates in Huta Cynku “MIASTECZKO ŚLĄSKIE”. Discussed technologies for recovery of silver from secondary raw materials such as: used silver catalysts, scrapped electronic devices, defective transistors, scrap of silver-plated glasses, used solutions used for processing photosensitive materials are discussed. Jewellery and tableware and technical coatings in electronics and electrical engineering. The high reflectivity of the light rays from the silver surface was used in the production of special reflectors and mirrors, and chemical resistance in the construction of apparatus (such as equipment resistant to molten hydroxide alkali metals).

Keywords

  • plant
  • recovery
  • analysis
  • quality
Open Access

Comparative analysis of soil magnetic susceptibility and concentration of rare earth elements in soil of problematic areas

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 81 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

Soil contamination with rare earth metals (REE) can have both direct and indirect connection with industrial activity and ore-exploration. In the studies conducted so far, the presence of rare earth elements in coal seams, coal combustion waste as well as fly ash was found. It is important that detailed studies of the REE content in soil were not carried out in Poland. Until now, in a few studies, a high content of cerium and lanthanum was found in relation to the average content of the torn ones in the world. This work focuses on the areas under the influence of the industry associated with the extraction and combustion of hard coal, but also with other types of industry. Analyzes of REE content in soil were conducted in selected areas of the Upper Silesian Industrial Region and Norway, located near the Bjornevatn mine. In study areas, soil samples were collected and used for chemical and magnetometric measurements. Firstly, concentrations of REE were determined, and after that soil samples were used to measure soil magnetic susceptibility. Finally, statistical analyses were performed in order to check the correlation between REE concentrations in soil and soil magnetic susceptibility.

Keywords

  • soil pollution
  • rare earth elements
  • magnetometry
  • magnetic susceptibility
  • industrial areas
Open Access

Analysis of the similarity of hard coal mines in terms of the number of dangerous incidents caused by the activation of natural hazards

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 91 - 100

Abstract

Abstract

Hard coal mines and mining enterprises involved in hard coal exploitation in the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe) are characterised by the presence of natural hazards typical of this type of exploitation. These hazards include the risks related to methane, coal dust explosion, endogenous fires, as well as rock burst and caving of roof rocks. The article presents the results of a taxonomic analysis aimed at determining the similarity of hard coal mines and mining enterprises in Poland in terms of the dangerous incidents caused by the risks related to methane, coal dust explosion, endogenous fires, as well as rock burst and caving of roof rocks. The analysis was carried out for the 2008-2018 data and encompassed a total of 26 hard coal mines and mining enterprises located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The analysis was performed using the k-means method of non-hierarchical clustering. The main objective of the article was to determine homogenous groups (clusters) of mines exhibiting the greatest similarity in terms of dangerous incidents caused by the activation of natural hazards in the years 2008-2018. These data can be successfully used for the development of preventive measures and risk analyses for these enterprises.

Keywords

  • coal mine
  • natural hazards
  • cluster analysis
  • taxonomic methods
  • analysis of similarity
Open Access

Assessment of the physical load of the waterjet operator using the G. Lehmann method

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 101 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Basic parameter characterizing the body's workload (in particular physical work) is the energy expenditure, which determines the amount of energy used to perform a specific job (in kcal or kJ). The purpose of this work was to determine the energy expenditure at the station of a water-cutting machine using the tabular-timing method according to G. Lehmann. As part of the author's own research, the position of the waterjet operator was described, taking into account the basic hazards present in the work environment and the requirements regarding occupational health and safety. The paper also presents the results of the energy expenditure assessment and their analysis, which allowed to propose corrective and preventive actions.

Keywords

  • Lehmann's method
  • energy expenditure
  • physical load
  • ergonomic diagnosis
  • water-cutting operator
Open Access

Influences on plasma cutting quality on CNC machine

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 108 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

This article discusses plasma cutting technology and its influences on the quality of the resulting cut. Plasma or a plasma arch consists of positive and negatively charged particles, excited and neutral atoms and molecules. As it contains free particles, it is electrically conductive and thus subject to the effects of the electrical and magnetic field. The basis of CNC machine design is described in the article, which has at least 3 axes (x, y, z), but there are also more technologically demanding applications, such as pipe cutting, profile and cutting using chamfer to prepare surfaces for welding, where these multi-axis devices are frequently used. The principle of plasma cutting and the plasma cutting phase is described in this article. The materials that can be divided by a plasma arc are described in detail, including graphs displaying the dependence of sheet thickness on the cutting speed. The article describes and lists the gases that are used in plasma-arc cutting, such as oxygen, argon, hydrogen and nitrogen. Important components of plasma cutting technology are the parameters that can be adjusted and set before the cutting so that the cut is of good quality. The most comprehensive chapter deals with the influences that affect plasma cutting quality. Cutting quality can be influenced by a number of factors. Everything starts with the proper choice of a CNC machine and a plasma source. The quality also depends on the expertise and experience of the machine operator and the setting of the plasma cutting parameters. This issue of influences on the plasma cutting quality is based on long-term experience in the field of the thermal cutting process.

Keywords

  • torch
  • plasma arc
  • cutting parameters
Open Access

Chain of events application in workplaces in safety engineering

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 118 - 125

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the hazard identification process as a sequence of events that leads to accident and/or material loss at the workplace. The chain of events can be described as an orderly set of circumstances conducive to the emergence of a threat. The article presents an analysis of the application of elements of the events theory to the identification of hazards in an industrial plant on the example of a gas explosion. The circumstances supporting the emergence of a gas explosion hazard were identified by determining the direct and indirect causes of the event and the main conditions leading to the event (loss). Also indicated is the cause of gas explosion hazard, which is the initiating factor in the chain of events.

Keywords

  • chain of events
  • sequence of events
  • hazard identification
  • security deficits
Open Access

General overview of maintenance strategies – concepts and approaches

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 126 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents a literature review of maintenance strategies formulation. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of different published concepts of maintenance strategies, distinguish the most common approaches to this issue and find a general tendency in strategies classification. Furthermore, the review is aimed to point out the importance of unscheduled downtime which might occur during equipment runtime in a production plant. The paper classifies the existing maintenance concepts and emphasizes key assumptions of the analysed strategies. The literature study and carried out analysis could be useful to find appropriate reliability assurance methods. In addition, defined maintenance approaches might help in decision making process in a company. The paper is a comprehensive overview of discussed strategies, which indicates the most frequent maintenance models in the analysed papers.

Keywords

  • maintenance
  • maintenance strategies
  • maintenance management
  • predictive maintenance
Open Access

Smart City idea: use of people's opinions on the environmental threats for intelligent management of the city

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 140 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

Managing the natural environment in the city is an important element of city management. Smart city authorities should take into account the opinion of residents about the comfort of living in the urban environment management strategy. A very important element of the natural environment in the city is air quality, which significantly affects the comfort of living in the city. The article presents surveys of opinions of the residents of a selected city in Silesia in Poland. The respondents' knowledge on the sources of air pollution in the city, the perceived health effects resulting from polluted atmospheric air and the expectations of residents towards the city authorities were examined using the anonymous questionnaire method. Residents' behavior in the situation of increased air pollution was also examined. On the basis of surveys, prophylactic pro-ecological activities were identified with the highest degree of acceptance of the local community as potential directions of urban environment management. The implementation of such activities, taking into account the opinions and preferences of the residents, is part of the co-management of the intelligent city.

Keywords

  • smart city
  • atmospheric air pollution
  • urban environment management
  • air quality monitoring
Open Access

Integrated sustainable freight transport system for city multi-floor manufacturing clusters

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 151 - 160

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to present the integrated sustainable freight transport system dedicated for city clusters. The presented concept and calculation model is the result of a broader study on the effectiveness of production and transport systems in urban areas. The integrated sustainable freight transport system described in this paper serves multi-floor manufacturing clusters and therefore meets two efficiency requirements: technological integration and process sustainability. The integration of in-house transport system servicing multi-floor manufacturing building and supply chain deliveries to/from logistic node is based on efficient use of Intelligent Reconfigurable Trolleys (IRTs). The calculation model of integrated freight transport system allows for the quantitative matching of key elements of the transport system to the multi-floor manufacturing cluster needs. Properly selected and functionally integrated elements of proposed transport system allows to minimize losses and reduce the negative impact of transport on the environment.

Keywords

  • multi-floor manufacturing
  • transport system
  • supply chain management
Open Access

Hydrogen fuel in transportation

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 161 - 171

Abstract

Abstract

In the time, when the whole world is increasingly engaged in environmental protection, it is necessary to come up with a fuel alternative for transportation, which means generally abandon the use of non-renewable resources (petrol, oil and fossil fuel in general), as they are one of the many factors influencing the emergence of greenhouse gases and the associated global warming. In today's Europe, the pressure is put mainly on automotive companies, to search for sources other than conventional fuels. At present, there is a big boom in the area of electric cars powered from the power network – the vast majority of electric energy, however, is produced in fossil fuel power plants. The second option of possible development in this area is the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. This technology, whether it be direct combustion as in diesel or eventually in petrol engines, or energy production in a hydrogen fuel cell, is certainly the way suitable for further development. With hydrogen as a fuel, it is possible to reduce pollutants almost to zero. The article presents a comparison of electricity generated using renewable and non-renewable sources and focuses on a closer understanding of the myth of the dangers connected with using hydrogen as fuel. Furthermore, compares conventional fuels to re-newable hydrogen technologies and focuses on the hydrogen combustion engines together with hydrogen storage and application in transportation.

Keywords

  • Hydrogen
  • hydrogen fuel cell
  • hydrogen combustion
  • renewable energy
Open Access

Engineer 4.0 in a metallurgical enterprise

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 172 - 182

Abstract

Abstract

Along with the growing dynamics of technological changes in production in the perspective of the development of 4.0 industry, there are changes in the structure of employment and professional qualifications of employees. The development of cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) entails an increase in the demand for engineers. Industry 4.0 is a new megatrend in production. In the second decade of this century, the concept of Industry 4.0 gained importance thanks to the policy of the German government and gradually penetrated into other countries. Enterprises, in addition to traditional production organization, started realizing of cyberphysical production lines as well as smart factories. New production solutions based on IT and robotics technologies using IoT the need for new employee competencies. On the market there is still a growing demand for IT specialists, and there is a demand for engineers 4.0, that is employees with new technical competences, able to control and service CPPS.This publication attempts to present the scope of changes in employment and presents the profile of professional qualifications of engineer 4.0 in a metallurgical enterprise. The list of new skills for an engineer 4.0 employed in an metallurgical enterprise is presented in this article by authors.

Keywords

  • industry 4.0
  • engineer 4.0
  • metallurgical enterprise
Open Access

Inter gases as one of the ways to reduce the risk of endogenous fires in hard coal mines

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 183 - 190

Abstract

Abstract

Endogenous fires are currently one of the most common threats in hard coal mines. They are very dangerous for the staff and can cause very large economical loses. Therefore, the scope of activities aimed at limiting the possibility of these fires and reduction of their consequences constantly broadens. The paper presents the results of research aimed at determining the efficiency of the ventilation system applied to reduce the risk of endogenous fires in the areas where inert gases are used. The calculations included carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Inertisation is one of the ways of combating endogenous fires. This method is included in the developed comprehensive method to reduce the possibility of these fires. The results obtained and the method developed and later applied, should have a significant impact on improving the safety of operations in the scope of occurrence and consequences of endogenous fires.

Keywords

  • air flow
  • longwall complex
  • inert gases
Open Access

Solutions for supporting the management of network technical systems in the aspect of the Smart City concept

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 191 - 202

Abstract

Abstract

The article discusses issues related to the management of the city's network infrastructure in the context of the Smart City idea. There was presented an overview of the possibilities and needs of supporting the maintenance management of network technical systems, as components of technical urban infrastructure. Issues related to the meaning of numerical models of various types of networks in comprehensive city management were discussed. Against this background, gaps and challenges in the implementation of modern technologies have been shown on the example of an important category of network technical systems such as water supply system

Keywords

  • maintenance management
  • network technical system
  • smart city
  • water supply system
Open Access

The analysis of shaft sinking progress as a function of technical and organizational parameters

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 203 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

In underground mines, where the deposit is located at considerable depths, mining shafts are key excavations. The project of making the deposit available requires selection of appropriate shaft sinking technology adapted to geological and hydrological conditions and natural hazards. Shafts can be made using the classic drilling and blasting technique or mechanical cutting of the shaft face. Mechanical cutting requires the use of a mining machine, which together with machines for loading and hauling the output and protecting the side walls is a shaft complex. Drilling using mechanized shaft complexes allows for high efficiency and work safety. To improve the efficiency of drilling, it is particularly important to implement many processes in parallel. The article presents an analysis of the progress of shaft sinking with a mechanized complex as a function of technical and organizational parameters. The analysis concerned a new generation cutting shaft complex, developed for the needs of shaft sinking for one of the Polish hard coal mines. The calculations were carried out for a shaft with a maximum diameter of 9.5 m and a total depth of 830 m. The article briefly presents a new solution for the shaft complex. There are presented results of calculations of daily drilling progress and total time of shaft sinking for the developed working technology of this complex. The efficiency of the complex depends on many factors related to technical parameters of individual machines and devices forming the complex and organizational parameters, hence a multi-variant analysis was carried out.

