Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 3 (October 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 3 (October 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 3 (October 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 48 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 47 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 46 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 45 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 44 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 43 (2017): Issue 1 (October 2017)

Volume 42 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 41 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 40 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 39 (2016): Issue 1 (October 2016)

Volume 38 (2016): Issue 1 (October 2016)

Volume 37 (2016): Issue 1 (July 2016)

Volume 36 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 35 (2015): Issue 1 (November 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 33 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 32 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 31 (2014): Issue 1 (September 2014)

Volume 30 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)

Volume 29 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 27 (2014): Issue 1 (February 2014)

Volume 26 (2013): Issue 1 (June 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 24 (2012): Issue 1 (December 2012)

Volume 23 (2012): Issue 1 (September 2012)

Volume 22 (2012): Issue 1 (June 2012)

Volume 21 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Volume 20 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Volume 14-15 (2010): Issue 2010 (December 2010)

Volume 13 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Volume 11-12 (2009): Issue 1 (December 2009)

Volume 9-10 (2009): Issue 1 (January 2009)

Volume 8 (2008): Issue 1 (December 2008)

Volume 7 (2008): Issue 4 (December 2008)

Volume 6 (2008): Issue 3 (September 2008)

Volume 5 (2008): Issue 2 (June 2008)

Volume 4 (2008): Issue 1 (March 2008)

Volume 3 (2007): Issue 2007 (January 2007)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
ISSN
1895-8281
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 6 (2008): Issue 3 (September 2008)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
ISSN
1895-8281
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

21 Articles
Open Access

Problems of Safety in Aviation

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 5 - 24

Abstract

Problems of Safety in Aviation

The article describes the flight safety problems. It details a set of factors shaping the flight safety and activities required to maintain the requisite safety level. Attention has been paid to the need for rational safety management, including event history, risk assessment and risk cause investigation. Summary contains conclusions from the analysis of the flight safety status in transportation aviation.

Keywords

  • Flight safety
  • safety shaping
  • excess
Open Access

Security Aspects in Verification of the Safety Integrity Level of Distributed Control and Protection Systems

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 25 - 40

Abstract

Security Aspects in Verification of the Safety Integrity Level of Distributed Control and Protection Systems

The article addresses some important issues of the functional safety analysis, namely the safety integrity level (SIL) verification of distributed control and protection systems with regard to security aspects. A quantitative method for SIL (IEC 61508) verification, based on so called differential factors, is presented. Taking into account SIL and the evaluation assurance level (EAL), which concerns the level of information security within entire system, two parametrical criterion function is defined for the SIL verification.

Keywords

  • safety
  • security
  • safety integrity level
  • evaluation assurance level
Open Access

Flame Spread in Cable Tray Fires and its Modeling in Fire Simulation Codes

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 41 - 56

Abstract

Flame Spread in Cable Tray Fires and its Modeling in Fire Simulation Codes

A vertical cable routing on different trays has been observed as worst case in case of fire. PVC (polyvinyl chloride) or FRNC (fire retardant non-corrosive) polymers have been used as cable insulation materials for cables typically being installed in German NPP. Each experiment has been repeated under pre-heated conditions. A propane gas burner has been used for igniting cables and an ethanol pool for pre-heating. Two different types of fire simulation codes (one ‘lumped parameter’ code - COCOSYS - and two three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes - FDS and CFX) have been investigated with respect to their potential for predicting the experimental results. There were significant differences in the way of performing flame spread calculations in the codes. However, none of the models applied in the frame of this benchmark exercise was able to predict the cable flame spread in an adequate manner.

Keywords

  • cable fires
  • fire simulation
  • benchmark exercise
Open Access

Quality Management as a Sound Basis of Integrated Management

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 57 - 72

Abstract

Quality Management as a Sound Basis of Integrated Management

Various management function-specific systems, such as for quality, environment, and occupational health and safety are described in widely applied international standards and guidelines. These documents are of obvious benefit to practising management. The implementation of a robust and effective integrated management system will support the achievement of high levels of safety performance and the enhancement and improvement of the safety culture in all types of industry. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to address the key issues in theory and practice of integrated management systems, the second one is to illustrate the importance of an integrated (in particular safety) management system with examples from different organisations in the nuclear field.

