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Volume 50 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 3 (October 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 3 (October 2019)

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Volume 49 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Volume 27 (2014): Issue 1 (February 2014)

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Volume 25 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 24 (2012): Issue 1 (December 2012)

Volume 23 (2012): Issue 1 (September 2012)

Volume 22 (2012): Issue 1 (June 2012)

Volume 21 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Volume 20 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

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Volume 7 (2008): Issue 4 (December 2008)

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Volume 5 (2008): Issue 2 (June 2008)

Volume 4 (2008): Issue 1 (March 2008)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 3 (October 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

23 Articles
Open Access

Reliability Analysis of Alarm Signals Transmitting Systems Used to Monitoring Buildings

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 1 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a general method for identity the security risk factor for alarm signal transmission systems (ASTS), which are used in monitoring buildings and critical infrastructure. The security of the transmission of alarm signals to an alarm receiving center (ARC) is a property of the process, which is associated witch performing of tasks and functions, human factor, hardware and environment components. The process of transmitting alarm signals should be characterized by minimizing risk of external and internal interception/distortion or deformation of transmitted signals and in ideal case signals should be encrypted and integrity checked. Determining the security risk indicator for ASTS will allow optimal organization of electronic security systems.

Keywords

  • signal transmission systems
  • model system
  • reliability
Open Access

The Indicators Assessment of Safety and Functionality of Tram Loops

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 21 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

The new requirements set for tram loops mean that all stakeholders' expectations regarding their safety and functionality change. This creates a need for new tools for tram loop assessment, which are important interchanges, especially for people living outside the city limits or on their outskirts. The aim of the authors ’research is to create a indicators for assessing the safety and functionality of tram loops. Therefore, the article presents an overview of the research results in the area of tram transport and interchanges safety. Then the proposed indicator assessment for tram loops was described.

Keywords

  • safety
  • public transport
  • tram loop
Open Access

Application of the LifeRoSE Method in Funcionality Evaluation of Road Safety Equipment

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 43 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a mathematical model of the life cycle estimation method of road safety equipment. Then the model was adjusted to estimate the life cycle costs of the chosen horizontal road marking. Using the LCC method, the functionality of the horizontal marking was evaluated in terms of efficiency, durability and economic effectiveness. The article also presents the impact of selected factors on the life cycle costs of the horizontal road marking.

Keywords

  • LCC method
  • functionality
  • durability
  • road safety equipment
Open Access

Monitoring the Vector Error Between a Reference Station and a GNSS on-Board Receiver in the GBAS System in the Polish Air Transport

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 67 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents research results concerning the determination of the vector error between a reference station and the GNSS on-board receiver in the GPS satellite measurements for GBAS system, taking into account the ZTD troposphere delay parameter. Based on the conducted studies, it was found that the highest value of the vector error between a reference station and the GNSS on-board receiver can exceed 0.18 m, for a distance of over 40 km and the ZTD value equalling to 2428.1 mm. The error results of vector measurement can be used in the RTK-OFT differential technique in the GBAS system.

Keywords

  • GPS
  • GBAS system
  • flight test
  • vector (baseline) error
  • ZTD parameter
Open Access

Prototype of a Device Used for Dynamic Balancing Power Units of Unmanned Platforms

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 79 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a prototype of a device used for dynamic balancing of motors and power units utilized in the construction of unmanned electric aerial vehicles. The concept of research was described and a measuring system depiction was included. A three-dimensional model of a device functional prototype with its description was demonstrated. Additionally, research results of the system in the form of graphs were included.

Keywords

  • dynamic balancing device
  • brushless motor
  • power unit
Open Access

Safety Analysis in Water Supply Systems

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 97 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

In the aspect of water management, the Water Directive regulates water management with the principle of sustainable development, in shaping, protecting, using and managing water resources. Analysis and assessment of the CWSS safety is a complex issue, including the analysis of potential threats, their effects and safety systems (barriers). The analysis is performed in terms of the water consumers health safety, threats of lack or deficit in water supply and threats to the environment. This process should include the analysis of the existing condition, possible potential threats and safety and repair procedures.