Keywords

  • shaft complex
  • performance analysis
  • shaft sinking
  • daily progress
  • mechanical cutting
Open Access

Patterning as a way to identify and assessment of the exploitation policy of selected technical systems

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 213 - 223

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a method of solving the problem of the assessment of the exploitation policy. It was assumed that the evaluation of the exploitation policy can and should be carried out with reference to defined universal patterns. This allows comparability of such a policy, as well as making decisions regarding necessary changes. Therefore, there was proposed a way of building pattern models of the exploitation policy and there was carried out the assessment of the exploitation policies of the selected technical network systems, based on the selected taxonomic model.

Keywords

  • exploitation policy
  • technical network system
  • taxonomy
  • exploitation decision-making process
Open Access

Implementation of the SMED method in a production enterprise

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 224 - 233

Abstract

Abstract

The increase in competitiveness between production enterprises results from the contemporary conditions of the global economy. Technical progress, globalization and constantly increasing customer requirements contribute to the development of organizational and business management techniques. The improvement of production is currently accompanied by modern tools and methods of Lean Manufacturing concepts such as: SMED, 5S, Kaiznen, Kanban, Poka-Yoke etc. The SMED method plays an important role in improving production processes. It also affects the reduction of losses and wastage, increase of value for stakeholders (especially for customers), as well as better motivation for employees. Thanks to the SMED method, the production company is able to achieve greater efficiency and productivity, as well as the high quality of products and services provided.

Keywords

  • SMED
  • Lean Manufacturing
  • production management
  • production process
Open Access

The conception of selected Technology Assessment method and the possibilities of TS application

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 234 - 242

Abstract

Abstract

The article addresses the problem of population aging and the related problem of using and maintenance of technical means by the older persons. Such persons, as participants of the exploitation process, experience various problems. Therefore, the challenge is to adapt technical means to the needs of older people. The response of engineers to this challenge may be the technology assessment, which assumes the adoption of various achievements in the field of philosophy, sociology, psychology or other social sciences as tools for their work. The proposal for such a solution is presented in the article and it is an indicator that allows you to draw conclusions about the real needs of older people. The effect of calculations with its use is the Wi characterization in the function of the human age. This characteristic complements the characteristics obtained on the basis of empirical data about the behavior of a technical mean. The article also presents the possibilities of using the discussed indicator. These include: improving the quality of life of users of technical means at various ages through rational management of company resources, improving the quality of life of users through user-centered design, exclusion from exploitation by the elderly technical means/their components based on social technology assessment, analysis and optimization of needs people of different ages, modeling the movement of older people, elimination of social exclusion of older people, improving the quality of life of people of all ages through appropriate knowledge management.

Keywords

  • technology assessment
  • older persons
  • exploitation
  • designing
  • management
Open Access

The impact of implemented management systems on the safety culture of work in production

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 243 - 252

Abstract

Abstract

Safety culture is one of the most important elements of the organization's culture. Its role is particularly important in production plants, where employees are more often exposed to threats related to the working environment. The safety culture is strongly associated with the organizational level of the enterprise, which is largely influenced by the implemented management systems. The article presents the results of the evaluation of work safety culture in production plants with different functioning management systems, including the so-called turquoise organization. A relationship between the organizational level of the plant and the culture of occupational safety was stated.

Keywords

  • safety culture
  • management systems
  • turquoise organization
Open Access

Impact of selected lean management tools on work safety

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 253 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

The ongoing processes in production enterprises must be constantly monitored and improved in order to meet the requirements of growing competition in the technical, technological and organizational aspects. Also, customer expectations regarding the quality of products are constantly increasing, while maintaining the lowest manufacturing costs. The analysis of the course of operations, exploited resources, materials, recharges, as well as the identification of risk and losses are the basis for improvement and optimization, leading to increase in process efficiency, as well as optimisation of organization and working conditions. There are many management methods and tools used to streamline processes. Currently, Lean Management (LM) is one of the most popular and effective concepts in this field. The primary goal of LM is to eliminate activities that do not bring added value in processes, while saving resources and meeting customer requirements. The Lean concept offers many useful methods and tools that, when properly selected in the organization, implemented and used, can bring the intended results. The aim of the article is to present the results of the analysis of potentially accidental events in a production enterprise based on the identification of key threats occurring in the plant. Based on Lean Management methods and tools implemented in the company, their impact on work safety was determined.

Keywords

  • Lean Management tools
  • improvement
  • work safety
Open Access

Methodology of conformity assessment with the essential requirements for electrotechnical products

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 265 - 273

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a methodical approach to conformity assessment related to the introduction, putting into service on the European market of electrical or electrotechnical products. The developed methodology can be an effective control tool, allowing to assess whether all activities within the conformity assessment performed by the manufacturer have been carried out. The aim of the study is to present the possibility of adapting the developed methodology of approach to the assessment of compliance with the essential requirements in industrial conditions. In the case of the industry being analyzed, the basis for conformity assessment is the requirements set out in the New Approach Directives. The essential requirements set out in New Approach Directives must be met if the product is placed on the market or putting into service. The article presents the implementation of the conformity assessment process based on harmonized standards with the directives related to the product in question. The application of harmonized standards in the conformity assessment process allowed the manufacturer to use the so-called principles of presumption of conformity, referred to in the Act on conformity assessment systems and market surveillance.

Keywords

  • conformity assessment methodology
  • essential requirements
  • electrotechnical products
Open Access

Work ergonomics in a service enterprise – case study

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 274 - 282

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the results of research carried out as part of a project aimed at integrated ergonomic diagnosis of the work environment in terms of improvement of technical and psychosocial conditions. The studies carried out so far included small and medium-sized enterprises located in the Śląskie (Silesian) Voivodeship. The research included manual work as well as administrative (mental) work. Ergonomic diagnosis was carried out by direct observation of employees at the workplace using tools such as the Ergonomic Control Test CET II and the Dortmund List. This article presents the results of ergonomic analysis at the hairdresser workplace.

Keywords

  • ergonomics
  • ergonomic diagnosis
  • work station
  • hairdresser
Open Access

The importance of prediction methods in industry 4.0 on the example of steel industry

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 283 - 295

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the importance of the prediction of steel production in industry 4.0 along with forecasts for steel production in the world until 2022. In the last two decades, the virtual world has been increasingly entering production. Today’s manufacturing systems are becoming faster and more flexible – easily adaptable to new products. Steel is the basic structural material (base material) for many industrial sectors. Industries such as automotive, mechanical engineering, construction and transport use steel in their production processes. Prediction methods in cyber-physical production systems are gaining in importance. The task of prediction is to reduce risk in the decision-making process. In autonomous manufacturing systems in industry 4.0 the role of prediction is more active than passive. Forecasts have the following functions: warning, reaction, prevention, normative, etc. The growing number of customized solutions in industry 4.0 translates into new challenges in the production process. Manufacturers must respond to individual customer needs more quickly, be able to personalize products while reducing energy and resource costs (saving energy and resources can increase the product competitiveness). The modern market becomes increasingly unpredictable. Production prediction under such conditions should be carried out continuously, which is possible because there is more empirical data and access to data. Information from the ongoing monitoring of the company’s production is directly transferred to the prospective evaluation. In view of the contemporary reciprocal use of automation, data processing, data exchange and manufacturing techniques, there is greater access to external data, e.g. on production in different target markets and with global, international, national, regional coverage. Companies can forecast in real time, and the forecasts obtained give the possibility to quickly change their production. Industry 4.0 (from the business objective point of view) aims to provide companies with concrete economic benefits – primarily by reducing manufacturing costs, standardizing and stabilizing quality, increasing productivity. Industry 4.0 aims to create a given autonomous smart factory system in which machines, factory components and services communicate and cooperate with each other, producing a personalized product. The aim of this paper is to present new challenges in the production processes in relation to steel production, as well as to prepare and present forecasts of (quantitative) steel production of territorial, global and temporary range until 2022, taking into account the applied production technologies (BOF and EAF). For forecasting purposes, classic trend models and adaptive trend models were used. This methodology was used to build separate forecasts for: total steel production, BOF steel and EAF steel. Empirical data is world steel production in 2000-2017 (annual production volume in Mt).

Keywords

  • steel production
  • Industry 4.0
  • prediction
  • forecasts
Open Access

The method of improvement of quality of life of older people as users and maintainers of technical means in Smart City

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 296 - 304

Abstract

Abstract

The article attempts to identify opportunities to improve the quality of life of older people by implementing smart city solutions. Literature research presented in it contains answers to the following questions: what is planned to be achieved as a result of the smart city concept implementation, why this concept is implemented, who participates in this task and how to achieve the expected result of smart city implementation. In response to the first and second question, attention is paid to the needs of older people – smart city solutions exploitators, associated with a specific type of transport, which must be met to achieve quality of life at a certain level. The answer to the third question is an indication of the participants, such as designers, constructors, producers of solutions in the area of the smart city, as well as their exploiters. The last ones may be customers of transport organizations (passengers, users of the water supply system), users (drivers) and maintainers of transport means. Participants in transport systems – local authorities responsible for its functioning as well as the management of the transport company – may also participate in the discussed participation. Tasks that should be given to individual participants in the process of meeting needs have been defined. It was also pointed out that their role should not focus solely on technical aspects, but social participation is of particular importance, on which the quality of life of people in society depends.

Therefore, the selected method of technology assessment, which together with engineering methods should condition the course of the process of satisfying the needs aimed at obtaining the desired solutions in the smart city area, have been indicated. The result of the conducted research is the concept of an indicator that supports the process of technology assessment in the smart city area. Along with this concept, examples of questions which may form the basis of calculations with its use are listed.

Keywords

  • smart city
  • quality of life
  • older people
  • technology assessment
Open Access

SME’s versus “Industry 4.0”: extended case study based on results of initial research in Polish conditions

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 305 - 314

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper the author tries to present and analyze some results of his researches focused on surveying the expectations and needs as well as troubles and difficulties concerned with confronting small and medium size enterprises (SME’s) with various challenges generated by the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0). After presenting in the first part of the paper a listing and some subjective discussion of general as well as particular problems of implementing the Industry 4.0 approach in practice of the contemporary industry, in next chapters the adopted assumptions as well as obtained results of the SME’s oriented survey are introduced together with a short presentation and discussion of used methods and tools of research. The cases of Polish SME’s are illustrated by results of investigating a limited group of firms, which fulfil SME criteria and are located and operating in Metropolis GZM (Silesian Voivodeship, Poland). In the last part of the papers the author summarizes obtained results and proposes some next steps of further research.

Keywords

  • SME’s
  • Industry 4.0 connected challenges
  • expectations and needs
  • consultancy and support
Open Access

Prospects for development movement in the industry concept 4.0

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 315 - 326

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present the perspective of maintenance development in the context of the 4.0 industry concept. One of the factors that determine the safe and effective use of machines and devices is the properly maintained maintenance process. Correct performance of activities as part of this process requires the use of appropriate knowledge and experience from people implementing this process. Very important in this process is, above all, good organization of work and technical knowledge. The very rapid development of technology causes that teams dealing with the maintenance of traffic in enterprises must systematically acquire knowledge and optimize their activities. Effective exploitation of all types of devices is a set of rules, rules, procedures and actions, the main aspect of which is a human being. Knowledge resources should have appropriate substantive content adapted to the recipient. The article presents a modern solution supporting the maintenance process, taking into account the tools supporting the activities of human teams. The basic principles of maintenance in the enterprise covering machine monitoring systems, production management and management of information on the state of the machine park are discussed. There are also examples of the use of selected tools in the mining industry. Reference was also made to the prospects and directions of the development of maintenance in relation to the fourth industrial revolution.

Keywords

  • maintenance
  • operation
  • industry 4.0
  • ERP systems
  • CMMS systems
Open Access

The concept of hard coal mine in the perspective of Industry 4.0

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 327 - 335

Abstract

Abstract

For the Polish economy, hard coal is the basic raw material for the production of electricity and heat, guaranteeing energy security. To ensure safe and effective work in underground mines, the most modern technical solutions are implemented. Innovative achievements of production automation are increasingly being used. Introduction of the Industry 4.0 concept elements is an opportunity for: improvement of coal exploitation processes, use of IT tools supporting decision-making processes and ensuring real-time process management. However, the specificity of the mining environment poses many barriers, for example limitations resulting from geology, extent and volume of excavations, device mobility and telecommunications. The article describes mining threats and limitations as well as the current technical condition of Polish mining. The latest trends in mining development are described in line with the ideas of the fourth industrial revolution. The main goal of the article is to analyze the feasibility of implementing Industry 4.0 concept solutions for underground mining. The analysis was performed with a tabular descriptive method, based on the conducted mining documentation, own observations, surveys and literature research. The indicated limitations and recommendations developed can serve as a guide to further scientific research and implementations in this area.

Keywords

  • analysis
  • coal mine
  • industry 4.0
  • mining machine and devices
  • new technology
Open Access

Statistical process control and CAQ systems as a tools assuring quality in the automotive industry

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 336 - 344

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present the case study of implementation of the example CAQ system, which allows to meet the requirements of IATF 16949:2016 and the VDA 6.1 standards in the field of statistical process control (SPC). The foundations of the CAQ systems concept and their specific requirements, especially for companies operating in the automotive industry, for which modern CAQ tools are necessary, in the described case based on the LEAN-QS program, are presented. The article presents the observations and results of the analysis of the operation of the quality assurance system in a company that is a supplier of car parts. One of the modules of the LEAN-QS program was implemented there, which makes it possible to meet the requirements of a certified quality management system. The effectiveness of the presented tool was demonstrated, allowing to meet industry requirements while minimizing resources necessary for supervision and proper implementation of the quality management system process, which in this case is the SPC.