Keywords

  • quality management
  • integrated management systems
  • system integration
Open Access

Study of Aircraft Wing Flap Hydraulic System Dynamics Under Damages Due to Operating an Aircraft

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 73 - 88

Abstract

Study of Aircraft Wing Flap Hydraulic System Dynamics Under Damages Due to Operating an Aircraft

The paper indicates the main reasons for faulty operation of aeroplane wing flap hydraulic systems. A mathematical model of the wing flap dynamics has been presented, allowing an analysis of a simulation study taking into account damages due to usual wear and tear during operating of a plane.

Keywords

  • aircraft
  • wing flaps
  • hydraulic system
  • model of dynamics
  • simulation
Open Access

Methodological Issues of Security Vulnerability Analysis and Risk Assessment

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 89 - 110

Abstract

Methodological Issues of Security Vulnerability Analysis and Risk Assessment

This article addresses methodological issues associated with the safety and security management of hazardous plants. It is emphasized that there are important installations and systems for the safety and security that require a special attention. A knowledge-based methodology for integrated LOPA (layer of protection analysis) & ROPA (rings of protection analysis) is proposed for further research to develop relevant methods and tools for supporting integrated safety and security management based on assessments of relevant risks.

Keywords

  • safety of hazardous plants
  • security vulnerability analysis
Open Access

The Combinatorial Diagnostic Entropy and Symptoms' Informativity

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 111 - 126

Abstract

The Combinatorial Diagnostic Entropy and Symptoms' Informativity

This paper presents combinatorial measures of the system condition uncertainty (diagnostic entropy) and the diagnostic symptoms' informativity. The multi-valued diagnostic model has been assumed. Proposed measures can be used in the manner similar to Shannon entropy use for the diagnostic model analysis and the diagnostic algorithm planning process.

Keywords

  • fault diagnosis
  • qualitative modelling
  • inference
  • information
  • uncertainty
Open Access

Optimized Planning and Scheduling of Pressure Equipment Inspections at Comah Establishments.

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 127 - 136

Abstract

Optimized Planning and Scheduling of Pressure Equipment Inspections at Comah Establishments.

In a process establishment, where the legislation on the control of major accidents hazard (COMAH) is enforced, the operator's duties include the implementation of a Safety Management System, which addresses all the procedures significant for safety. A critical issue of the SMS is the planning and the scheduling of mechanical integrity inspections on pressure equipment. This is due to high number of components — including pipes, unfired and fired vessels, pumps and valves, — which could require different technical and organization procedures for testing or inspection. Usually, mechanical integrity inspections may request higher resource use than other safety related activities. The paper presents a model for inspection planning and scheduling, in order to integrate safety issues with other technical and economical issues.

Keywords

  • Inspection Optimization
  • Mechanical Integrity
  • Safety Management System
  • Major Accident Hazard
Open Access

Sar Action Effectiveness Measures

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 137 - 152

Abstract

Sar Action Effectiveness Measures

The paper presents the research essential to define the way of the SAR action's effectiveness measures determination. In the analyses carried out the influence of wind speed error and wind direction error as a function of the wind speed have been checked. The purpose of the second analysis was the test of the influence of the assumed errors distributions on the increase of the search area.

Keywords

  • SAR
  • search area
  • WDE
  • WSE
Open Access

Semi-Markov Models of Safety of the Renewal Systems Operation

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 153 - 176

Abstract

Semi-Markov Models of Safety of the Renewal Systems Operation

Usually, the renewal systems are mathematically described by the alternating renewal process, which is special case of the semi-Markov process. It allows us to find the basic reliability characteristics like the renewal function, the operational availability of the system and many other. Many papers are devoted to that problem. Very often the operation of the system is perturbed by the danger events. The operation process of the system is broken or stopped. In that case we can say that the unsafety event occurred. Semi-Markov model of the safety of operation is constructed in this paper. The safety characteristics of the system operation are calculated by using the properties of the semi-Markov processes.

Keywords

  • reliability models
  • safety models
  • systems safety
Open Access

Risks to Carriage Safety Relating to Hump Track Arrangement

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 177 - 190

Abstract

Risks to Carriage Safety Relating to Hump Track Arrangement

A method of computing the likelihood of risk to carriage safety at destination and distance brakes as resulting from arrangements of hump tracks.