Keywords

  • water supply system
  • risk
  • safety
Open Access

Use of the CREAM Method for the Assessment of Operator Reliability in the Process of Backwashing Filters at a Water Treatment Station

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 115 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the application of the CREAM (Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method) method to assess operator reliability in the backwashing of filters process at the Water Treatment Station. For this purpose, two operators were surveyed. Based on the results, the human error probability was determined, which in both cases ranges from 5∙10−5 to 1∙10−2. The results also indicate that the surveyed operators have extensive work experience and high qualifications.

Keywords

  • CREAM method
  • operator
  • reliability
Open Access

Simulator Verification of Cessna 172 RG Repeated Take-Off Runs in Extreme Temperature Conditions

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 135 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the research of performance measurement of a selected aircraft type in the take-off phase under extreme temperature conditions. For this purpose, a flight simulator of the Cessna 172 RG aircraft from the ELITE Company was used. For the purpose of verifying the take-off run length, the article provides a measurement methodology that was developed using information obtained during experimental take-offs. The aim was to obtain a procedure that would allow for repeated take-off runs in the same conditions with the possibility of changing individual influencing factors. Considering the whole measurement chain, the article analyses the influencing factors and quantifies their impact on the uncertainty of the measurement result. The data obtained experimentally we compared with the data in the Flight Manual and at the end carried out the assessment of the impact of global warming on the take-off run of the Cessna 172 RG and generally on the safety of the take-off and on air transport..

Keywords

  • simulator
  • aircraft
  • performance
  • take-off
  • take-off run
  • methodology
  • uncertainty
  • safety
Open Access

Application of Markov Model for Determination of Average Lifetime of a Transformer Distribution System

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 151 - 173

Abstract

Abstract

The study presents an analysis of the operation process of elements of a system for electrical energy transformation in natural conditions of their usage. The research object is a system of HV and MV distribution transformer operation. The method of construction and an example of the Markov operation process have been presented for the analyzed technical objects. The model of the operation process was built on the basis of analysis of spatial states and events involved in operation of the analyzed technical objects. An average lifetime of the analyzed technical system was determined for assumptions accepted for a stochastic process which is a mathematical model of the distribution transformer operation process.

Keywords

  • homogeneous Markov process
  • operation process
  • stochastic process
  • operating state
  • absorbing state
  • distribution transformer
Open Access

Analysis of Selected Performance Parameters of Engine Powered with a Mixture of Biocomponents and Diesel Oil

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 175 - 192

Abstract

Abstract

The most desirable effect of motorization development is providing a drive unit with high performance parameters and reduce the environmental impact. This study presents the results of tests of a self-ignition engine power output and torque. The tested engine was powered with diesel oil and a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters in the proportions of 10%, 30% and 50% with performance additives, for standard settings of the fuel injection system. The tests were carried out on a chassis dynamometer for full load of the engine. The vehicle was placed on the dynamometer rollers and attached to the base by means of belts. The analysis shows that application of the mixture decreases the engine performance parameters to such a degree that the engine is not put at any risk of damage.

Keywords

  • transport
  • transport means
  • combustion engine
  • diesel oil
  • biocomponent
  • alternative fuels
Open Access

Identification and Prevention of Safety Hazards During Towing of Large Airplanes

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 193 - 202

Abstract

Abstract

The introductory part of the article discusses briefly the basic principles and methods of towing large aircrafts. Then, events that occurred while different large passenger planes were towed are analyzed. Based on the analysis, the main causes of plane damages during towing are indicated. The percentage distribution of individual identified risk factors is determined to show that the main cause is the broadly understood human factor, especially errors of service personnel and the crew. Finally, preventive recommendations were made based on the analysis; they can help avoid such events. The analysis stimulates further research in this field and highlights the necessity to continuously analyze the risk, which should minimize the number of towing-related incidents.

Keywords

  • towing
  • pushback
  • tugging
  • tug
  • safety threat
Open Access

Analysis of Using Time Series Method for Prediction of Number of Passengers at the Airport

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 203 - 216

Abstract

Abstract

At present, one of the most frequently discussed topics, not only at international conferences, but also within the EU, is the issue of airport financing, as well as the thresholds at which airports can cover their operational costs and when the need for support is justified. The Strategic Airport Development Plan and the Airport Business Plan are one of the most important support documents for making the right decision for airport financing and prepare the project for operational and investment aid. For preparing these documents is significant the category of the airport, that means the number of passengers. This paper is focused on the methodology how can be predict the number of passengers from previous data by used the time series method.