Keywords

  • IATF 16949:2016 standard
  • VDA
  • SPC
  • CAQ
  • automotive industry
  • process stability and capability
  • control chart
Open Access

Evaluation of Tooth No. 2674 and ESCO Tooth 3D models

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 345 - 355

Abstract

Abstract

The expense of restoring of excavators cutting bodies is increasing these days in the Most Basin area, primarily the replacement of tooth because of abrasion expense. The main reason is the complicated geological situation of overburden rocks, first of all the occurrence of sands and hard structures in the overburden cuts rocks in the deep horizons of open pit mines. Description of the first part of the strength analysis and applicability of 3D models of the tooth serial number 2673 and the tooth ESCO Super V39VYH with application of finite element method (FEM) is the main topic of this article. This research is the stage of the project based on optimisation of the shape and primarily the material used during manufacturing of the mining and ground machines cutting bodies in concrete mining conditions. The research is going on with application of new knowledge in the field of material engineering, metallurgy, cryogenic and nanotechnology. The main target is the increasing of mining process efficiency and the mining machines key node lifetime. Research of the excavator tooth parameters described in this article is very important part of the research.

Keywords

  • 3D model
  • tooth
  • bucket
  • cutting bodies
  • mining machine
Open Access

Research of overburden rocks geological parameters impact to the excavators cutting bodies abrasion in the Most basin conditions

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 356 - 366

Abstract

Abstract

The Brown Coal Research Institute started the solving of the research project based on the optimisation of the shape and material of ground and mining machines in 2018. This research is necessary for increasing of efficiency of mining process in conditions of the Most Basin. The very important part of the research was the geological characteristic of the Most Basin main mining localities. Evaluation of the geological situation of the Bílina, Vršany and Libouš mines (mining of the overburden rocks in the ČSA mine finished) is the first stage of the solving of the project described in this article. The occurrence of sandy strata and the parameters of hard rocks are the most important parameters. The most important used laboratory analyses were the content of crystalline quartz, content of siderite, content of calcite and compressive strength. The location of the overburden cuts with similar mining conditions in different mining localities, very important for need of future research, is described in the end of this article.

Keywords

  • Excavator
  • cutting bodies
  • geology
  • hard structures
  • sands
Open Access

Mathematical model for calculating fuel consumption in real effect weather for a vehicle vessel

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 367 - 374

Abstract

Abstract

During ship operation, one of the most important tasks is forecasting the ocean route. One of the criteria for forecasting is the minimum fuel consumption. Fuel consumption and associated emissions are also very important for other criteria. In common use, as well as in various publications, the results of calculations of fuel consumption obtained from simplified algorithms are presented. The article presents a mathematical model for calculating fuel consumption for a floating vessel in various weather conditions. In this model different criteria for controlling the propulsion engine were used by changing the fuel dose. The results of the calculations included include: fuel consumption, power of the propulsion engine and operating speed of the ship in varying weather conditions

Keywords

  • fuel consumption
  • engine control criteria
  • engine power
  • ship speed
  • wind and wave effects
Open Access

Properties of alloys in the crystallization interval

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 375 - 381

Abstract

Abstract

In the contribution the high growth of viscosity and initial stress of alloys in the crystallization interval with undercooling against of the liquidus follows from theoretical analysis. At these alloys used in pressure die casting the permissible undercooling that does not endanger pressure die casting operation. The application of the device for die temperature regulation ensures the safe operation.

Keywords

  • viscosity
  • initial stress
  • alloys for pressure die casting
  • undercooling
  • device for die temperature regulation
Open Access

Hazard analysis and risk assessment in metal cutting process

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 382 - 391

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with the issue of occupational health and safety in a metalworking manufacturing organization. Hazard and threat have been defined when cutting metal materials with a band saw. We assessed the risk by an extended point method, where we determined the risk rate values. In most cases of sawmill work, we found a “moderate” or “negligible” risk. The highest, ‘serious’ risk we found in a possible electric shock. In this case, we have also taken the necessary actions. As a precaution, we have also proposed safety measures for other threats.

Keywords

  • safety
  • threat
  • risk rate
  • manufacturing plant
  • band saw

Part 2: Social Sciences, Editor: Patrycja Hąbek

Open Access

STEM-oriented high schools and dual enrolment as effective methods for promoting engineering programs

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 392 - 398

Abstract

Abstract

The paper describes the different methods of promoting science, technology, engineering and mathematics to meet the demand for a qualified workforce in those areas. STEM-oriented (Science Technology Engineering Mathematics) high schools combined with dual enrollment opportunities have been proven to be effective methods of promoting engineering careers. The article also discusses the typical curriculum of STEM high schools as well as the selection of college courses for the dual enrollment option.

Keywords

  • dual enrollment
  • STEM schools
  • engineering careers
  • technical preparation
  • promoting science
Open Access

The role of the EFQM model in precepting quality in Polish enterprises

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 399 - 406

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to determine the degree of Polish companies’ maturity applying for Quality of the Year certification based on the EFQM excellence model. The study was conducted using a questionnaire (CAWI – computer assisted web interview). Company to get certified Quality of the Year had to get in the field of self-assessment carried out by the EFQM model at least 56%. Results and its analysis showed that among the 49 analyzed large companies seeking Quality of the Year certification only 3 achieved a value of 80% and above. Among the 10 companies selected for analysis only 3 has taken improvement actions. Based on the study carried out, the authors demonstrated that the analyzed companies that have been certified Quality of the Year are mature and conscious of quality, continuously improve, and apply modern techniques (traditional quality management tools, new quality management tools, quality management methods). The factors that determine the maturity and the awareness of the company in terms of quality are the elements included in the EFQM model (1. Leadership. 2. Vision, strategy, policy. 3. Human resources management. 4. Resource Management. 5. Process Management. 6. Customer satisfaction. 7. Employee satisfaction. 8. Cooperation with the environment. 9. Achievements companies in relation to the goals), as well as the awareness and the ability to use modern techniques.

Keywords

  • quality of the Year certificate
  • EFQM
  • self-assessment
  • quality
  • improvement
Open Access

Transformation of data and information into knowledge in the production enterprise and their use in the sales department

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 407 - 415

Abstract

Abstract

Modern age is associated with massive deployment of information technology in businesses that are forced to work with a wealth of data and information. Businesses are trying to make the most effective use of knowledge not only from real data, but they often have to rely on their employees' knowledge. Increasing fluctuation of employees and the resulting outflow of knowledge will force businesses to increasingly make use of knowledge management. The article describes the process of looking for the context and the implications of selecting contracts to transform them into information and knowledge on the example of a real business. The verified process is transformed into a design of knowledge system, which results in the recommended generated rule for selecting sales department orders to ensure profitability for the business.

Keywords

  • industrial engineering
  • knowledge
  • knowledge system
  • sales department
Open Access

Computer aided design of logistics systems

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 416 - 424

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents a possibility of applying modelling and simulation in logistic processes management and design in production enterprises. New functionalities of the modelling software, especially those connected with analysing material and information flow, are already necessary for designing and evaluating complex logistic systems. The possibilities of modelling and simulation with the use of the CET Table system are illustrated by practical example.

Keywords

  • logistic processes
  • digital factory
Open Access

An integrative Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and lean-based approach for development of new complex products

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 425 - 434

Abstract

Abstract

An effective and efficient New Product Development (NPD) and implementation process is crucial for creation of competitive advantage for each company. Due to this fact, companies are more and more often looking for methods and tools for improvement of NPD processes. The paper deals with an integrated Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and lean approach to NPD. The individual stages of the NPD process are predisposed to different degrees to the use of MBSE and Lean. The research conducted shows that the use of advanced MBSE and lean tools and techniques in the development of new products is not widespread. There is a room for future research.

Keywords

  • model based systems engineering (MBSE)
  • Lean management
  • New product development (NPD)
Open Access

Multi-criteria decision method for choosing ERP cloud systems in Industry 4.0 era

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 435 - 446

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the issues covering the modern ERP cloud systems for manufacturing companies within the currently developed concept Industry 4.0. In this approach, research problems arose as to which parameters and characteristics of ERP cloud systems are the most important from the point of view of manufacturing companies as well as how the process of choosing an ERP system should be conducted. In addition, mutual relationships between these parameters were established. In the article, a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) was used to assess these characteristics. The Decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique was chosen for this assessment. The article can be useful to people interested in modern IT solutions in the production industries.

Keywords

  • MCDA
  • DEMATEL
  • ERP
  • cloud system
  • Industry 4.0
Open Access

Assessment of sustainable production practices. The case of company from metal industry

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 447 - 456

Abstract

Abstract

Production activities of companies significantly impact society and environment. It is high time to re-think many of industry’s practices and to change manufacturing processes in a way that allow the company to increase its competitiveness, while at the same time help to achieve sustainable growth. The sustainable production is a concept that is able to strengthen such transformation. The aim of this paper is to present empirical evidence of implementation of the sustainable production practices in the selected company from metal industry. The principles of the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production (LCSP) are used as a model to assess the main aspects of sustainable production in practices of the company. Empirical evidence shows that in each of the analysed issue some practices have been implemented, however there were identified some deficit areas. Therefore, at the end of the paper the improvements actions were proposed that could be implemented in the analysed company as part of the sustainable management programme.

Keywords

  • sustainable development
  • sustainable production
  • manufacturing of aluminium profiles
  • Lowell Center for Sustainable Production principles
Open Access

Lean Manufacturing in the ceramic industry

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 457 - 466

Abstract

Abstract

The problem of implementation of the concept of Lean Manufacturing in the ceramic industry, based on the enterprise manufacturing ceramic fancy goods, is presented in this article. The most important information about the concept of Lean Manufacturing, as well as the current state of implementation of the Lean concept in the ceramic industry. Major barriers in the implementation of the Lean concept are identified and selected instruments of the Lean concept applied in individual areas of the waste elimination are assigned.

Keywords

  • Lean Manufacturing
  • ceramic industry
  • waste
Open Access

Product analysis using value stream mapping

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 467 - 475

Abstract

Abstract

The sales market requires both the highest quality of offered goods and satisfactory prices for the buyer. In addition to the reliability of the important aspects are also the time of order fulfillment, reliability, readiness to act around the clock, and service of sold goods after their sale. In the production and confection of conveyor belts, the priority is a customer who, having strictly defined product requirements, also has individually focused goals. To meet these aspects, you need to look after the product both during its production and after. The products of this industry are specific, so that they can be used, after sales service is often required to be installed at the customer and possible actions to maintain their good condition during operation. The article analyzes selected production processes of transmission belts to identify disturbances. The analysis uses the value stream mapping method. Then, improvement methods were proposed.

Keywords

  • value stream mapping
  • production process
Open Access

Hierarchical EPC models – review of model linking concepts

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 476 - 486

Abstract

Abstract

EPC models are currently among the leading standard business process modelling solutions. As long as the rules for creating flat EPC models are explicit and raise no significant doubts, when it comes to linking models of different types, the literature of the subject delivers diversified solutions. Four such alternative concepts that can be applied in this respect have been identified and described in this article. They have been used to link EPC models for four cases proposed. These cases differ as to the degree of complexity, and they represent different kinds of potential links between processes being modelled. Using the concepts in question with reference to the cases defined has made it possible to identify situations in which it is impossible to link models, or when it raises certain doubts. What has also been proposed is that one of the concepts identified in the paper can be modified in such a manner that using it to link EPC models does not pose any problem in any of the cases discussed.

Keywords

  • business process modelling
  • EPC
  • BPM
  • linking of process models
Open Access

Barriers of implementation of pro-environmental activities in supply chains

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 487 - 495

Abstract

Abstract

A constant growth of interest in GSCM on the part of business practitioners creates a need to develop research within this field. One of the basic questions is why, despite numerous evidence of benefits resulting from the use of pro-environmental practices in supply chains, the level of GSCM implementations is low. Therefore, the aim of the paper is determining which barriers constitute the greatest obstacles on the way of GSCM implementation. The studies were conducted among Polish market entities. Therefore, they were prepared in the part of Europe in which there are not many studies regarding this topic. As a result of the conducted studies, it was determined that the greatest barriers for pro-environmental practices are included in the field which concerns knowledge and cost. What is more, the importance of particular barriers was specified in the paper.

Keywords

  • barriers implementation of green supply chains
  • CSR
  • environmental protection
  • logistics
Open Access

5S system as a manner for improving working conditions and safety of work in a production company

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 496 - 507

Abstract

Abstract

Currently entrepreneurs have the opportunity to use many methods and tools that support production management, quality and improvement of working safety. A method worth paying attention to is the 5S method, which brings order and discipline to the workplace. The article presents practical aspects of the implementation of the 5S method using five simple steps that give the real benefits to a company. Particularly the specific solutions that can be applied at every stage of the implementation of the 5S method is indicated. Also innovative ways of conducting internal audits are presented. In addition, a model for the implementation of the 5S concept was proposed, which supports maintaining the healthy standards at a high level. It has been pointed out that the implementation of 5S rules must be constantly monitored and improved. Therefore, supervision and motivational activities are particularly important, especially from the side of leaders and managers represented an organization.