Keywords

  • safety
  • hump tracks
Open Access

Operational Errors in Air Traffic

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 191 - 198

Abstract

Operational Errors in Air Traffic

The obligatory value representing the allowable number of events in air traffic (in particular accidents), calculated upon historical data known as Target Level of Safety - TLS, is at present valid only for accidents and equals 1,55*10-8 an accident per one flight hour. This value, unless the previously calculated TLS, would be reliable and this equation itself might be useful to monitor the current level of safety (CLS) by putting into it the current performance characteristics of a staff.

Keywords

  • air traffic control
  • operational errors
Open Access

Supporting Tools for Risk Assessment During the Machine Design Process

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 199 - 212

Abstract

Supporting Tools for Risk Assessment During the Machine Design Process

According to directive 2006/42/WE published in 2006 a machine manufacturer should ensure that the risk assessment is carried out to determine the occupational safety and health requirements applicable to the machine. A very important issue the researchers should deal with consists in supplying the designers with tools supporting both carrying out and documenting the risk assessment. The research project PRO-M aims at developing software tools facilitate the management of the risk assessment related activities in consecutive stages of the machine design process.

Keywords

  • safety of machinery
  • risk assessment
  • design of machinery
  • conformity assessment
Open Access

SHM Supporting Damage Tolerance Design Philosophy As a Challenge for Designers of Future Airframes

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 213 - 220

Abstract

SHM Supporting Damage Tolerance Design Philosophy As a Challenge for Designers of Future Airframes

Development design pfilosophy of airframes in all the relevant technological fields is important for the evaluation of high performance airframes best to achive high level of safety and satisfy the market needs. Maintenance cost reduction, increased aircraft availability and weight saving are goals which will be reaching by SHM systems as on-line monitoring of the structure health. Irrespective of which materials will be used in the future, the current design philosophy, which is applied today by the structural designers, will be challenged by the new design philosophy based on SHM. The most efective SHM methods are based on Lamb wave techniques. Using the based on Lamb wave techniques would be cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of metal, composite and hybrid materials. Multitude of diagnostics data requires to use expert systems for effective analysis.

Keywords

  • aircraft
  • airframe
  • metal and composite structure
  • degradation
  • durability
  • reliability
  • safety
  • damage detection
  • non destructive testing
  • structural health monitoring
  • piezoelectric
  • expert systems
  • artificial intelligence
Open Access

A Model of Risk for Assessment of Safety of Ships in Damaged Conditions

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 221 - 234

Abstract

A Model of Risk for Assessment of Safety of Ships in Damaged Conditions

The paper regards modelling of hazards, consequences and risk for a method for assessment of safety of ships in damaged conditions. The method applies the performances-oriented approach and risk-based approach combined together within the method. The performance-oriented approach regards predicting the behavior of a ship in damaged conditions at sea. The risk-based approach is connected with applying the hazard identification, scenarios development, risk assessment and risk control. Safety is treated as an objective between the other design or operational objectives. The safety measure is risk regarding the losses.

Keywords

  • safety of ships
  • risk assessment
  • modelling of risk
Open Access

Low Cost Ais System for Safe Navigation

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 235 - 246

Abstract

Low Cost Ais System for Safe Navigation

Automatic Identification System (AIS) ensures automatic transfer of information between sea going vessels and land based monitoring centers. AIS transceivers are obligatory on board vessels of 300 gross register tones and over. System supports safe navigation at confined and open areas, whilst on the former mentioned is especially helpful due to limited range of radar. Article presents low cost AIS system for small vessels and leisure crafts where AIS is not obligatory but might be valuable navigational aid. Some aspects concerning accuracy are presented as well.

Keywords

  • AIS
  • naviagation
  • safety
Open Access

The Application of Risk Analysis in the Assessment and Management of Road Safety in Road Tunnels

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 247 - 264

Abstract

The Application of Risk Analysis in the Assessment and Management of Road Safety in Road Tunnels

Road tunnels are highly sensitive to disturbance caused by road accidents. The most serious accidents occurring in tunnels involve trucks carrying hazardous materials. Europe has been developing methods of risk analysis and building models for traffic management in tunnels. Poland is only just beginning to build road tunnels and the area of tunnel safety has not been given adequate attention yet.