Keywords

  • statistic data
  • one-dimensional time series
  • collection of time variations
  • transport trends
  • calendar distribution
  • period
  • passenger transport trend
Open Access

Patient Safety Analysis in General Practitioner’s Work Using Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM)

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 217 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The problem considered in the paper is as follows. The patient with lumbal pain is coming to General Practitioner (GP). The undesirable result is GP’s decision to treat the patient by him/herself in spite of the patient should be directed to medical specialist or hospital. In order to find the ways how the adverse outcomes occur, a system approach called Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) has been applied. The examples of emerging the unwanted GP’s decision, as a consequence of functional resonance have been given. Proposals how to avoid unwanted outcomes have been suggested.

Keywords

  • human factor
  • function performance variability
  • threat prediction
  • education and training of doctors
Open Access

Parameterized Model of Flight Dynamics of the Transport Helicopter

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 237 - 256

Abstract

Abstract

The article addresses investigating the possibilities of making a parameterized flight dynamics model in a mixed reality environment. The purpose was to obtain a model for a Mi-17 helicopter. The Mi-17 VI helicopter flight test characteristics were used to evaluate the above model. As a comparative criterion, compatibility between the model’s selected characteristics and the real object was adopted. Simulation tests were conducted on a cabin simulator set made via MR (mixed reality) technology. Test results confirmed the possibility of reconstructing the selected helicopter type’s flight dynamics using the parameterized model.

Keywords

  • flight dynamics model
  • Mi-17 helicopter
  • Unity3D
  • mixed reality
  • MR
Open Access

Malfunctions of Aviation Hydraulic Pumps

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 257 - 276

Abstract

Abstract

Hydraulic pumps are among the most complex and responsible units from the point of view of aircraft flight safety. One of the most important scientific and technical problems in improving the reliability of hydraulic pumps is to understand the physical nature of the cause of damage in them and on this basis to develop measures and recommendations to ensure their reliability. The article discusses the characteristics of hydraulic piston pairs of hydraulic pumps according to the kinematics of their movement and load conditions. Selected actual damages of axial piston pumps are discussed. The paper presents a simplified 3D solid model of the cylinder-piston assembly and the mechanism for adjusting the inclination of the piston cylinder block, the axial hydraulic pump, and the model of breaking loads for selected elements of this pump. The digital solid model and element load analysis were developed in SolidWorks Simulation.

Keywords

  • aviation
  • aircraft
  • hydraulic drive
  • hydraulic pump
Open Access

Reliability Determination of Nanoelectronic Devices Using Semi-Marcov Processes

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 277 - 296

Abstract

Abstract

The main purpose of the article is to investigate the reliability process of nanoelectronics devices. Firstly, the research problem is presented based on foreign data source. Then, the analytical method has been chosen – semi-Marcov processes. Next, according to the adopted method and input data, the operating process has been analyzed. Finally, the probabilities of objects being in particular operating states, e.g. in the state of failure-free operation have been determined.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • nanoelectronics devices
  • SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device)
  • analysis
  • probability
Open Access

Mathematical Model of Optimisation the Selection of Aviation Personnel to Perform Flying Drills

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 297 - 306

Abstract

Abstract

The report presents the rules of a criterial optimisation of crew selection to execute a specific aviation drill. A typical approach to mathematical analysis has been adopted, describing the problem of verifying and evaluating the flying personnel to execute aviation drills on a particular type of aircraft. Fundamental input data and criteria for potential evaluation of the flight personnel selection for a crew performing a selected task on a given type of aircraft are developed and presented. It was necessary to single out and describe the boundary conditions of this flight crew selection system that determine the system’s effectiveness. The report concludes that it is essential to make use of complex systems of management and training completed in military aviation as well as civil.

Keywords

  • selection of flight crews
  • aviation training
  • flight security
Open Access

CT Inspection of Cooled Turbine Blades

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 307 - 331

Abstract

Abstract

To improve the engine efficiency by increasing the gas temperature, multi-layer cooling passages are applied in new designs of gas turbine blades. As a result, traditional non-destructive methods, which have been applied so far in the production control, became insufficient. The aim of this manuscript is to develop an inspection method for cooling passages of turbine blades, which would be helpful in detecting manufacturing defects of blades and their operational failures. GE v/tome/x/m 300 was applied to conduct dimensional control and check the interior of two types of turbine blades from turboshaft engines. The procedure for selecting X-ray parameters was suggested. The thickness of walls in the selected cross-section was measured with the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the selected manufacturing defects of cooling passages were identified.