Keywords

  • 5S system
  • audit
  • efficiency improvement
  • model
  • workplace
Open Access

Determinants of the safety of railway passengers using the internet in Poland

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 508 - 514

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a solution for a free Internet rail passenger used on trains. Attention is paid to the state of connections their security for users. The article contains the results of a survey conducted among two hundred railway passengers and instructional activities aimed at maintaining network security.

Keywords

  • Internet on the train
  • Internet
  • free Wi-fi on the train
Open Access

Personal data protection as an element of management security of information

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 515 - 522

Abstract

Abstract

The article highlights the importance of information and the need to manage its security. The importance of information requires a systemic approach, which is why the standards of conduct for managing information security have been approximated. The results of research on information security management in the field of personal data protection have been presented. The research was carried out on a sample of 110 enterprises. The survey was extended to include an analysis of one of the companies subject to the survey. In the following, the case study regarding the production enterprise was also presented.

Keywords

  • security of information
  • personal data
  • security management
Open Access

Circular economy in companies: an analysis of selected indicators from a managerial perspective

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 523 - 535

Abstract

Abstract

The circular economy (CE) concept is now gaining increasing attention and it is being widely explored as a promising path to sustainable development. CE implementation requires extensive activities needed for the transition from the linear to the circular model and suitable tools to support decision-makers in setting adequate goals and monitoring the effects of undertaken actions. Considering the need for research on effective CE performance evaluation, this article presents a comprehensive analysis and comparison of CE indicators available at the micro level. Based on a systematic literature review, 19 such CE indicators were identified. The indicators were assessed and compared using the Delphi methodology. The suitability of each metric for a comprehensive evaluation of CE performance was analyzed taking account of the criteria related to analytical opportunities and potential application of CE indicators, together with the criteria related to organizational and operational issues of practical application of CE indicators. The usefulness of CE indicators for practical implementation in companies was determined from a managerial perspective, with particular emphasis on supporting the decision-making process. The comparison of CE indicators presented in this article is intended to facilitate the choice of a specific metric depending on the company’s needs and on the possibilities of its application.

Keywords

  • circular economy
  • circular economy indicators
  • micro level
  • company
Open Access

Circular economy performance of EMAS organizations in Poland based on an analysis of environmental statements

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 536 - 547

Abstract

Abstract

The transition from the linear model to the circular economy (CE) model is not an easy task and it requires constant monitoring of the achieved effects. Taking this fact into consideration, in January 2018 the European Union (EU) set 10 indicators to monitor and evaluate the main elements of the circular economy in the EU and its Member States. The list of indicators is short and it is based on the use of current available data. The monitoring results are intended to constitute the basis for setting new priorities towards the long-term goal of the circular economy. In case of companies there is still no framework for monitoring the effects of circular economy at micro level. In practice, various indicators for circularity assessment at micro level are available, but each of the indicators evaluates the complexity of circular economy to different extent. For this reason, there is a need to create a framework for monitoring the circular economy at company level, which would also be based on information already collected by the companies for the preparation of various environmental reports. Therefore, this article presents the results of review 66 environmental statements, which are prepared and updated annually by organizations participating in the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) system in Poland. On this basis, it was determined what circular economy information are already collected and reported by the companies and which information can be included in the framework of circular economy monitoring at company level in the future.

Keywords

  • EMAS
  • environmental statement
  • circular economy
Open Access

New technologies and quality of customer service – case study

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 548 - 558

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, companies are increasingly forced to fight against competition. The number of competitors on the market is constantly growing, and customer’s demands on the products offered by the companies are increasing. The role of customers on the market has changed in recent years. Customers are more active than before, i.e. they started to actively co-create value, so they stopped being passive to the purchase process. Organizations that make appropriate use of the increase in customer activity can count on large benefits for the company. One of the methods to increase competitiveness is continuous introduction of new technologies based on the Internet, which recently resulted in easier cooperation between customers and suppliers, making and settling transactions, coordination of orders in the supply chain thanks to e.g. solution supporting electronic exchange of EDI documents. Therefore, the development of information and communication technologies has significantly influenced the development of organization through its improvement. This paper presents the importance of new technologies for the customer that improve the process of its service in a selected clothing sales network in Poland.

Keywords

  • new technologies
  • customer
  • improvement
  • quality of service
  • questionnaire surveys
Open Access

Economic and social aspects of merger of territorial self-government units – Polish experience

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 559 - 569

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with the issues of merging Local Government Units (LGU). Based on Polish experience related to the unique process of integration of the city and the commune of Zielona Góra in 2015, the authors present the most important economic and social aspects of combining local government units. The article also presents important elements of the process of creating a new functional area from two different neighbouring local government units. Moreover, the exemplified research results, carried out in 2018 among residents of the commune annexed to the city, concerning the economic and social effects of the integration process, made available by the City of Zielona Góra for the purposes of this article, were presented and discussed there. At the same time, a synthetic evaluation of this process was carried out in the light of the documents analysed in the article that form the basis of the merger process and presented results of empirical research.

Keywords

  • integration of territorial self-government units
  • connection of the city and the commune
  • effects of integration of the country's administrative units
  • integration processes
  • economics of integration
Open Access

Development of green jobs in the res sector in the Visegrad Group countries

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 570 - 588

Abstract

Abstract

The transformation process towards a low-emission, green economy implies an increase in the demand for new professions and competences. Quality changes of jobs under the influence of the idea of sustainable development are both an opportunity and a challenge for both countries and individual regions. Green jobs are created as a result of the development of eco-innovation, new environmentally friendly technologies. The development of green jobs is particularly noticeable in the renewable energy sector. The article presents the results of empirical research in the field of analyzing the number of green jobs in the renewable energy sector in the Visegrad Group. In order to identify and determine the nature and changes in the impact of individual factors on the development of green jobs, panel regression was used – a model with fixed effects. The dependent variable was the relative number of green jobs per million inhabitants in 2000-2016.

Keywords

  • renewable energy
  • green jobs
  • V4
  • Visegrad Group
  • energy market
Open Access

A study of challenges in entrepreneurship development and potential role of public sector in mitigating them – evidence from Kurdistan region of Iraq

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 589 - 599

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identify the main challenges faced by entrepreneurs in the Kurdistan region of Iraq and possible ways that regional public sector can take for the purpose of improving entrepreneurship development. Given the importance of entrepreneurs in the economic development and job creation, it’s critical to understand what drives entrepreneurs to become less effective and to investigate how the implementation of “entrepreneurship ecosystem” practiced by public policy makers mitigates these challenges. As a result, authors strive to answers two main questions in this paper: “What are the factors that hold back entrepreneurs in the Kurdistan Region to start their own businesses? “And “What measures the local government can take to mitigate such challenges?” The methodology used in this study is quantitative approach, involving a survey questionnaire. This paper consists of four parts: After the introduction, second part will provide empirical data on challenges facing entrepreneurs in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Discussion and analysis of the findings are done in the third part. Finally, in the last part, paper will offer conclusions by summarizing the key findings.

Keywords

  • entrepreneurship
  • economy
  • entrepreneurship ecosystem
  • market
  • finance
Open Access

Smart solutions for improving working processes. A research experiences from dental clinic

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 600 - 611

Abstract

Abstract

Smart solutions become an indispensable attribute of today life giving the opportunity to act in a significantly efficient way in both public and especially private sector. For this reason the “smart approach” to business is a crucial component in a process of building the advantage in a competitive services market. Taking this challenging aspect of companies’ activities, the authors present a concept of implementing a smart solutions for improving working conditions in a private dental clinic. Particularly, the smart solutions are based on integration of knowledge management constructs and information and communication technologies (ICT) that enable users to use knowledge contextually and in intuitive way. As a final part of the paper, three different practical ideas were discussed and evaluated.

Keywords

  • smart solution
  • dental clinic
  • working conditions
  • ICT
  • knowledge management
Open Access

Designing technology in the age of digitalization: needs for technology assessment and ethics

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 612 - 623

Abstract

Abstract

Technology research, design, and development is confronted with rapidly advancing digitalization in two respects: (1) digitally supported or enabled technologies need to be designed and developed, and (2) the respective R&D processes themselves will happen in a much more digitalized environment. Technology design generally must take into account the values involved and possible consequences of the development and use of the resulting products, services, and systems. In a digitalizing environment, the issue of values gains even more significance because more and more close and intimate interfaces between humans and technology have to be shaped. Designing human-machine interfaces is not only a functional issue but touches upon ethical questions such as the distribution of responsibility, but also upon anthropological issues related to the human self-image and ideas about future society as well. In the respective research, design, and development processes, value-laden issues such as control, privacy, empathy, responsibility, and accountability must be taken into account beyond technical issues of efficiency and reliability. The need for designing and shaping digital future technologies involving ethics and technology assessment will be demonstrated by three examples: future industrial production and the fields of self-driving cars and care robots. Value sensitive design and responsible research and innovation will be introduced as approaches to deal with these challenges.

Keywords

  • digitalization
  • technology design
  • technology assessment
  • ethics
  • responsible research and innovation
Open Access

Assessment of the project teams’ communication skills in the automotive industry

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 624 - 632

Abstract

Abstract

The implementation of a new product in serial production is a very important element in the company’s functioning. Manufacturers of cars and complex subassemblies have been working for years according to the established standards of designing and implementing new products for serial production. A great emphasis is placed here on the formal side. In addition, the supplier must prove that has sufficient resources to achieve these objectives. And this is what customers verify during system, product, process and potential audits. However, despite formal approval of parts from the supplier, as well as confirmation of design and production capabilities, defective parts or components are sometimes assembled in cars and distributed to the market. Why does this happen? The answer can often be found not in the forms, manuals or procedures, but in the way the project teams communicate and cooperate with each other and with other organizations. This is confirmed by the research results presented in this paper, which show that one of the key issues requiring improvement during production implementations is not the knowledge of specialists, problems with the machine park or plant equipment, but increasing the ability of specialists and managers to effectively communicate and cooperate. It shows how important is the problem of risk assessment related to the project team for the project within the quality planning. According to the authors, the new model of project plan should be enriched with the risk assessment related to communication in the project team, as a part of the feasibility assessment of the whole project.

Keywords

  • project
  • project team
  • communication
  • automotive industry
61 Articles

Part 1: Engineering and Technology, Editor: Witold Biały

Open Access

Improvement of grinding technology with vortex cooling of steels that are liable to crack propagation

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 9 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

Complexity of grinding process and phenomena entailing it not always allow reaching required technological results, especially while machining surfaces of parts made of tough-to-machine steels, which are liable to crack propagation. Cracks can occur in these parts during grinding due to considerable temperature difference along the section, which can cause formation of high temporary internal tensile stress. Application of cooled air in grinding process exerts considerable influence over temperature decrease in cutting area. In addition, it depends not only on heat exchange, but also on properties of cold air flow. The greatest effect of temperature decrease can be reached by injection of cold air flow in cutting area with implementation of vortex effect, which occurs in swirl flow of compressed air originating in vortex tube. The study of heat generation during machining by tools with discontinuous cutting surface and vortex air cooling was carried out. Obtained thermophysical parameters of vortex air cooling (increase in speed of stream flowing, expansion degree, share of cold stream and decrease in humidity of air stream) allow reducing heat density due to growth of cooling effect in grinding zone. On the base of experimental studies we developed recommendations for choice of optimal grinding modes by tool with discontinuous cutting surface and vortex air cooling of flat parts made of steels being liable to cracking.

Keywords

  • steel
  • grinding
  • temperature
  • vortex cooling
  • wheel
Open Access

Computational equation discovery of relationships between container ship fuel consumption and hull and propeller fouling phenomena

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 24 - 30

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, when we try to automatize all activities, there is a growing demand for energy in all forms. Increasingly we reach for new energy sources that can be problematic to store or to transport, owing to their toxicity or explosive propensity. The article examines the issues of determining danger zones occurring as a result of liquefied natural gas (LNG) release. The range of danger zones caused through LNG release depends on a multitude of factors. The basic parameter that needs to be considered is a type of the released substance as well as the manner of its release. The range of a danger zone is determined by, inter alia, the concentration of a released substance and the atmospheric conditions existing at the time when depressurization occurs. The article analyses the problem of the range of danger zones in a function of wind speed and surface roughness with a defined value of Pasquill stability for various LNG types, starting with pure methane, and ending with the so-called LNG-heavy. The difficulty of the task becomes more complicated when the analysed surface over which a depressurization incident takes place involves water. The problem deepens even further when the analysed substance possesses explosive properties. Then, apart from regular substance concentration, upper and lower flammability limit ought to be considered. Calculations were conducted with DNV-Phast software, version 7.11.

Keywords

  • LNG chemical composition
  • explosion risk area
  • upper and lower explosion limit
Open Access

Application of selected methods of multicriterial assessment in the selection process of equipment used at the extraction face – case study

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 31 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

Making decisions is a process that involves taking into account n acceptable variants of undertaken actions in view of m adopted assessment criteria and selecting the optimal variant (optimal variants). Due to the number of alternatives being assessed and the number of considered criteria, more and more frequently mathematical methods are used in this process. Basing on the example involving the selection of a mechanized longwall complex, the article presents the application of selected multicriteria methods: in the case of quantitative features – Hellwig's development measure method, and in the case of qualitative features – Promethee II method. In the case of Hellwig's development measure method, equipment variants were interpreted as points w in the multidimensional space, and then the distances between them and the point Po (perfect solution) were determined. In the case of the Promethee II method (discrete multicriteria decision support method), the equipment variants were compared with each other in pairs, which made it possible to determine the so-called net flows Φ(i). The obtained synthetic values mi and Φ(i) allowed to build rankings of equipment variants (objects) and to indicate the optimal variant.