Keywords

  • road safety
  • tunnels
  • risk management
Open Access

Block Maintenance Policy of Multicomponent Systems with Economic Dependency

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 265 - 280

Abstract

Block Maintenance Policy of Multicomponent Systems with Economic Dependency

The article proposes a simple algorithm to define parameters of block maintenance policy of multi-unit systems composed of elements with economic dependency. The procedure may be used especially in the case when elements of a system are not identical in the sense of their probability characteristics and analytical solution is inaccessible.

Keywords

  • block replacement policy
  • maintenance decision
  • economic dependency
  • availability
Open Access

Problems of Identification of Operation Processes for Low Cost Carriers

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 281 - 294

Abstract

Problems of Identification of Operation Processes for Low Cost Carriers

Article discusses chosen aspects of low cost carriers airships' operation. Proper planning of net connection is one of the most important factor of their functioning as well as the creation of the ideal maintenance schedules. Reasonable service system, dedicated to maintain high aircrafts' airworthiness, seems, however, to be feasible to create. Important factors influencing the process of airships' operation are highlighted: port slot, sectorial capacity, base maintenance, line maintenance. Moreover, further directions of research are also described in the final part of the article.

Keywords

  • Low Cost Carriers
  • aircraft
  • maintenance
  • planning
Open Access

Human Reliability Analysis in the Context of Accident Scenarios

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 295 - 314

Abstract

Human Reliability Analysis in the Context of Accident Scenarios

This article addresses the issue of human reliability analysis (HRA) in the context of accident scenarios. The need for contextual analysis of human operator behavior with careful treating of errors and dependent failures within given accident scenario is emphasized. The functional safety analysis including the human reliability analysis is illustrated on example of the protection layers of a hazardous industrial system that includes the basic process control system (BPCS), human-operator (HO) and safety instrumented systems (SIS) designed with regard to the functional safety criteria.

Keywords

  • human reliability analysis
  • functional safety
Open Access

The Quantitative Area Risk Analysis to Support Decision on Lpg Depots and Land Use Planning

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 315 - 324

Abstract

The Quantitative Area Risk Analysis to Support Decision on Lpg Depots and Land Use Planning

In Italy, for assessing LPG depots, a simplified method has been used for twelve years. The method is based on the classification of the plant according the MOND index. Standardized accidental scenarios are applied to have damage areas. Land vulnerability and compatibility are evaluated according a method inspired by the IAEA method for land use compatibility. In this paper it has been demonstrated credible, as their results are confirmed by using a higher level method, such as the well known method defined in the TNO purple book.

Keywords

  • Land use planning
  • LPG
  • Mond Index
  • Major Accident Hazard
21 Articles
Open Access

Problems of Safety in Aviation

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 5 - 24

Abstract

Problems of Safety in Aviation

The article describes the flight safety problems. It details a set of factors shaping the flight safety and activities required to maintain the requisite safety level. Attention has been paid to the need for rational safety management, including event history, risk assessment and risk cause investigation. Summary contains conclusions from the analysis of the flight safety status in transportation aviation.

Keywords

  • Flight safety
  • safety shaping
  • excess
Open Access

Security Aspects in Verification of the Safety Integrity Level of Distributed Control and Protection Systems

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 25 - 40

Abstract

Security Aspects in Verification of the Safety Integrity Level of Distributed Control and Protection Systems

The article addresses some important issues of the functional safety analysis, namely the safety integrity level (SIL) verification of distributed control and protection systems with regard to security aspects. A quantitative method for SIL (IEC 61508) verification, based on so called differential factors, is presented. Taking into account SIL and the evaluation assurance level (EAL), which concerns the level of information security within entire system, two parametrical criterion function is defined for the SIL verification.