Keywords

  • computed tomography (CT)
  • non-destructive testing (NDT)
  • turbine blade
  • cooling passages
  • film cooling
  • dimensional control
  • wall thickness measurement
Open Access

Numerical Simulations of Bird Strikes with the Use of Various Equations of State

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 333 - 357

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents results of numerical analyses of the collision of various bird models (dummies) with a helicopter windshield. Three different numerical bird models were elaborated. According to the subject literature, applying an appropriate equation of state has an influence on impact parameters. The author used the LS_DYNA software package. This is a computational code designed to analyse fast-changing phenomena by means of the finite-element method. SPH method has been used for bird strike simulations. In the research, three different equations of state have been used: Grüneisen's, polynomial and tabulated.

Keywords

  • bird strikes
  • numerical simulations of bird strikes
  • equations of state
Open Access

Assignation of Tiredness Indicator Based on the Pilot’s Concentration and Speed Reaction Analysis During the Flight

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 359 - 380

Abstract

Abstract

In the article, based on the research, the Tiredness Indicator was proposed. The research concerned the pilot's concentration and reaction time to individual stimuli. They were carried out using a flight simulator - CKAS MotionSim 5, located at the Poznan University of Technology. Measurements were made before and during the flight Analysis of the results showed a periodic course of tiredness characteristics, a marked increase in tiredness in the middle of tests and tiredness of only one sense organ confirmed by the results of reaction time and subjective assessment. Based on the conducted research, it can be stated that tiredness reduces the cognitive abilities of the human brain and extends the reaction time to stimuli.

Keywords

  • pilot’s tiredness
  • Tiredness Indicator
  • flight simulator
  • reaction time
Open Access

The Advantages of Using a Bleed of Air from Behind the Compressor and Supplying It Behind the Turbine in an Aircraft Engine

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 381 - 394

Abstract

Abstract

The research paper discusses the advantages of using compressor downstream air partial bleed and supplying it downstream of the turbine, which was applied in a prototype of a “bypass” turbojet engine. The impact of such a solution on the value of achieved basic operating parameters of the engine was described, i.e., unit thrust and unit power consumption. The presented attempt to compare these parameters with the parameters achieved for a turbojet, single flow engine is very important; in the first case without air bleed, and in the second, with air bleed to the environment and with the parameters of a turbojet, turbofan engine with a jet mixer.

Keywords

  • aviation engine operating parameters
  • jet engine designs
  • aviation engine air bleed
Open Access

Analysis of the Impact of Ship Draft Measurement Results on Shipowners' Decisions About Fleet's Operability

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 395 - 416

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents an assessment of the impact of the results of the measurement of the inland ship's draught on the shipowner's decisions regarding incurring financial expenses for maintaining vessels in operability by carrying out repairs and modernization The aim of the article is to present the possible actions taken by shipowners in response to the changing level of reliability of their vessels. The article assesses the impact of ship draught measurement results on shipowner’s decisions, with particular emphasis on operability. The analysis was carried out using data collected during the work of the Technical Inspection Commission in Szczecin in 2017-2018 regarding the draft and load capacity of ships.

Keywords

  • inland waterway transport
  • operability
  • ship measurements
Open Access

Selected Issues of Increasing the Fire Effectiveness of Combat Vehicles

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 417 - 438

Abstract

Abstract

The research paper reviews selected issues associated with the current state of the armoured (tanks) and infantry fighting vehicle technology, with particular emphasis on the operating effectiveness of elongated sub-calibre projectiles fired from tank guns, which enable full perforation of ca. 500 mm thick armour steel plates. Their efficiency is comparable with the impact of shaped heads with armour steel penetration capabilities, and amounts from 6 to 8 calibres – warhead diameters. Furthermore, the paper discusses a numerical analysis, which shows the velocities of elongated projectiles (of tungsten matrix sinters) required to achieve a determined armour steel penetration depth. In addition, it also presents the performance characteristics of two 100 mm calibre shaped warheads, with copper inserts and apex angles of 51º and 60º.