Keywords

  • making decisions
  • the multicriteria methods
Open Access

Diagnostic benchmarks on dynamic characteristics of thin-walled marine damaged structures

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 38 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

Among structural health monitoring (SHM) methods of thin-walled structures, a vibrodiagnostic method is one of the most promising. The accelerometer recorded responses provide diagnostic information that requires mathematical processing to extract the essential dynamic characteristics. The authors have been looking for new parameters - diagnostic benchmarks which can be applied to non-destructive, automatic testing of thin-walled marine structures (especially their welded joints) like ship hulls. All characteristics have been based on recorded data generated during the vibration tests of welded joints with and without failures. For this purpose, the authors proposed method based on: FFT windowing analysis, benchmark with using 2D or 3D time – frequency dynamic characteristics and the determination of damping decrement in function of time. The work presents the algorithm and exemplary results obtained from the application of proposed method to several selected sample plates with different type of welds.

Keywords

  • thin-walled structures
  • welded joints
  • SHM
  • spectrum analysis
  • damping decrement
Open Access

Analysis of ergonomic work equipment lowering the static load based on trend of development of work activities

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 53 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

The issue of static load arises as a result of the optimization of activities and the natural development of industry towards digitization, implementation of technologies in the production process and elimination of manual work. Due to the inherent need to facilitate or completely replace manual work with machines, human activity focuses on the development, design, and management of these machines. This article presents the results of a survey of the representation of professions with the primary seated position in the selected industrial enterprise in comparison with the most frequently registered professions in specific sectors. Likewise, the authors also deal with the elimination of static loads arising from the performance of sedentary work through ergonomic chairs offered on the Slovak market. The paper presents the results of the market analysis focusing on the parameters of office chairs, which are marked as ergonomic or health. The findings of these surveys serve as one of the starting points for the design of a complex dynamic office workplace, which the authors deal with in research at the Department of Industrial Engineering at the University of Zilina.

Keywords

  • industrial engineering
  • ergonomics
  • office work
  • static load
  • ergonomic chairs
Open Access

Embedded image processing on Raspberry Pi connected to the industrial control system

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 62 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

This paper deals with the image processing from the camera for Raspberry Pi connected with real-time communication network to the control system (PLC). The low time delay for receiving and sending commands, data, etc. is very important in the automating production processes. This can be provided by industrial real-time network based on Ethernet. The Ethernet POWERLINK, which is supported on B&R PLCs, is one of them. It is a simple solution for a variety of applications because the POWERLINK is publicly available as the open source. Connecting the PLC and Raspberry Pi with Ethernet POWERLINK opens up many applications in industrial automation. For example, image data obtained using a camera attached to Raspberry Pi can be used to sense image of manufacturing processes and products and evaluate their quality in industrial automation. This article focuses on an image processing unit and the PLC system with CPU redundancy used in the industrial application. Vision systems are often used to improve products quality control, saving costs and time.

Keywords

  • image processing
  • PLC
  • measurement
  • Raspberry Pi
  • real-time
  • embedded system
  • openPOWERLINK
Open Access

Analysis of selected technologies of precious metal recovery processes

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 72 - 80

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the technologies of obtaining precious metals as a byproduct in the processing of copper concentrates in KGHM POLSKA MIEDŹ SA and in the processing of zinc and lead concentrates in Huta Cynku “MIASTECZKO ŚLĄSKIE”. Discussed technologies for recovery of silver from secondary raw materials such as: used silver catalysts, scrapped electronic devices, defective transistors, scrap of silver-plated glasses, used solutions used for processing photosensitive materials are discussed. Jewellery and tableware and technical coatings in electronics and electrical engineering. The high reflectivity of the light rays from the silver surface was used in the production of special reflectors and mirrors, and chemical resistance in the construction of apparatus (such as equipment resistant to molten hydroxide alkali metals).

Keywords

  • plant
  • recovery
  • analysis
  • quality
Open Access

Comparative analysis of soil magnetic susceptibility and concentration of rare earth elements in soil of problematic areas

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 81 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

Soil contamination with rare earth metals (REE) can have both direct and indirect connection with industrial activity and ore-exploration. In the studies conducted so far, the presence of rare earth elements in coal seams, coal combustion waste as well as fly ash was found. It is important that detailed studies of the REE content in soil were not carried out in Poland. Until now, in a few studies, a high content of cerium and lanthanum was found in relation to the average content of the torn ones in the world. This work focuses on the areas under the influence of the industry associated with the extraction and combustion of hard coal, but also with other types of industry. Analyzes of REE content in soil were conducted in selected areas of the Upper Silesian Industrial Region and Norway, located near the Bjornevatn mine. In study areas, soil samples were collected and used for chemical and magnetometric measurements. Firstly, concentrations of REE were determined, and after that soil samples were used to measure soil magnetic susceptibility. Finally, statistical analyses were performed in order to check the correlation between REE concentrations in soil and soil magnetic susceptibility.

Keywords

  • soil pollution
  • rare earth elements
  • magnetometry
  • magnetic susceptibility
  • industrial areas
Open Access

Analysis of the similarity of hard coal mines in terms of the number of dangerous incidents caused by the activation of natural hazards

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 91 - 100

Abstract

Abstract

Hard coal mines and mining enterprises involved in hard coal exploitation in the area of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe) are characterised by the presence of natural hazards typical of this type of exploitation. These hazards include the risks related to methane, coal dust explosion, endogenous fires, as well as rock burst and caving of roof rocks. The article presents the results of a taxonomic analysis aimed at determining the similarity of hard coal mines and mining enterprises in Poland in terms of the dangerous incidents caused by the risks related to methane, coal dust explosion, endogenous fires, as well as rock burst and caving of roof rocks. The analysis was carried out for the 2008-2018 data and encompassed a total of 26 hard coal mines and mining enterprises located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The analysis was performed using the k-means method of non-hierarchical clustering. The main objective of the article was to determine homogenous groups (clusters) of mines exhibiting the greatest similarity in terms of dangerous incidents caused by the activation of natural hazards in the years 2008-2018. These data can be successfully used for the development of preventive measures and risk analyses for these enterprises.

Keywords

  • coal mine
  • natural hazards
  • cluster analysis
  • taxonomic methods
  • analysis of similarity
Open Access

Assessment of the physical load of the waterjet operator using the G. Lehmann method

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 101 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Basic parameter characterizing the body's workload (in particular physical work) is the energy expenditure, which determines the amount of energy used to perform a specific job (in kcal or kJ). The purpose of this work was to determine the energy expenditure at the station of a water-cutting machine using the tabular-timing method according to G. Lehmann. As part of the author's own research, the position of the waterjet operator was described, taking into account the basic hazards present in the work environment and the requirements regarding occupational health and safety. The paper also presents the results of the energy expenditure assessment and their analysis, which allowed to propose corrective and preventive actions.

Keywords

  • Lehmann's method
  • energy expenditure
  • physical load
  • ergonomic diagnosis
  • water-cutting operator
Open Access

Influences on plasma cutting quality on CNC machine

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 108 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

This article discusses plasma cutting technology and its influences on the quality of the resulting cut. Plasma or a plasma arch consists of positive and negatively charged particles, excited and neutral atoms and molecules. As it contains free particles, it is electrically conductive and thus subject to the effects of the electrical and magnetic field. The basis of CNC machine design is described in the article, which has at least 3 axes (x, y, z), but there are also more technologically demanding applications, such as pipe cutting, profile and cutting using chamfer to prepare surfaces for welding, where these multi-axis devices are frequently used. The principle of plasma cutting and the plasma cutting phase is described in this article. The materials that can be divided by a plasma arc are described in detail, including graphs displaying the dependence of sheet thickness on the cutting speed. The article describes and lists the gases that are used in plasma-arc cutting, such as oxygen, argon, hydrogen and nitrogen. Important components of plasma cutting technology are the parameters that can be adjusted and set before the cutting so that the cut is of good quality. The most comprehensive chapter deals with the influences that affect plasma cutting quality. Cutting quality can be influenced by a number of factors. Everything starts with the proper choice of a CNC machine and a plasma source. The quality also depends on the expertise and experience of the machine operator and the setting of the plasma cutting parameters. This issue of influences on the plasma cutting quality is based on long-term experience in the field of the thermal cutting process.

Keywords

  • torch
  • plasma arc
  • cutting parameters
Open Access

Chain of events application in workplaces in safety engineering

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 118 - 125

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the hazard identification process as a sequence of events that leads to accident and/or material loss at the workplace. The chain of events can be described as an orderly set of circumstances conducive to the emergence of a threat. The article presents an analysis of the application of elements of the events theory to the identification of hazards in an industrial plant on the example of a gas explosion. The circumstances supporting the emergence of a gas explosion hazard were identified by determining the direct and indirect causes of the event and the main conditions leading to the event (loss). Also indicated is the cause of gas explosion hazard, which is the initiating factor in the chain of events.

Keywords

  • chain of events
  • sequence of events
  • hazard identification
  • security deficits
Open Access

General overview of maintenance strategies – concepts and approaches

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 126 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents a literature review of maintenance strategies formulation. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of different published concepts of maintenance strategies, distinguish the most common approaches to this issue and find a general tendency in strategies classification. Furthermore, the review is aimed to point out the importance of unscheduled downtime which might occur during equipment runtime in a production plant. The paper classifies the existing maintenance concepts and emphasizes key assumptions of the analysed strategies. The literature study and carried out analysis could be useful to find appropriate reliability assurance methods. In addition, defined maintenance approaches might help in decision making process in a company. The paper is a comprehensive overview of discussed strategies, which indicates the most frequent maintenance models in the analysed papers.

Keywords

  • maintenance
  • maintenance strategies
  • maintenance management
  • predictive maintenance
Open Access

Smart City idea: use of people's opinions on the environmental threats for intelligent management of the city

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 140 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

Managing the natural environment in the city is an important element of city management. Smart city authorities should take into account the opinion of residents about the comfort of living in the urban environment management strategy. A very important element of the natural environment in the city is air quality, which significantly affects the comfort of living in the city. The article presents surveys of opinions of the residents of a selected city in Silesia in Poland. The respondents' knowledge on the sources of air pollution in the city, the perceived health effects resulting from polluted atmospheric air and the expectations of residents towards the city authorities were examined using the anonymous questionnaire method. Residents' behavior in the situation of increased air pollution was also examined. On the basis of surveys, prophylactic pro-ecological activities were identified with the highest degree of acceptance of the local community as potential directions of urban environment management. The implementation of such activities, taking into account the opinions and preferences of the residents, is part of the co-management of the intelligent city.

Keywords

  • smart city
  • atmospheric air pollution
  • urban environment management
  • air quality monitoring
Open Access

Integrated sustainable freight transport system for city multi-floor manufacturing clusters

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 151 - 160

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to present the integrated sustainable freight transport system dedicated for city clusters. The presented concept and calculation model is the result of a broader study on the effectiveness of production and transport systems in urban areas. The integrated sustainable freight transport system described in this paper serves multi-floor manufacturing clusters and therefore meets two efficiency requirements: technological integration and process sustainability. The integration of in-house transport system servicing multi-floor manufacturing building and supply chain deliveries to/from logistic node is based on efficient use of Intelligent Reconfigurable Trolleys (IRTs). The calculation model of integrated freight transport system allows for the quantitative matching of key elements of the transport system to the multi-floor manufacturing cluster needs. Properly selected and functionally integrated elements of proposed transport system allows to minimize losses and reduce the negative impact of transport on the environment.

Keywords

  • multi-floor manufacturing
  • transport system
  • supply chain management
Open Access

Hydrogen fuel in transportation

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 161 - 171

Abstract

Abstract

In the time, when the whole world is increasingly engaged in environmental protection, it is necessary to come up with a fuel alternative for transportation, which means generally abandon the use of non-renewable resources (petrol, oil and fossil fuel in general), as they are one of the many factors influencing the emergence of greenhouse gases and the associated global warming. In today's Europe, the pressure is put mainly on automotive companies, to search for sources other than conventional fuels. At present, there is a big boom in the area of electric cars powered from the power network – the vast majority of electric energy, however, is produced in fossil fuel power plants. The second option of possible development in this area is the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. This technology, whether it be direct combustion as in diesel or eventually in petrol engines, or energy production in a hydrogen fuel cell, is certainly the way suitable for further development. With hydrogen as a fuel, it is possible to reduce pollutants almost to zero. The article presents a comparison of electricity generated using renewable and non-renewable sources and focuses on a closer understanding of the myth of the dangers connected with using hydrogen as fuel. Furthermore, compares conventional fuels to re-newable hydrogen technologies and focuses on the hydrogen combustion engines together with hydrogen storage and application in transportation.

Keywords

  • Hydrogen
  • hydrogen fuel cell
  • hydrogen combustion
  • renewable energy
Open Access

Engineer 4.0 in a metallurgical enterprise

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 172 - 182

Abstract

Abstract

Along with the growing dynamics of technological changes in production in the perspective of the development of 4.0 industry, there are changes in the structure of employment and professional qualifications of employees. The development of cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) entails an increase in the demand for engineers. Industry 4.0 is a new megatrend in production. In the second decade of this century, the concept of Industry 4.0 gained importance thanks to the policy of the German government and gradually penetrated into other countries. Enterprises, in addition to traditional production organization, started realizing of cyberphysical production lines as well as smart factories. New production solutions based on IT and robotics technologies using IoT the need for new employee competencies. On the market there is still a growing demand for IT specialists, and there is a demand for engineers 4.0, that is employees with new technical competences, able to control and service CPPS.This publication attempts to present the scope of changes in employment and presents the profile of professional qualifications of engineer 4.0 in a metallurgical enterprise. The list of new skills for an engineer 4.0 employed in an metallurgical enterprise is presented in this article by authors.