Keywords

  • safety
  • security
  • safety integrity level
  • evaluation assurance level
Open Access

Flame Spread in Cable Tray Fires and its Modeling in Fire Simulation Codes

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 41 - 56

Abstract

Flame Spread in Cable Tray Fires and its Modeling in Fire Simulation Codes

A vertical cable routing on different trays has been observed as worst case in case of fire. PVC (polyvinyl chloride) or FRNC (fire retardant non-corrosive) polymers have been used as cable insulation materials for cables typically being installed in German NPP. Each experiment has been repeated under pre-heated conditions. A propane gas burner has been used for igniting cables and an ethanol pool for pre-heating. Two different types of fire simulation codes (one ‘lumped parameter’ code - COCOSYS - and two three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes - FDS and CFX) have been investigated with respect to their potential for predicting the experimental results. There were significant differences in the way of performing flame spread calculations in the codes. However, none of the models applied in the frame of this benchmark exercise was able to predict the cable flame spread in an adequate manner.

Keywords

  • cable fires
  • fire simulation
  • benchmark exercise
Open Access

Quality Management as a Sound Basis of Integrated Management

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 57 - 72

Abstract

Quality Management as a Sound Basis of Integrated Management

Various management function-specific systems, such as for quality, environment, and occupational health and safety are described in widely applied international standards and guidelines. These documents are of obvious benefit to practising management. The implementation of a robust and effective integrated management system will support the achievement of high levels of safety performance and the enhancement and improvement of the safety culture in all types of industry. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to address the key issues in theory and practice of integrated management systems, the second one is to illustrate the importance of an integrated (in particular safety) management system with examples from different organisations in the nuclear field.

Keywords

  • quality management
  • integrated management systems
  • system integration
Open Access

Study of Aircraft Wing Flap Hydraulic System Dynamics Under Damages Due to Operating an Aircraft

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 73 - 88

Abstract

Study of Aircraft Wing Flap Hydraulic System Dynamics Under Damages Due to Operating an Aircraft

The paper indicates the main reasons for faulty operation of aeroplane wing flap hydraulic systems. A mathematical model of the wing flap dynamics has been presented, allowing an analysis of a simulation study taking into account damages due to usual wear and tear during operating of a plane.

Keywords

  • aircraft
  • wing flaps
  • hydraulic system
  • model of dynamics
  • simulation
Open Access

Methodological Issues of Security Vulnerability Analysis and Risk Assessment

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 89 - 110

Abstract

Methodological Issues of Security Vulnerability Analysis and Risk Assessment

This article addresses methodological issues associated with the safety and security management of hazardous plants. It is emphasized that there are important installations and systems for the safety and security that require a special attention. A knowledge-based methodology for integrated LOPA (layer of protection analysis) & ROPA (rings of protection analysis) is proposed for further research to develop relevant methods and tools for supporting integrated safety and security management based on assessments of relevant risks.

Keywords

  • safety of hazardous plants
  • security vulnerability analysis
Open Access

The Combinatorial Diagnostic Entropy and Symptoms' Informativity

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 111 - 126

Abstract

The Combinatorial Diagnostic Entropy and Symptoms' Informativity

This paper presents combinatorial measures of the system condition uncertainty (diagnostic entropy) and the diagnostic symptoms' informativity. The multi-valued diagnostic model has been assumed. Proposed measures can be used in the manner similar to Shannon entropy use for the diagnostic model analysis and the diagnostic algorithm planning process.

Keywords

  • fault diagnosis
  • qualitative modelling
  • inference
  • information
  • uncertainty
Open Access

Optimized Planning and Scheduling of Pressure Equipment Inspections at Comah Establishments.

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 127 - 136

Abstract

Optimized Planning and Scheduling of Pressure Equipment Inspections at Comah Establishments.

In a process establishment, where the legislation on the control of major accidents hazard (COMAH) is enforced, the operator's duties include the implementation of a Safety Management System, which addresses all the procedures significant for safety. A critical issue of the SMS is the planning and the scheduling of mechanical integrity inspections on pressure equipment. This is due to high number of components — including pipes, unfired and fired vessels, pumps and valves, — which could require different technical and organization procedures for testing or inspection. Usually, mechanical integrity inspections may request higher resource use than other safety related activities. The paper presents a model for inspection planning and scheduling, in order to integrate safety issues with other technical and economical issues.