Keywords

  • armament
  • sub-calibre projectiles
  • terminal ballistics
  • shaped charges
23 Articles
Open Access

Reliability Analysis of Alarm Signals Transmitting Systems Used to Monitoring Buildings

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 1 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a general method for identity the security risk factor for alarm signal transmission systems (ASTS), which are used in monitoring buildings and critical infrastructure. The security of the transmission of alarm signals to an alarm receiving center (ARC) is a property of the process, which is associated witch performing of tasks and functions, human factor, hardware and environment components. The process of transmitting alarm signals should be characterized by minimizing risk of external and internal interception/distortion or deformation of transmitted signals and in ideal case signals should be encrypted and integrity checked. Determining the security risk indicator for ASTS will allow optimal organization of electronic security systems.

Keywords

  • signal transmission systems
  • model system
  • reliability
Open Access

The Indicators Assessment of Safety and Functionality of Tram Loops

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 21 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

The new requirements set for tram loops mean that all stakeholders' expectations regarding their safety and functionality change. This creates a need for new tools for tram loop assessment, which are important interchanges, especially for people living outside the city limits or on their outskirts. The aim of the authors ’research is to create a indicators for assessing the safety and functionality of tram loops. Therefore, the article presents an overview of the research results in the area of tram transport and interchanges safety. Then the proposed indicator assessment for tram loops was described.

Keywords

  • safety
  • public transport
  • tram loop
Open Access

Application of the LifeRoSE Method in Funcionality Evaluation of Road Safety Equipment

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 43 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a mathematical model of the life cycle estimation method of road safety equipment. Then the model was adjusted to estimate the life cycle costs of the chosen horizontal road marking. Using the LCC method, the functionality of the horizontal marking was evaluated in terms of efficiency, durability and economic effectiveness. The article also presents the impact of selected factors on the life cycle costs of the horizontal road marking.

Keywords

  • LCC method
  • functionality
  • durability
  • road safety equipment
Open Access

Monitoring the Vector Error Between a Reference Station and a GNSS on-Board Receiver in the GBAS System in the Polish Air Transport

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 67 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents research results concerning the determination of the vector error between a reference station and the GNSS on-board receiver in the GPS satellite measurements for GBAS system, taking into account the ZTD troposphere delay parameter. Based on the conducted studies, it was found that the highest value of the vector error between a reference station and the GNSS on-board receiver can exceed 0.18 m, for a distance of over 40 km and the ZTD value equalling to 2428.1 mm. The error results of vector measurement can be used in the RTK-OFT differential technique in the GBAS system.

Keywords

  • GPS
  • GBAS system
  • flight test
  • vector (baseline) error
  • ZTD parameter
Open Access

Prototype of a Device Used for Dynamic Balancing Power Units of Unmanned Platforms

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 79 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a prototype of a device used for dynamic balancing of motors and power units utilized in the construction of unmanned electric aerial vehicles. The concept of research was described and a measuring system depiction was included. A three-dimensional model of a device functional prototype with its description was demonstrated. Additionally, research results of the system in the form of graphs were included.

Keywords

  • dynamic balancing device
  • brushless motor
  • power unit
Open Access

Safety Analysis in Water Supply Systems

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 97 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

In the aspect of water management, the Water Directive regulates water management with the principle of sustainable development, in shaping, protecting, using and managing water resources. Analysis and assessment of the CWSS safety is a complex issue, including the analysis of potential threats, their effects and safety systems (barriers). The analysis is performed in terms of the water consumers health safety, threats of lack or deficit in water supply and threats to the environment. This process should include the analysis of the existing condition, possible potential threats and safety and repair procedures.

Keywords

  • water supply system
  • risk
  • safety
Open Access

Use of the CREAM Method for the Assessment of Operator Reliability in the Process of Backwashing Filters at a Water Treatment Station

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 115 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the application of the CREAM (Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method) method to assess operator reliability in the backwashing of filters process at the Water Treatment Station. For this purpose, two operators were surveyed. Based on the results, the human error probability was determined, which in both cases ranges from 5∙10−5 to 1∙10−2. The results also indicate that the surveyed operators have extensive work experience and high qualifications.