Keywords

  • industry 4.0
  • engineer 4.0
  • metallurgical enterprise
Open Access

Inter gases as one of the ways to reduce the risk of endogenous fires in hard coal mines

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 183 - 190

Abstract

Abstract

Endogenous fires are currently one of the most common threats in hard coal mines. They are very dangerous for the staff and can cause very large economical loses. Therefore, the scope of activities aimed at limiting the possibility of these fires and reduction of their consequences constantly broadens. The paper presents the results of research aimed at determining the efficiency of the ventilation system applied to reduce the risk of endogenous fires in the areas where inert gases are used. The calculations included carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Inertisation is one of the ways of combating endogenous fires. This method is included in the developed comprehensive method to reduce the possibility of these fires. The results obtained and the method developed and later applied, should have a significant impact on improving the safety of operations in the scope of occurrence and consequences of endogenous fires.

Keywords

  • air flow
  • longwall complex
  • inert gases
Open Access

Solutions for supporting the management of network technical systems in the aspect of the Smart City concept

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 191 - 202

Abstract

Abstract

The article discusses issues related to the management of the city's network infrastructure in the context of the Smart City idea. There was presented an overview of the possibilities and needs of supporting the maintenance management of network technical systems, as components of technical urban infrastructure. Issues related to the meaning of numerical models of various types of networks in comprehensive city management were discussed. Against this background, gaps and challenges in the implementation of modern technologies have been shown on the example of an important category of network technical systems such as water supply system

Keywords

  • maintenance management
  • network technical system
  • smart city
  • water supply system
Open Access

The analysis of shaft sinking progress as a function of technical and organizational parameters

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 203 - 212

Abstract

Abstract

In underground mines, where the deposit is located at considerable depths, mining shafts are key excavations. The project of making the deposit available requires selection of appropriate shaft sinking technology adapted to geological and hydrological conditions and natural hazards. Shafts can be made using the classic drilling and blasting technique or mechanical cutting of the shaft face. Mechanical cutting requires the use of a mining machine, which together with machines for loading and hauling the output and protecting the side walls is a shaft complex. Drilling using mechanized shaft complexes allows for high efficiency and work safety. To improve the efficiency of drilling, it is particularly important to implement many processes in parallel. The article presents an analysis of the progress of shaft sinking with a mechanized complex as a function of technical and organizational parameters. The analysis concerned a new generation cutting shaft complex, developed for the needs of shaft sinking for one of the Polish hard coal mines. The calculations were carried out for a shaft with a maximum diameter of 9.5 m and a total depth of 830 m. The article briefly presents a new solution for the shaft complex. There are presented results of calculations of daily drilling progress and total time of shaft sinking for the developed working technology of this complex. The efficiency of the complex depends on many factors related to technical parameters of individual machines and devices forming the complex and organizational parameters, hence a multi-variant analysis was carried out.

Keywords

  • shaft complex
  • performance analysis
  • shaft sinking
  • daily progress
  • mechanical cutting
Open Access

Patterning as a way to identify and assessment of the exploitation policy of selected technical systems

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 213 - 223

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a method of solving the problem of the assessment of the exploitation policy. It was assumed that the evaluation of the exploitation policy can and should be carried out with reference to defined universal patterns. This allows comparability of such a policy, as well as making decisions regarding necessary changes. Therefore, there was proposed a way of building pattern models of the exploitation policy and there was carried out the assessment of the exploitation policies of the selected technical network systems, based on the selected taxonomic model.

Keywords

  • exploitation policy
  • technical network system
  • taxonomy
  • exploitation decision-making process
Open Access

Implementation of the SMED method in a production enterprise

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 224 - 233

Abstract

Abstract

The increase in competitiveness between production enterprises results from the contemporary conditions of the global economy. Technical progress, globalization and constantly increasing customer requirements contribute to the development of organizational and business management techniques. The improvement of production is currently accompanied by modern tools and methods of Lean Manufacturing concepts such as: SMED, 5S, Kaiznen, Kanban, Poka-Yoke etc. The SMED method plays an important role in improving production processes. It also affects the reduction of losses and wastage, increase of value for stakeholders (especially for customers), as well as better motivation for employees. Thanks to the SMED method, the production company is able to achieve greater efficiency and productivity, as well as the high quality of products and services provided.

Keywords

  • SMED
  • Lean Manufacturing
  • production management
  • production process
Open Access

The conception of selected Technology Assessment method and the possibilities of TS application

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 234 - 242

Abstract

Abstract

The article addresses the problem of population aging and the related problem of using and maintenance of technical means by the older persons. Such persons, as participants of the exploitation process, experience various problems. Therefore, the challenge is to adapt technical means to the needs of older people. The response of engineers to this challenge may be the technology assessment, which assumes the adoption of various achievements in the field of philosophy, sociology, psychology or other social sciences as tools for their work. The proposal for such a solution is presented in the article and it is an indicator that allows you to draw conclusions about the real needs of older people. The effect of calculations with its use is the Wi characterization in the function of the human age. This characteristic complements the characteristics obtained on the basis of empirical data about the behavior of a technical mean. The article also presents the possibilities of using the discussed indicator. These include: improving the quality of life of users of technical means at various ages through rational management of company resources, improving the quality of life of users through user-centered design, exclusion from exploitation by the elderly technical means/their components based on social technology assessment, analysis and optimization of needs people of different ages, modeling the movement of older people, elimination of social exclusion of older people, improving the quality of life of people of all ages through appropriate knowledge management.

Keywords

  • technology assessment
  • older persons
  • exploitation
  • designing
  • management
Open Access

The impact of implemented management systems on the safety culture of work in production

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 243 - 252

Abstract

Abstract

Safety culture is one of the most important elements of the organization's culture. Its role is particularly important in production plants, where employees are more often exposed to threats related to the working environment. The safety culture is strongly associated with the organizational level of the enterprise, which is largely influenced by the implemented management systems. The article presents the results of the evaluation of work safety culture in production plants with different functioning management systems, including the so-called turquoise organization. A relationship between the organizational level of the plant and the culture of occupational safety was stated.

Keywords

  • safety culture
  • management systems
  • turquoise organization
Open Access

Impact of selected lean management tools on work safety

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 253 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

The ongoing processes in production enterprises must be constantly monitored and improved in order to meet the requirements of growing competition in the technical, technological and organizational aspects. Also, customer expectations regarding the quality of products are constantly increasing, while maintaining the lowest manufacturing costs. The analysis of the course of operations, exploited resources, materials, recharges, as well as the identification of risk and losses are the basis for improvement and optimization, leading to increase in process efficiency, as well as optimisation of organization and working conditions. There are many management methods and tools used to streamline processes. Currently, Lean Management (LM) is one of the most popular and effective concepts in this field. The primary goal of LM is to eliminate activities that do not bring added value in processes, while saving resources and meeting customer requirements. The Lean concept offers many useful methods and tools that, when properly selected in the organization, implemented and used, can bring the intended results. The aim of the article is to present the results of the analysis of potentially accidental events in a production enterprise based on the identification of key threats occurring in the plant. Based on Lean Management methods and tools implemented in the company, their impact on work safety was determined.

Keywords

  • Lean Management tools
  • improvement
  • work safety
Open Access

Methodology of conformity assessment with the essential requirements for electrotechnical products

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 265 - 273

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a methodical approach to conformity assessment related to the introduction, putting into service on the European market of electrical or electrotechnical products. The developed methodology can be an effective control tool, allowing to assess whether all activities within the conformity assessment performed by the manufacturer have been carried out. The aim of the study is to present the possibility of adapting the developed methodology of approach to the assessment of compliance with the essential requirements in industrial conditions. In the case of the industry being analyzed, the basis for conformity assessment is the requirements set out in the New Approach Directives. The essential requirements set out in New Approach Directives must be met if the product is placed on the market or putting into service. The article presents the implementation of the conformity assessment process based on harmonized standards with the directives related to the product in question. The application of harmonized standards in the conformity assessment process allowed the manufacturer to use the so-called principles of presumption of conformity, referred to in the Act on conformity assessment systems and market surveillance.

Keywords

  • conformity assessment methodology
  • essential requirements
  • electrotechnical products
Open Access

Work ergonomics in a service enterprise – case study

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 274 - 282

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the results of research carried out as part of a project aimed at integrated ergonomic diagnosis of the work environment in terms of improvement of technical and psychosocial conditions. The studies carried out so far included small and medium-sized enterprises located in the Śląskie (Silesian) Voivodeship. The research included manual work as well as administrative (mental) work. Ergonomic diagnosis was carried out by direct observation of employees at the workplace using tools such as the Ergonomic Control Test CET II and the Dortmund List. This article presents the results of ergonomic analysis at the hairdresser workplace.

Keywords

  • ergonomics
  • ergonomic diagnosis
  • work station
  • hairdresser
Open Access

The importance of prediction methods in industry 4.0 on the example of steel industry

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 283 - 295

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the importance of the prediction of steel production in industry 4.0 along with forecasts for steel production in the world until 2022. In the last two decades, the virtual world has been increasingly entering production. Today’s manufacturing systems are becoming faster and more flexible – easily adaptable to new products. Steel is the basic structural material (base material) for many industrial sectors. Industries such as automotive, mechanical engineering, construction and transport use steel in their production processes. Prediction methods in cyber-physical production systems are gaining in importance. The task of prediction is to reduce risk in the decision-making process. In autonomous manufacturing systems in industry 4.0 the role of prediction is more active than passive. Forecasts have the following functions: warning, reaction, prevention, normative, etc. The growing number of customized solutions in industry 4.0 translates into new challenges in the production process. Manufacturers must respond to individual customer needs more quickly, be able to personalize products while reducing energy and resource costs (saving energy and resources can increase the product competitiveness). The modern market becomes increasingly unpredictable. Production prediction under such conditions should be carried out continuously, which is possible because there is more empirical data and access to data. Information from the ongoing monitoring of the company’s production is directly transferred to the prospective evaluation. In view of the contemporary reciprocal use of automation, data processing, data exchange and manufacturing techniques, there is greater access to external data, e.g. on production in different target markets and with global, international, national, regional coverage. Companies can forecast in real time, and the forecasts obtained give the possibility to quickly change their production. Industry 4.0 (from the business objective point of view) aims to provide companies with concrete economic benefits – primarily by reducing manufacturing costs, standardizing and stabilizing quality, increasing productivity. Industry 4.0 aims to create a given autonomous smart factory system in which machines, factory components and services communicate and cooperate with each other, producing a personalized product. The aim of this paper is to present new challenges in the production processes in relation to steel production, as well as to prepare and present forecasts of (quantitative) steel production of territorial, global and temporary range until 2022, taking into account the applied production technologies (BOF and EAF). For forecasting purposes, classic trend models and adaptive trend models were used. This methodology was used to build separate forecasts for: total steel production, BOF steel and EAF steel. Empirical data is world steel production in 2000-2017 (annual production volume in Mt).

Keywords

  • steel production
  • Industry 4.0
  • prediction
  • forecasts
Open Access

The method of improvement of quality of life of older people as users and maintainers of technical means in Smart City

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 296 - 304

Abstract

Abstract

The article attempts to identify opportunities to improve the quality of life of older people by implementing smart city solutions. Literature research presented in it contains answers to the following questions: what is planned to be achieved as a result of the smart city concept implementation, why this concept is implemented, who participates in this task and how to achieve the expected result of smart city implementation. In response to the first and second question, attention is paid to the needs of older people – smart city solutions exploitators, associated with a specific type of transport, which must be met to achieve quality of life at a certain level. The answer to the third question is an indication of the participants, such as designers, constructors, producers of solutions in the area of the smart city, as well as their exploiters. The last ones may be customers of transport organizations (passengers, users of the water supply system), users (drivers) and maintainers of transport means. Participants in transport systems – local authorities responsible for its functioning as well as the management of the transport company – may also participate in the discussed participation. Tasks that should be given to individual participants in the process of meeting needs have been defined. It was also pointed out that their role should not focus solely on technical aspects, but social participation is of particular importance, on which the quality of life of people in society depends.

Therefore, the selected method of technology assessment, which together with engineering methods should condition the course of the process of satisfying the needs aimed at obtaining the desired solutions in the smart city area, have been indicated. The result of the conducted research is the concept of an indicator that supports the process of technology assessment in the smart city area. Along with this concept, examples of questions which may form the basis of calculations with its use are listed.

Keywords

  • smart city
  • quality of life
  • older people
  • technology assessment
Open Access

SME’s versus “Industry 4.0”: extended case study based on results of initial research in Polish conditions

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 305 - 314

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper the author tries to present and analyze some results of his researches focused on surveying the expectations and needs as well as troubles and difficulties concerned with confronting small and medium size enterprises (SME’s) with various challenges generated by the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0). After presenting in the first part of the paper a listing and some subjective discussion of general as well as particular problems of implementing the Industry 4.0 approach in practice of the contemporary industry, in next chapters the adopted assumptions as well as obtained results of the SME’s oriented survey are introduced together with a short presentation and discussion of used methods and tools of research. The cases of Polish SME’s are illustrated by results of investigating a limited group of firms, which fulfil SME criteria and are located and operating in Metropolis GZM (Silesian Voivodeship, Poland). In the last part of the papers the author summarizes obtained results and proposes some next steps of further research.