Keywords

  • Inspection Optimization
  • Mechanical Integrity
  • Safety Management System
  • Major Accident Hazard
Open Access

Sar Action Effectiveness Measures

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 137 - 152

Abstract

Sar Action Effectiveness Measures

The paper presents the research essential to define the way of the SAR action's effectiveness measures determination. In the analyses carried out the influence of wind speed error and wind direction error as a function of the wind speed have been checked. The purpose of the second analysis was the test of the influence of the assumed errors distributions on the increase of the search area.

Keywords

  • SAR
  • search area
  • WDE
  • WSE
Open Access

Semi-Markov Models of Safety of the Renewal Systems Operation

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 153 - 176

Abstract

Semi-Markov Models of Safety of the Renewal Systems Operation

Usually, the renewal systems are mathematically described by the alternating renewal process, which is special case of the semi-Markov process. It allows us to find the basic reliability characteristics like the renewal function, the operational availability of the system and many other. Many papers are devoted to that problem. Very often the operation of the system is perturbed by the danger events. The operation process of the system is broken or stopped. In that case we can say that the unsafety event occurred. Semi-Markov model of the safety of operation is constructed in this paper. The safety characteristics of the system operation are calculated by using the properties of the semi-Markov processes.

Keywords

  • reliability models
  • safety models
  • systems safety
Open Access

Risks to Carriage Safety Relating to Hump Track Arrangement

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 177 - 190

Abstract

Risks to Carriage Safety Relating to Hump Track Arrangement

A method of computing the likelihood of risk to carriage safety at destination and distance brakes as resulting from arrangements of hump tracks.

Keywords

  • safety
  • hump tracks
Open Access

Operational Errors in Air Traffic

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 191 - 198

Abstract

Operational Errors in Air Traffic

The obligatory value representing the allowable number of events in air traffic (in particular accidents), calculated upon historical data known as Target Level of Safety - TLS, is at present valid only for accidents and equals 1,55*10-8 an accident per one flight hour. This value, unless the previously calculated TLS, would be reliable and this equation itself might be useful to monitor the current level of safety (CLS) by putting into it the current performance characteristics of a staff.

Keywords

  • air traffic control
  • operational errors
Open Access

Supporting Tools for Risk Assessment During the Machine Design Process

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 199 - 212

Abstract

Supporting Tools for Risk Assessment During the Machine Design Process

According to directive 2006/42/WE published in 2006 a machine manufacturer should ensure that the risk assessment is carried out to determine the occupational safety and health requirements applicable to the machine. A very important issue the researchers should deal with consists in supplying the designers with tools supporting both carrying out and documenting the risk assessment. The research project PRO-M aims at developing software tools facilitate the management of the risk assessment related activities in consecutive stages of the machine design process.

Keywords

  • safety of machinery
  • risk assessment
  • design of machinery
  • conformity assessment
Open Access

SHM Supporting Damage Tolerance Design Philosophy As a Challenge for Designers of Future Airframes

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 213 - 220

Abstract

SHM Supporting Damage Tolerance Design Philosophy As a Challenge for Designers of Future Airframes

Development design pfilosophy of airframes in all the relevant technological fields is important for the evaluation of high performance airframes best to achive high level of safety and satisfy the market needs. Maintenance cost reduction, increased aircraft availability and weight saving are goals which will be reaching by SHM systems as on-line monitoring of the structure health. Irrespective of which materials will be used in the future, the current design philosophy, which is applied today by the structural designers, will be challenged by the new design philosophy based on SHM. The most efective SHM methods are based on Lamb wave techniques. Using the based on Lamb wave techniques would be cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of metal, composite and hybrid materials. Multitude of diagnostics data requires to use expert systems for effective analysis.

Keywords

  • aircraft
  • airframe
  • metal and composite structure
  • degradation
  • durability
  • reliability
  • safety
  • damage detection
  • non destructive testing
  • structural health monitoring
  • piezoelectric
  • expert systems
  • artificial intelligence
Open Access

A Model of Risk for Assessment of Safety of Ships in Damaged Conditions

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 221 - 234

Abstract

A Model of Risk for Assessment of Safety of Ships in Damaged Conditions

The paper regards modelling of hazards, consequences and risk for a method for assessment of safety of ships in damaged conditions. The method applies the performances-oriented approach and risk-based approach combined together within the method. The performance-oriented approach regards predicting the behavior of a ship in damaged conditions at sea. The risk-based approach is connected with applying the hazard identification, scenarios development, risk assessment and risk control. Safety is treated as an objective between the other design or operational objectives. The safety measure is risk regarding the losses.