Keywords

  • CREAM method
  • operator
  • reliability
Open Access

Simulator Verification of Cessna 172 RG Repeated Take-Off Runs in Extreme Temperature Conditions

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 135 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the research of performance measurement of a selected aircraft type in the take-off phase under extreme temperature conditions. For this purpose, a flight simulator of the Cessna 172 RG aircraft from the ELITE Company was used. For the purpose of verifying the take-off run length, the article provides a measurement methodology that was developed using information obtained during experimental take-offs. The aim was to obtain a procedure that would allow for repeated take-off runs in the same conditions with the possibility of changing individual influencing factors. Considering the whole measurement chain, the article analyses the influencing factors and quantifies their impact on the uncertainty of the measurement result. The data obtained experimentally we compared with the data in the Flight Manual and at the end carried out the assessment of the impact of global warming on the take-off run of the Cessna 172 RG and generally on the safety of the take-off and on air transport..

Keywords

  • simulator
  • aircraft
  • performance
  • take-off
  • take-off run
  • methodology
  • uncertainty
  • safety
Open Access

Application of Markov Model for Determination of Average Lifetime of a Transformer Distribution System

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 151 - 173

Abstract

Abstract

The study presents an analysis of the operation process of elements of a system for electrical energy transformation in natural conditions of their usage. The research object is a system of HV and MV distribution transformer operation. The method of construction and an example of the Markov operation process have been presented for the analyzed technical objects. The model of the operation process was built on the basis of analysis of spatial states and events involved in operation of the analyzed technical objects. An average lifetime of the analyzed technical system was determined for assumptions accepted for a stochastic process which is a mathematical model of the distribution transformer operation process.

Keywords

  • homogeneous Markov process
  • operation process
  • stochastic process
  • operating state
  • absorbing state
  • distribution transformer
Open Access

Analysis of Selected Performance Parameters of Engine Powered with a Mixture of Biocomponents and Diesel Oil

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 175 - 192

Abstract

Abstract

The most desirable effect of motorization development is providing a drive unit with high performance parameters and reduce the environmental impact. This study presents the results of tests of a self-ignition engine power output and torque. The tested engine was powered with diesel oil and a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters in the proportions of 10%, 30% and 50% with performance additives, for standard settings of the fuel injection system. The tests were carried out on a chassis dynamometer for full load of the engine. The vehicle was placed on the dynamometer rollers and attached to the base by means of belts. The analysis shows that application of the mixture decreases the engine performance parameters to such a degree that the engine is not put at any risk of damage.

Keywords

  • transport
  • transport means
  • combustion engine
  • diesel oil
  • biocomponent
  • alternative fuels
Open Access

Identification and Prevention of Safety Hazards During Towing of Large Airplanes

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 193 - 202

Abstract

Abstract

The introductory part of the article discusses briefly the basic principles and methods of towing large aircrafts. Then, events that occurred while different large passenger planes were towed are analyzed. Based on the analysis, the main causes of plane damages during towing are indicated. The percentage distribution of individual identified risk factors is determined to show that the main cause is the broadly understood human factor, especially errors of service personnel and the crew. Finally, preventive recommendations were made based on the analysis; they can help avoid such events. The analysis stimulates further research in this field and highlights the necessity to continuously analyze the risk, which should minimize the number of towing-related incidents.

Keywords

  • towing
  • pushback
  • tugging
  • tug
  • safety threat
Open Access

Analysis of Using Time Series Method for Prediction of Number of Passengers at the Airport

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 203 - 216

Abstract

Abstract

At present, one of the most frequently discussed topics, not only at international conferences, but also within the EU, is the issue of airport financing, as well as the thresholds at which airports can cover their operational costs and when the need for support is justified. The Strategic Airport Development Plan and the Airport Business Plan are one of the most important support documents for making the right decision for airport financing and prepare the project for operational and investment aid. For preparing these documents is significant the category of the airport, that means the number of passengers. This paper is focused on the methodology how can be predict the number of passengers from previous data by used the time series method.

Keywords

  • statistic data
  • one-dimensional time series
  • collection of time variations
  • transport trends
  • calendar distribution
  • period
  • passenger transport trend
Open Access

Patient Safety Analysis in General Practitioner’s Work Using Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM)

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 217 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The problem considered in the paper is as follows. The patient with lumbal pain is coming to General Practitioner (GP). The undesirable result is GP’s decision to treat the patient by him/herself in spite of the patient should be directed to medical specialist or hospital. In order to find the ways how the adverse outcomes occur, a system approach called Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) has been applied. The examples of emerging the unwanted GP’s decision, as a consequence of functional resonance have been given. Proposals how to avoid unwanted outcomes have been suggested.

Keywords

  • human factor
  • function performance variability
  • threat prediction
  • education and training of doctors
Open Access

Parameterized Model of Flight Dynamics of the Transport Helicopter

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 237 - 256

Abstract

Abstract

The article addresses investigating the possibilities of making a parameterized flight dynamics model in a mixed reality environment. The purpose was to obtain a model for a Mi-17 helicopter. The Mi-17 VI helicopter flight test characteristics were used to evaluate the above model. As a comparative criterion, compatibility between the model’s selected characteristics and the real object was adopted. Simulation tests were conducted on a cabin simulator set made via MR (mixed reality) technology. Test results confirmed the possibility of reconstructing the selected helicopter type’s flight dynamics using the parameterized model.

Keywords

  • flight dynamics model
  • Mi-17 helicopter
  • Unity3D
  • mixed reality
  • MR
Open Access

Malfunctions of Aviation Hydraulic Pumps

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 257 - 276

Abstract

Abstract

Hydraulic pumps are among the most complex and responsible units from the point of view of aircraft flight safety. One of the most important scientific and technical problems in improving the reliability of hydraulic pumps is to understand the physical nature of the cause of damage in them and on this basis to develop measures and recommendations to ensure their reliability. The article discusses the characteristics of hydraulic piston pairs of hydraulic pumps according to the kinematics of their movement and load conditions. Selected actual damages of axial piston pumps are discussed. The paper presents a simplified 3D solid model of the cylinder-piston assembly and the mechanism for adjusting the inclination of the piston cylinder block, the axial hydraulic pump, and the model of breaking loads for selected elements of this pump. The digital solid model and element load analysis were developed in SolidWorks Simulation.

Keywords

  • aviation
  • aircraft
  • hydraulic drive
  • hydraulic pump
Open Access

Reliability Determination of Nanoelectronic Devices Using Semi-Marcov Processes

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 277 - 296

Abstract

Abstract

The main purpose of the article is to investigate the reliability process of nanoelectronics devices. Firstly, the research problem is presented based on foreign data source. Then, the analytical method has been chosen – semi-Marcov processes. Next, according to the adopted method and input data, the operating process has been analyzed. Finally, the probabilities of objects being in particular operating states, e.g. in the state of failure-free operation have been determined.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • nanoelectronics devices
  • SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device)
  • analysis
  • probability
Open Access

Mathematical Model of Optimisation the Selection of Aviation Personnel to Perform Flying Drills

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 297 - 306

Abstract

Abstract

The report presents the rules of a criterial optimisation of crew selection to execute a specific aviation drill. A typical approach to mathematical analysis has been adopted, describing the problem of verifying and evaluating the flying personnel to execute aviation drills on a particular type of aircraft. Fundamental input data and criteria for potential evaluation of the flight personnel selection for a crew performing a selected task on a given type of aircraft are developed and presented. It was necessary to single out and describe the boundary conditions of this flight crew selection system that determine the system’s effectiveness. The report concludes that it is essential to make use of complex systems of management and training completed in military aviation as well as civil.

Keywords

  • selection of flight crews
  • aviation training
  • flight security
Open Access

CT Inspection of Cooled Turbine Blades

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 307 - 331

Abstract

Abstract

To improve the engine efficiency by increasing the gas temperature, multi-layer cooling passages are applied in new designs of gas turbine blades. As a result, traditional non-destructive methods, which have been applied so far in the production control, became insufficient. The aim of this manuscript is to develop an inspection method for cooling passages of turbine blades, which would be helpful in detecting manufacturing defects of blades and their operational failures. GE v/tome/x/m 300 was applied to conduct dimensional control and check the interior of two types of turbine blades from turboshaft engines. The procedure for selecting X-ray parameters was suggested. The thickness of walls in the selected cross-section was measured with the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the selected manufacturing defects of cooling passages were identified.

Keywords

  • computed tomography (CT)
  • non-destructive testing (NDT)
  • turbine blade
  • cooling passages
  • film cooling
  • dimensional control
  • wall thickness measurement
Open Access

Numerical Simulations of Bird Strikes with the Use of Various Equations of State

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 333 - 357

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents results of numerical analyses of the collision of various bird models (dummies) with a helicopter windshield. Three different numerical bird models were elaborated. According to the subject literature, applying an appropriate equation of state has an influence on impact parameters. The author used the LS_DYNA software package. This is a computational code designed to analyse fast-changing phenomena by means of the finite-element method. SPH method has been used for bird strike simulations. In the research, three different equations of state have been used: Grüneisen's, polynomial and tabulated.

Keywords

  • bird strikes
  • numerical simulations of bird strikes
  • equations of state
Open Access

Assignation of Tiredness Indicator Based on the Pilot’s Concentration and Speed Reaction Analysis During the Flight

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 359 - 380

Abstract

Abstract

In the article, based on the research, the Tiredness Indicator was proposed. The research concerned the pilot's concentration and reaction time to individual stimuli. They were carried out using a flight simulator - CKAS MotionSim 5, located at the Poznan University of Technology. Measurements were made before and during the flight Analysis of the results showed a periodic course of tiredness characteristics, a marked increase in tiredness in the middle of tests and tiredness of only one sense organ confirmed by the results of reaction time and subjective assessment. Based on the conducted research, it can be stated that tiredness reduces the cognitive abilities of the human brain and extends the reaction time to stimuli.

Keywords

  • pilot’s tiredness
  • Tiredness Indicator
  • flight simulator
  • reaction time
Open Access

The Advantages of Using a Bleed of Air from Behind the Compressor and Supplying It Behind the Turbine in an Aircraft Engine

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 381 - 394

Abstract

Abstract

The research paper discusses the advantages of using compressor downstream air partial bleed and supplying it downstream of the turbine, which was applied in a prototype of a “bypass” turbojet engine. The impact of such a solution on the value of achieved basic operating parameters of the engine was described, i.e., unit thrust and unit power consumption. The presented attempt to compare these parameters with the parameters achieved for a turbojet, single flow engine is very important; in the first case without air bleed, and in the second, with air bleed to the environment and with the parameters of a turbojet, turbofan engine with a jet mixer.

Keywords

  • aviation engine operating parameters
  • jet engine designs
  • aviation engine air bleed
Open Access

Analysis of the Impact of Ship Draft Measurement Results on Shipowners' Decisions About Fleet's Operability

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 395 - 416

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents an assessment of the impact of the results of the measurement of the inland ship's draught on the shipowner's decisions regarding incurring financial expenses for maintaining vessels in operability by carrying out repairs and modernization The aim of the article is to present the possible actions taken by shipowners in response to the changing level of reliability of their vessels. The article assesses the impact of ship draught measurement results on shipowner’s decisions, with particular emphasis on operability. The analysis was carried out using data collected during the work of the Technical Inspection Commission in Szczecin in 2017-2018 regarding the draft and load capacity of ships.

Keywords

  • inland waterway transport
  • operability
  • ship measurements
Open Access

Selected Issues of Increasing the Fire Effectiveness of Combat Vehicles

Published Online: 20 Oct 2020
Page range: 417 - 438

Abstract

Abstract

The research paper reviews selected issues associated with the current state of the armoured (tanks) and infantry fighting vehicle technology, with particular emphasis on the operating effectiveness of elongated sub-calibre projectiles fired from tank guns, which enable full perforation of ca. 500 mm thick armour steel plates. Their efficiency is comparable with the impact of shaped heads with armour steel penetration capabilities, and amounts from 6 to 8 calibres – warhead diameters. Furthermore, the paper discusses a numerical analysis, which shows the velocities of elongated projectiles (of tungsten matrix sinters) required to achieve a determined armour steel penetration depth. In addition, it also presents the performance characteristics of two 100 mm calibre shaped warheads, with copper inserts and apex angles of 51º and 60º.

Keywords

  • armament
  • sub-calibre projectiles
  • terminal ballistics
  • shaped charges

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