Keywords

  • SME’s
  • Industry 4.0 connected challenges
  • expectations and needs
  • consultancy and support
Open Access

Prospects for development movement in the industry concept 4.0

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 315 - 326

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present the perspective of maintenance development in the context of the 4.0 industry concept. One of the factors that determine the safe and effective use of machines and devices is the properly maintained maintenance process. Correct performance of activities as part of this process requires the use of appropriate knowledge and experience from people implementing this process. Very important in this process is, above all, good organization of work and technical knowledge. The very rapid development of technology causes that teams dealing with the maintenance of traffic in enterprises must systematically acquire knowledge and optimize their activities. Effective exploitation of all types of devices is a set of rules, rules, procedures and actions, the main aspect of which is a human being. Knowledge resources should have appropriate substantive content adapted to the recipient. The article presents a modern solution supporting the maintenance process, taking into account the tools supporting the activities of human teams. The basic principles of maintenance in the enterprise covering machine monitoring systems, production management and management of information on the state of the machine park are discussed. There are also examples of the use of selected tools in the mining industry. Reference was also made to the prospects and directions of the development of maintenance in relation to the fourth industrial revolution.

Keywords

  • maintenance
  • operation
  • industry 4.0
  • ERP systems
  • CMMS systems
Open Access

The concept of hard coal mine in the perspective of Industry 4.0

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 327 - 335

Abstract

Abstract

For the Polish economy, hard coal is the basic raw material for the production of electricity and heat, guaranteeing energy security. To ensure safe and effective work in underground mines, the most modern technical solutions are implemented. Innovative achievements of production automation are increasingly being used. Introduction of the Industry 4.0 concept elements is an opportunity for: improvement of coal exploitation processes, use of IT tools supporting decision-making processes and ensuring real-time process management. However, the specificity of the mining environment poses many barriers, for example limitations resulting from geology, extent and volume of excavations, device mobility and telecommunications. The article describes mining threats and limitations as well as the current technical condition of Polish mining. The latest trends in mining development are described in line with the ideas of the fourth industrial revolution. The main goal of the article is to analyze the feasibility of implementing Industry 4.0 concept solutions for underground mining. The analysis was performed with a tabular descriptive method, based on the conducted mining documentation, own observations, surveys and literature research. The indicated limitations and recommendations developed can serve as a guide to further scientific research and implementations in this area.

Keywords

  • analysis
  • coal mine
  • industry 4.0
  • mining machine and devices
  • new technology
Open Access

Statistical process control and CAQ systems as a tools assuring quality in the automotive industry

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 336 - 344

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present the case study of implementation of the example CAQ system, which allows to meet the requirements of IATF 16949:2016 and the VDA 6.1 standards in the field of statistical process control (SPC). The foundations of the CAQ systems concept and their specific requirements, especially for companies operating in the automotive industry, for which modern CAQ tools are necessary, in the described case based on the LEAN-QS program, are presented. The article presents the observations and results of the analysis of the operation of the quality assurance system in a company that is a supplier of car parts. One of the modules of the LEAN-QS program was implemented there, which makes it possible to meet the requirements of a certified quality management system. The effectiveness of the presented tool was demonstrated, allowing to meet industry requirements while minimizing resources necessary for supervision and proper implementation of the quality management system process, which in this case is the SPC.

Keywords

  • IATF 16949:2016 standard
  • VDA
  • SPC
  • CAQ
  • automotive industry
  • process stability and capability
  • control chart
Open Access

Evaluation of Tooth No. 2674 and ESCO Tooth 3D models

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 345 - 355

Abstract

Abstract

The expense of restoring of excavators cutting bodies is increasing these days in the Most Basin area, primarily the replacement of tooth because of abrasion expense. The main reason is the complicated geological situation of overburden rocks, first of all the occurrence of sands and hard structures in the overburden cuts rocks in the deep horizons of open pit mines. Description of the first part of the strength analysis and applicability of 3D models of the tooth serial number 2673 and the tooth ESCO Super V39VYH with application of finite element method (FEM) is the main topic of this article. This research is the stage of the project based on optimisation of the shape and primarily the material used during manufacturing of the mining and ground machines cutting bodies in concrete mining conditions. The research is going on with application of new knowledge in the field of material engineering, metallurgy, cryogenic and nanotechnology. The main target is the increasing of mining process efficiency and the mining machines key node lifetime. Research of the excavator tooth parameters described in this article is very important part of the research.

Keywords

  • 3D model
  • tooth
  • bucket
  • cutting bodies
  • mining machine
Open Access

Research of overburden rocks geological parameters impact to the excavators cutting bodies abrasion in the Most basin conditions

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 356 - 366

Abstract

Abstract

The Brown Coal Research Institute started the solving of the research project based on the optimisation of the shape and material of ground and mining machines in 2018. This research is necessary for increasing of efficiency of mining process in conditions of the Most Basin. The very important part of the research was the geological characteristic of the Most Basin main mining localities. Evaluation of the geological situation of the Bílina, Vršany and Libouš mines (mining of the overburden rocks in the ČSA mine finished) is the first stage of the solving of the project described in this article. The occurrence of sandy strata and the parameters of hard rocks are the most important parameters. The most important used laboratory analyses were the content of crystalline quartz, content of siderite, content of calcite and compressive strength. The location of the overburden cuts with similar mining conditions in different mining localities, very important for need of future research, is described in the end of this article.

Keywords

  • Excavator
  • cutting bodies
  • geology
  • hard structures
  • sands
Open Access

Mathematical model for calculating fuel consumption in real effect weather for a vehicle vessel

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 367 - 374

Abstract

Abstract

During ship operation, one of the most important tasks is forecasting the ocean route. One of the criteria for forecasting is the minimum fuel consumption. Fuel consumption and associated emissions are also very important for other criteria. In common use, as well as in various publications, the results of calculations of fuel consumption obtained from simplified algorithms are presented. The article presents a mathematical model for calculating fuel consumption for a floating vessel in various weather conditions. In this model different criteria for controlling the propulsion engine were used by changing the fuel dose. The results of the calculations included include: fuel consumption, power of the propulsion engine and operating speed of the ship in varying weather conditions

Keywords

  • fuel consumption
  • engine control criteria
  • engine power
  • ship speed
  • wind and wave effects
Open Access

Properties of alloys in the crystallization interval

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 375 - 381

Abstract

Abstract

In the contribution the high growth of viscosity and initial stress of alloys in the crystallization interval with undercooling against of the liquidus follows from theoretical analysis. At these alloys used in pressure die casting the permissible undercooling that does not endanger pressure die casting operation. The application of the device for die temperature regulation ensures the safe operation.

Keywords

  • viscosity
  • initial stress
  • alloys for pressure die casting
  • undercooling
  • device for die temperature regulation
Open Access

Hazard analysis and risk assessment in metal cutting process

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 382 - 391

Abstract

Abstract

The paper deals with the issue of occupational health and safety in a metalworking manufacturing organization. Hazard and threat have been defined when cutting metal materials with a band saw. We assessed the risk by an extended point method, where we determined the risk rate values. In most cases of sawmill work, we found a “moderate” or “negligible” risk. The highest, ‘serious’ risk we found in a possible electric shock. In this case, we have also taken the necessary actions. As a precaution, we have also proposed safety measures for other threats.

Keywords

  • safety
  • threat
  • risk rate
  • manufacturing plant
  • band saw

Part 2: Social Sciences, Editor: Patrycja Hąbek

Open Access

STEM-oriented high schools and dual enrolment as effective methods for promoting engineering programs

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 392 - 398

Abstract

Abstract

The paper describes the different methods of promoting science, technology, engineering and mathematics to meet the demand for a qualified workforce in those areas. STEM-oriented (Science Technology Engineering Mathematics) high schools combined with dual enrollment opportunities have been proven to be effective methods of promoting engineering careers. The article also discusses the typical curriculum of STEM high schools as well as the selection of college courses for the dual enrollment option.

Keywords

  • dual enrollment
  • STEM schools
  • engineering careers
  • technical preparation
  • promoting science
Open Access

The role of the EFQM model in precepting quality in Polish enterprises

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 399 - 406

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to determine the degree of Polish companies’ maturity applying for Quality of the Year certification based on the EFQM excellence model. The study was conducted using a questionnaire (CAWI – computer assisted web interview). Company to get certified Quality of the Year had to get in the field of self-assessment carried out by the EFQM model at least 56%. Results and its analysis showed that among the 49 analyzed large companies seeking Quality of the Year certification only 3 achieved a value of 80% and above. Among the 10 companies selected for analysis only 3 has taken improvement actions. Based on the study carried out, the authors demonstrated that the analyzed companies that have been certified Quality of the Year are mature and conscious of quality, continuously improve, and apply modern techniques (traditional quality management tools, new quality management tools, quality management methods). The factors that determine the maturity and the awareness of the company in terms of quality are the elements included in the EFQM model (1. Leadership. 2. Vision, strategy, policy. 3. Human resources management. 4. Resource Management. 5. Process Management. 6. Customer satisfaction. 7. Employee satisfaction. 8. Cooperation with the environment. 9. Achievements companies in relation to the goals), as well as the awareness and the ability to use modern techniques.

Keywords

  • quality of the Year certificate
  • EFQM
  • self-assessment
  • quality
  • improvement
Open Access

Transformation of data and information into knowledge in the production enterprise and their use in the sales department

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 407 - 415

Abstract

Abstract

Modern age is associated with massive deployment of information technology in businesses that are forced to work with a wealth of data and information. Businesses are trying to make the most effective use of knowledge not only from real data, but they often have to rely on their employees' knowledge. Increasing fluctuation of employees and the resulting outflow of knowledge will force businesses to increasingly make use of knowledge management. The article describes the process of looking for the context and the implications of selecting contracts to transform them into information and knowledge on the example of a real business. The verified process is transformed into a design of knowledge system, which results in the recommended generated rule for selecting sales department orders to ensure profitability for the business.

Keywords

  • industrial engineering
  • knowledge
  • knowledge system
  • sales department
Open Access

Computer aided design of logistics systems

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 416 - 424

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents a possibility of applying modelling and simulation in logistic processes management and design in production enterprises. New functionalities of the modelling software, especially those connected with analysing material and information flow, are already necessary for designing and evaluating complex logistic systems. The possibilities of modelling and simulation with the use of the CET Table system are illustrated by practical example.

Keywords

  • logistic processes
  • digital factory
Open Access

An integrative Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and lean-based approach for development of new complex products

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 425 - 434

Abstract

Abstract

An effective and efficient New Product Development (NPD) and implementation process is crucial for creation of competitive advantage for each company. Due to this fact, companies are more and more often looking for methods and tools for improvement of NPD processes. The paper deals with an integrated Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and lean approach to NPD. The individual stages of the NPD process are predisposed to different degrees to the use of MBSE and Lean. The research conducted shows that the use of advanced MBSE and lean tools and techniques in the development of new products is not widespread. There is a room for future research.

Keywords

  • model based systems engineering (MBSE)
  • Lean management
  • New product development (NPD)
Open Access

Multi-criteria decision method for choosing ERP cloud systems in Industry 4.0 era

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 435 - 446

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the issues covering the modern ERP cloud systems for manufacturing companies within the currently developed concept Industry 4.0. In this approach, research problems arose as to which parameters and characteristics of ERP cloud systems are the most important from the point of view of manufacturing companies as well as how the process of choosing an ERP system should be conducted. In addition, mutual relationships between these parameters were established. In the article, a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) was used to assess these characteristics. The Decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique was chosen for this assessment. The article can be useful to people interested in modern IT solutions in the production industries.

Keywords

  • MCDA
  • DEMATEL
  • ERP
  • cloud system
  • Industry 4.0
Open Access

Assessment of sustainable production practices. The case of company from metal industry

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 447 - 456

Abstract

Abstract

Production activities of companies significantly impact society and environment. It is high time to re-think many of industry’s practices and to change manufacturing processes in a way that allow the company to increase its competitiveness, while at the same time help to achieve sustainable growth. The sustainable production is a concept that is able to strengthen such transformation. The aim of this paper is to present empirical evidence of implementation of the sustainable production practices in the selected company from metal industry. The principles of the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production (LCSP) are used as a model to assess the main aspects of sustainable production in practices of the company. Empirical evidence shows that in each of the analysed issue some practices have been implemented, however there were identified some deficit areas. Therefore, at the end of the paper the improvements actions were proposed that could be implemented in the analysed company as part of the sustainable management programme.

Keywords

  • sustainable development
  • sustainable production
  • manufacturing of aluminium profiles
  • Lowell Center for Sustainable Production principles
Open Access

Lean Manufacturing in the ceramic industry

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 457 - 466

Abstract

Abstract

The problem of implementation of the concept of Lean Manufacturing in the ceramic industry, based on the enterprise manufacturing ceramic fancy goods, is presented in this article. The most important information about the concept of Lean Manufacturing, as well as the current state of implementation of the Lean concept in the ceramic industry. Major barriers in the implementation of the Lean concept are identified and selected instruments of the Lean concept applied in individual areas of the waste elimination are assigned.

Keywords

  • Lean Manufacturing
  • ceramic industry
  • waste
Open Access

Product analysis using value stream mapping

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 467 - 475

Abstract

Abstract

The sales market requires both the highest quality of offered goods and satisfactory prices for the buyer. In addition to the reliability of the important aspects are also the time of order fulfillment, reliability, readiness to act around the clock, and service of sold goods after their sale. In the production and confection of conveyor belts, the priority is a customer who, having strictly defined product requirements, also has individually focused goals. To meet these aspects, you need to look after the product both during its production and after. The products of this industry are specific, so that they can be used, after sales service is often required to be installed at the customer and possible actions to maintain their good condition during operation. The article analyzes selected production processes of transmission belts to identify disturbances. The analysis uses the value stream mapping method. Then, improvement methods were proposed.

Keywords

  • value stream mapping
  • production process
Open Access

Hierarchical EPC models – review of model linking concepts

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 476 - 486

Abstract

Abstract

EPC models are currently among the leading standard business process modelling solutions. As long as the rules for creating flat EPC models are explicit and raise no significant doubts, when it comes to linking models of different types, the literature of the subject delivers diversified solutions. Four such alternative concepts that can be applied in this respect have been identified and described in this article. They have been used to link EPC models for four cases proposed. These cases differ as to the degree of complexity, and they represent different kinds of potential links between processes being modelled. Using the concepts in question with reference to the cases defined has made it possible to identify situations in which it is impossible to link models, or when it raises certain doubts. What has also been proposed is that one of the concepts identified in the paper can be modified in such a manner that using it to link EPC models does not pose any problem in any of the cases discussed.

Keywords

  • business process modelling
  • EPC
  • BPM
  • linking of process models
Open Access

Barriers of implementation of pro-environmental activities in supply chains

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 487 - 495

Abstract

Abstract

A constant growth of interest in GSCM on the part of business practitioners creates a need to develop research within this field. One of the basic questions is why, despite numerous evidence of benefits resulting from the use of pro-environmental practices in supply chains, the level of GSCM implementations is low. Therefore, the aim of the paper is determining which barriers constitute the greatest obstacles on the way of GSCM implementation. The studies were conducted among Polish market entities. Therefore, they were prepared in the part of Europe in which there are not many studies regarding this topic. As a result of the conducted studies, it was determined that the greatest barriers for pro-environmental practices are included in the field which concerns knowledge and cost. What is more, the importance of particular barriers was specified in the paper.

Keywords

  • barriers implementation of green supply chains
  • CSR
  • environmental protection
  • logistics
Open Access

5S system as a manner for improving working conditions and safety of work in a production company

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 496 - 507

Abstract

Abstract

Currently entrepreneurs have the opportunity to use many methods and tools that support production management, quality and improvement of working safety. A method worth paying attention to is the 5S method, which brings order and discipline to the workplace. The article presents practical aspects of the implementation of the 5S method using five simple steps that give the real benefits to a company. Particularly the specific solutions that can be applied at every stage of the implementation of the 5S method is indicated. Also innovative ways of conducting internal audits are presented. In addition, a model for the implementation of the 5S concept was proposed, which supports maintaining the healthy standards at a high level. It has been pointed out that the implementation of 5S rules must be constantly monitored and improved. Therefore, supervision and motivational activities are particularly important, especially from the side of leaders and managers represented an organization.

Keywords

  • 5S system
  • audit
  • efficiency improvement
  • model
  • workplace
Open Access

Determinants of the safety of railway passengers using the internet in Poland

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 508 - 514

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a solution for a free Internet rail passenger used on trains. Attention is paid to the state of connections their security for users. The article contains the results of a survey conducted among two hundred railway passengers and instructional activities aimed at maintaining network security.

Keywords

  • Internet on the train
  • Internet
  • free Wi-fi on the train
Open Access

Personal data protection as an element of management security of information

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 515 - 522

Abstract

Abstract

The article highlights the importance of information and the need to manage its security. The importance of information requires a systemic approach, which is why the standards of conduct for managing information security have been approximated. The results of research on information security management in the field of personal data protection have been presented. The research was carried out on a sample of 110 enterprises. The survey was extended to include an analysis of one of the companies subject to the survey. In the following, the case study regarding the production enterprise was also presented.

Keywords

  • security of information
  • personal data
  • security management
Open Access

Circular economy in companies: an analysis of selected indicators from a managerial perspective

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 523 - 535

Abstract

Abstract

The circular economy (CE) concept is now gaining increasing attention and it is being widely explored as a promising path to sustainable development. CE implementation requires extensive activities needed for the transition from the linear to the circular model and suitable tools to support decision-makers in setting adequate goals and monitoring the effects of undertaken actions. Considering the need for research on effective CE performance evaluation, this article presents a comprehensive analysis and comparison of CE indicators available at the micro level. Based on a systematic literature review, 19 such CE indicators were identified. The indicators were assessed and compared using the Delphi methodology. The suitability of each metric for a comprehensive evaluation of CE performance was analyzed taking account of the criteria related to analytical opportunities and potential application of CE indicators, together with the criteria related to organizational and operational issues of practical application of CE indicators. The usefulness of CE indicators for practical implementation in companies was determined from a managerial perspective, with particular emphasis on supporting the decision-making process. The comparison of CE indicators presented in this article is intended to facilitate the choice of a specific metric depending on the company’s needs and on the possibilities of its application.

Keywords

  • circular economy
  • circular economy indicators
  • micro level
  • company
Open Access

Circular economy performance of EMAS organizations in Poland based on an analysis of environmental statements

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 536 - 547

Abstract

Abstract

The transition from the linear model to the circular economy (CE) model is not an easy task and it requires constant monitoring of the achieved effects. Taking this fact into consideration, in January 2018 the European Union (EU) set 10 indicators to monitor and evaluate the main elements of the circular economy in the EU and its Member States. The list of indicators is short and it is based on the use of current available data. The monitoring results are intended to constitute the basis for setting new priorities towards the long-term goal of the circular economy. In case of companies there is still no framework for monitoring the effects of circular economy at micro level. In practice, various indicators for circularity assessment at micro level are available, but each of the indicators evaluates the complexity of circular economy to different extent. For this reason, there is a need to create a framework for monitoring the circular economy at company level, which would also be based on information already collected by the companies for the preparation of various environmental reports. Therefore, this article presents the results of review 66 environmental statements, which are prepared and updated annually by organizations participating in the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) system in Poland. On this basis, it was determined what circular economy information are already collected and reported by the companies and which information can be included in the framework of circular economy monitoring at company level in the future.

Keywords

  • EMAS
  • environmental statement
  • circular economy
Open Access

New technologies and quality of customer service – case study

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 548 - 558

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, companies are increasingly forced to fight against competition. The number of competitors on the market is constantly growing, and customer’s demands on the products offered by the companies are increasing. The role of customers on the market has changed in recent years. Customers are more active than before, i.e. they started to actively co-create value, so they stopped being passive to the purchase process. Organizations that make appropriate use of the increase in customer activity can count on large benefits for the company. One of the methods to increase competitiveness is continuous introduction of new technologies based on the Internet, which recently resulted in easier cooperation between customers and suppliers, making and settling transactions, coordination of orders in the supply chain thanks to e.g. solution supporting electronic exchange of EDI documents. Therefore, the development of information and communication technologies has significantly influenced the development of organization through its improvement. This paper presents the importance of new technologies for the customer that improve the process of its service in a selected clothing sales network in Poland.

Keywords

  • new technologies
  • customer
  • improvement
  • quality of service
  • questionnaire surveys
Open Access

Economic and social aspects of merger of territorial self-government units – Polish experience

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 559 - 569

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with the issues of merging Local Government Units (LGU). Based on Polish experience related to the unique process of integration of the city and the commune of Zielona Góra in 2015, the authors present the most important economic and social aspects of combining local government units. The article also presents important elements of the process of creating a new functional area from two different neighbouring local government units. Moreover, the exemplified research results, carried out in 2018 among residents of the commune annexed to the city, concerning the economic and social effects of the integration process, made available by the City of Zielona Góra for the purposes of this article, were presented and discussed there. At the same time, a synthetic evaluation of this process was carried out in the light of the documents analysed in the article that form the basis of the merger process and presented results of empirical research.

Keywords

  • integration of territorial self-government units
  • connection of the city and the commune
  • effects of integration of the country's administrative units
  • integration processes
  • economics of integration
Open Access

Development of green jobs in the res sector in the Visegrad Group countries

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 570 - 588

Abstract

Abstract

The transformation process towards a low-emission, green economy implies an increase in the demand for new professions and competences. Quality changes of jobs under the influence of the idea of sustainable development are both an opportunity and a challenge for both countries and individual regions. Green jobs are created as a result of the development of eco-innovation, new environmentally friendly technologies. The development of green jobs is particularly noticeable in the renewable energy sector. The article presents the results of empirical research in the field of analyzing the number of green jobs in the renewable energy sector in the Visegrad Group. In order to identify and determine the nature and changes in the impact of individual factors on the development of green jobs, panel regression was used – a model with fixed effects. The dependent variable was the relative number of green jobs per million inhabitants in 2000-2016.

Keywords

  • renewable energy
  • green jobs
  • V4
  • Visegrad Group
  • energy market
Open Access

A study of challenges in entrepreneurship development and potential role of public sector in mitigating them – evidence from Kurdistan region of Iraq

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 589 - 599

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identify the main challenges faced by entrepreneurs in the Kurdistan region of Iraq and possible ways that regional public sector can take for the purpose of improving entrepreneurship development. Given the importance of entrepreneurs in the economic development and job creation, it’s critical to understand what drives entrepreneurs to become less effective and to investigate how the implementation of “entrepreneurship ecosystem” practiced by public policy makers mitigates these challenges. As a result, authors strive to answers two main questions in this paper: “What are the factors that hold back entrepreneurs in the Kurdistan Region to start their own businesses? “And “What measures the local government can take to mitigate such challenges?” The methodology used in this study is quantitative approach, involving a survey questionnaire. This paper consists of four parts: After the introduction, second part will provide empirical data on challenges facing entrepreneurs in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Discussion and analysis of the findings are done in the third part. Finally, in the last part, paper will offer conclusions by summarizing the key findings.

Keywords

  • entrepreneurship
  • economy
  • entrepreneurship ecosystem
  • market
  • finance
Open Access

Smart solutions for improving working processes. A research experiences from dental clinic

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 600 - 611

Abstract

Abstract

Smart solutions become an indispensable attribute of today life giving the opportunity to act in a significantly efficient way in both public and especially private sector. For this reason the “smart approach” to business is a crucial component in a process of building the advantage in a competitive services market. Taking this challenging aspect of companies’ activities, the authors present a concept of implementing a smart solutions for improving working conditions in a private dental clinic. Particularly, the smart solutions are based on integration of knowledge management constructs and information and communication technologies (ICT) that enable users to use knowledge contextually and in intuitive way. As a final part of the paper, three different practical ideas were discussed and evaluated.

Keywords

  • smart solution
  • dental clinic
  • working conditions
  • ICT
  • knowledge management
Open Access

Designing technology in the age of digitalization: needs for technology assessment and ethics

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 612 - 623

Abstract

Abstract

Technology research, design, and development is confronted with rapidly advancing digitalization in two respects: (1) digitally supported or enabled technologies need to be designed and developed, and (2) the respective R&D processes themselves will happen in a much more digitalized environment. Technology design generally must take into account the values involved and possible consequences of the development and use of the resulting products, services, and systems. In a digitalizing environment, the issue of values gains even more significance because more and more close and intimate interfaces between humans and technology have to be shaped. Designing human-machine interfaces is not only a functional issue but touches upon ethical questions such as the distribution of responsibility, but also upon anthropological issues related to the human self-image and ideas about future society as well. In the respective research, design, and development processes, value-laden issues such as control, privacy, empathy, responsibility, and accountability must be taken into account beyond technical issues of efficiency and reliability. The need for designing and shaping digital future technologies involving ethics and technology assessment will be demonstrated by three examples: future industrial production and the fields of self-driving cars and care robots. Value sensitive design and responsible research and innovation will be introduced as approaches to deal with these challenges.

Keywords

  • digitalization
  • technology design
  • technology assessment
  • ethics
  • responsible research and innovation
Open Access

Assessment of the project teams’ communication skills in the automotive industry

Published Online: 13 Sep 2019
Page range: 624 - 632

Abstract

Abstract

The implementation of a new product in serial production is a very important element in the company’s functioning. Manufacturers of cars and complex subassemblies have been working for years according to the established standards of designing and implementing new products for serial production. A great emphasis is placed here on the formal side. In addition, the supplier must prove that has sufficient resources to achieve these objectives. And this is what customers verify during system, product, process and potential audits. However, despite formal approval of parts from the supplier, as well as confirmation of design and production capabilities, defective parts or components are sometimes assembled in cars and distributed to the market. Why does this happen? The answer can often be found not in the forms, manuals or procedures, but in the way the project teams communicate and cooperate with each other and with other organizations. This is confirmed by the research results presented in this paper, which show that one of the key issues requiring improvement during production implementations is not the knowledge of specialists, problems with the machine park or plant equipment, but increasing the ability of specialists and managers to effectively communicate and cooperate. It shows how important is the problem of risk assessment related to the project team for the project within the quality planning. According to the authors, the new model of project plan should be enriched with the risk assessment related to communication in the project team, as a part of the feasibility assessment of the whole project.

Keywords

  • project
  • project team
  • communication
  • automotive industry

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