Keywords

  • safety of ships
  • risk assessment
  • modelling of risk
Open Access

Low Cost Ais System for Safe Navigation

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 235 - 246

Abstract

Low Cost Ais System for Safe Navigation

Automatic Identification System (AIS) ensures automatic transfer of information between sea going vessels and land based monitoring centers. AIS transceivers are obligatory on board vessels of 300 gross register tones and over. System supports safe navigation at confined and open areas, whilst on the former mentioned is especially helpful due to limited range of radar. Article presents low cost AIS system for small vessels and leisure crafts where AIS is not obligatory but might be valuable navigational aid. Some aspects concerning accuracy are presented as well.

Keywords

  • AIS
  • naviagation
  • safety
Open Access

The Application of Risk Analysis in the Assessment and Management of Road Safety in Road Tunnels

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 247 - 264

Abstract

The Application of Risk Analysis in the Assessment and Management of Road Safety in Road Tunnels

Road tunnels are highly sensitive to disturbance caused by road accidents. The most serious accidents occurring in tunnels involve trucks carrying hazardous materials. Europe has been developing methods of risk analysis and building models for traffic management in tunnels. Poland is only just beginning to build road tunnels and the area of tunnel safety has not been given adequate attention yet.

Keywords

  • road safety
  • tunnels
  • risk management
Open Access

Block Maintenance Policy of Multicomponent Systems with Economic Dependency

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 265 - 280

Abstract

Block Maintenance Policy of Multicomponent Systems with Economic Dependency

The article proposes a simple algorithm to define parameters of block maintenance policy of multi-unit systems composed of elements with economic dependency. The procedure may be used especially in the case when elements of a system are not identical in the sense of their probability characteristics and analytical solution is inaccessible.

Keywords

  • block replacement policy
  • maintenance decision
  • economic dependency
  • availability
Open Access

Problems of Identification of Operation Processes for Low Cost Carriers

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 281 - 294

Abstract

Problems of Identification of Operation Processes for Low Cost Carriers

Article discusses chosen aspects of low cost carriers airships' operation. Proper planning of net connection is one of the most important factor of their functioning as well as the creation of the ideal maintenance schedules. Reasonable service system, dedicated to maintain high aircrafts' airworthiness, seems, however, to be feasible to create. Important factors influencing the process of airships' operation are highlighted: port slot, sectorial capacity, base maintenance, line maintenance. Moreover, further directions of research are also described in the final part of the article.

Keywords

  • Low Cost Carriers
  • aircraft
  • maintenance
  • planning
Open Access

Human Reliability Analysis in the Context of Accident Scenarios

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 295 - 314

Abstract

Human Reliability Analysis in the Context of Accident Scenarios

This article addresses the issue of human reliability analysis (HRA) in the context of accident scenarios. The need for contextual analysis of human operator behavior with careful treating of errors and dependent failures within given accident scenario is emphasized. The functional safety analysis including the human reliability analysis is illustrated on example of the protection layers of a hazardous industrial system that includes the basic process control system (BPCS), human-operator (HO) and safety instrumented systems (SIS) designed with regard to the functional safety criteria.

Keywords

  • human reliability analysis
  • functional safety
Open Access

The Quantitative Area Risk Analysis to Support Decision on Lpg Depots and Land Use Planning

Published Online: 21 Oct 2008
Page range: 315 - 324

Abstract

The Quantitative Area Risk Analysis to Support Decision on Lpg Depots and Land Use Planning

In Italy, for assessing LPG depots, a simplified method has been used for twelve years. The method is based on the classification of the plant according the MOND index. Standardized accidental scenarios are applied to have damage areas. Land vulnerability and compatibility are evaluated according a method inspired by the IAEA method for land use compatibility. In this paper it has been demonstrated credible, as their results are confirmed by using a higher level method, such as the well known method defined in the TNO purple book.

Keywords

  • Land use planning
  • LPG
  • Mond Index
  • Major Accident Hazard

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo