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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

23 Articles
Open Access

Application of the FMEA Method for the Risk Assessment in Raliway Transport According to the Requirements of PN-EN IEC 60812:2018-12 Standard

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 1 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the procedure of performing the safety assessment using the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) method, according to the latest version of the PN-EN IEC 60812:2018 standard. The attention was paid to the application of the method for the assemblies and subassemblies of rail vehicles, for which it is increasingly used. The example used in the following paper refers to the fire protection system of a rail vehicle that meets the requirements of the PN-EN IEC 60812:2018 standard. Performing the risk assessment at the design stage of railway products is a part of the customer’s requirements and is a key factor in the certification and placing them in service.

Keywords

  • FMEA
  • safety assessment
  • rail vehicles
Open Access

Reverse Logistics as a Burden in the Context of Airport

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 19 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

From the perspective of management, reverse logistics constitutes a certain burden to the functioning of airports. In the light of the State Transport Policy for 2006 - 2025, the operation of such facilities in a manner that will enable the fulfillment of specific reverse logistics needs without causing threats becomes an important objective of airport security. The focus of reverse logistics is waste flows, and, in addition to returns, reverse logistics also takes into account the protection of natural resources and minimization of pollution. Reverse logistics is characterized by the fact that the direction of the flow of goods that have been partially utilized, but still have a certain value that can be recovered, is opposite to that in a traditional distribution channel. The article focuses on public security from the perspective of environmental threats, on the basis of the results of research studies in waste reverse logistics, at selected Polish civil airports, as a potential risk factor for ground operations in air transport.

Keywords

  • airport
  • environmental protection
  • waste
  • logistics
Open Access

The Process of Storing Aviation Parts in the Context of Flight Safety

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 29 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes the general principles of storing aviation products as well as a classification of individual groups of stock range. Moreover, the general chara-cteristics of storage processes are covered. The main factors that have an influence on the quality of stored products are discussed. The option to use an IT system for warehouse management is also mentioned. The main part of this manuscript analyzes the risk of storage processes. Based on this analysis, the cause-and-result relationships between product storage errors and authorization of a faulty product to use. Hence, the most probable storage errors and their sources are indicated. This enabled to determine the methods to improve flight safety due to reduction of errors in storage management.

Keywords

  • storage
  • storage processes
  • storing
  • flight safety
Open Access

Indicator Analysis of Security Risk for Electronic Systems Used to Protect Field Command Posts of Army Groupings

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 43 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a method for determining the security risk indicator for electronic systems that are used to secure field command posts (FCP). Security of FCP of army groupings is a property of the process they carry out which is related to the tasks and functions performed, the human, hardware and environment components. Determining the security risk indicator for FCPs with different organizational structures will allow optimal organization of integrated electronic security systems, including: selection of these devices, their configuration, project implementation and optimal implementation of technical structures, which should also take into account reliability and operational aspects.

Keywords

  • field command posts
  • electronic security system
Open Access

Simulation-Based Forecasting of the Reliability of Systems Consisting of Elements Described by a Number of Failure Probability Distributions

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 63 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the developed simulation model enabling the evaluation of the reliability of technical objects, which in the process of operation is subjected to several different groups of factors causing their failures. Probability distributions of failures resulting from wear and random factors are used in the developed model to estimate the time of operation of the elements and the reliability of the system. The developed model together with the appropriate computer program is a tool of significant importance for design and operational practice. It enables decision-makers to estimate the reliability of elements and the whole system before the beginning of their operation.

Keywords

  • simulation
  • reliability
  • causes of failures
Open Access

Studying the Wear of Titanium Thread of Aircraft Fuel Filter

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 83 - 105

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the tests that were conducted to examine the possibility of the fuel filter shank’s thread shearing under the impact of hydrostatic pressure. Increased wear due to friction was confirmed on the threads of the titanium shanks that were tested, together with significantly reduced wear of the mating threads and steel sleeves. Shearing tests confirmed that to shear a thread that is worn to a degree similar to the threads that were tested, it is necessary to apply eight times more static pressure than the maximum pressure in the filter. A comparison of the shape of the coils of the thread that was subjected to the pressure test with the thread from the damaged filter demonstrated a significant difference in the wearing of these elements due to friction.

Keywords

  • titanium
  • titanium alloys
  • tribology
  • shearing
  • fuel filter
  • thread connection
  • replica testing
  • pressure tests
Open Access

Application of Infrared Spectrometry in Studying Fuels and Biofules for Aircraft Turbine Engines

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 107 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

The research paper presents hydrocarbon biocomponents approved for use in aircraft turbine engines. The properties of these biocomponents are governed by ASTM D 7566 standard. One of the new issues regarding the utilization of fuels for aircraft turbine engines is the identification of non-petroleum elements, including hydrocarbon biocom-ponents. This article proposes applying infrared spectrometry as a technique for in-strumental analysis, which enables quick and qualitative identification of a used hydro-carbon biocomponent. Differences in the infrared spectrum between the mineral fuel and used fuel biocomponent were indicated based on the conducted preliminary tests.

Keywords

  • infrared spectrophotometry
  • fuel for aircraft turbine engines
  • hydrocarbon biocomponent
Open Access

Method for Improving the Aircraft Hydraulic Drives Ability to Work

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 127 - 144

Abstract

Abstract

One of the approaches to ensure friction stability in hydraulic precise pairs can be coating their components with low-friction materials with the friction coating method using a metal, e.g. brass. The article presents the method of applying brass on the steel surface of a hydraulic pair using friction. It discusses the technology of brass plating of hydraulic precise pairs and the results of laboratory tests involving friction-brasses hydraulic precise pairs. The factors impacting the quality of brass-coating process of hydraulic precise pairs and the requirements set for hydraulic precise pairs subject to friction-brassing were also discussed.

Keywords

  • aviation
  • aircraft
  • hydraulic drive
  • reliability
Open Access

Modernisation of LEMACH 6 Design-Research Method as a Reliability Engineering Tool

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 145 - 164

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the developed design-research method for mechanical objects, which is a modernisation of the sequential-iterative design method LEMACH 6. As part of the design process organised by method guidelines, a number of activities related to designed object’s reliability testing and engineering were included. The article charac-terises selected design methods, with particular emphasis on the LEMACH 6 method. Next, assumptions were made regarding the development and use of the proposed solution, and a diagram and detailed analysis of individual elements of the new method were presented. The developed method enables the organisation of design works, allowing one to rapidly create new solutions and avoid mistakes during designing.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • design method
  • designing
Open Access

Ecological and Functional Aspects of Operation of Electric Vehicles With Fuel Cell

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 165 - 176

Abstract

Abstract

Hydrogen can have great importance in seven areas of necessary changes in the transformation of the power system, including transport (especially motor transport), industrial processes, thermal and energy production in the construction industry and production processes. Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) do not cause local air pollution because they have zero “tailpipe” emissions. Essential are ecological and func-tional aspects of operating vehicles equipped with fuel cells. However, noteworthy is also the development of the refilling infrastructure. The functionality of FCEVs to a considerable degree depends on the functionality of fuel cells.

Keywords

  • ecology
  • vehicles (FCEV)
  • infrastructure
Open Access

The Environmental Research of the Pneumatic Parachute Rescue System for UAV Vertical Take-Off and Landing

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 177 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the article is the environmental research of the Pneumatic Para-chute Rescue System (PPRS) for an unmanned aerial vehicle, in which the parachute will be initiated from the reservoir by means of compressed carbon dioxide (CO2) stored in a special chamber. The research team has developed a program for researching the natural environment to simulate the conditions that may occur during the operation of an unmanned aerial vehicle and thus the Pneumatic Parachute Rescue System. UAV emergency scenarios were developed in which the developed rescue system should operate.

Keywords

  • parachute
  • UAV
  • environmental research
Open Access

Magnetic Tests of SNA - HP-59A Kinematic Connection Details in the RD-33 Engine

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 199 - 218

Abstract

Abstract

Aspects of assessing the technical condition of selected elements of the kinematic system in the renovation of RD-33 engines have been presented. In the beginning, typical operational problems have been discussed, and the test object was defined. Then, the theoretical foundations of three non-destructive testing methods based on magnetic field measurement were discussed. Next, the preliminary results of the research of a defective gear obtained by the magnetic metal memory method are presented. Finally, the conclusions have been made.

Keywords

  • transport
  • power unit
  • gear
  • non-destructive testing
Open Access

Analysis of modernization influence on main battle tank properties

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 219 - 230

Abstract

Abstract

Functional quality of caterpillar fighting vehicles can be assessed upon its original project design and technical characteristics. However, lapse of time, technical and technological progress, battlefield dynamics, new and evolving threats can negatively verify both offensive and defensive effectiveness of such vehicles. As a result, appears need of modernization addressing new threats and requirements. Main goal of modernization is to achieve advantage over potential enemy fighting vehicles. This work is an attempt to analyse possible development patches and despite technological and materials progress inseparable increase of the vehicle’s combat weight on operating capabilities of such vehicles.

Keywords

  • tank
  • weight
  • load
Open Access

The Research Into the Integrity Parameter in Air Transport Using GLONASS Data

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 231 - 241

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the results of the integrity parameter of the GLONASS satellite positioning system in civil aviation. As a source material for the research the authors used observation and navigation data of the GLONASS system from the onboard GNSS receiver mounted on the Cessna 172. In the research, the authors used a model to determine the aircraft position based on the single-frequency SPP code method for GLONASS L1-C/A observations. The numerical calculations were conducted in the RTKLIB software, in the RTKPOST library. The obtained results are interesting from the point of using an application of the GLONASS system in aviation and the possible implementation of the single-frequency GLONASS code observations in the SPP model in order to determine the aircraft position. On the basis of the obtained results it was found that the GLONASS integrity performance data can be used in a procedure of non-precision approach to landing NPA GNSS.

Keywords

  • GPS
  • GLONASS
  • integrity
  • SPP code method
  • air transport
Open Access

Selected Tools Increasing Human Reliability in the Antropotechnical System

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 243 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

Distributed control systems (DCS) consist of process stations, operator stations, engineering stations and other elements, which all enable the exchange of data between industrial systems. Process stations are industrial controllers. They manage process control. Operator stations are used for visualisation and operator interactions. Engineering stations are designed for configuration, programming and executing control and visualisation software. Elements of the DCS system are connected by an industrial network. DCS must be properly designed, commissioned, used and operated. There is a human factor in each of these phases of the system’s existence. The article discusses software tools that increase human reliability in such a system, made in the visualisation package, i.e. the graphic environment used to visualize the process at the operator’s station.

Keywords

  • social engineering system
  • distributed control system
  • operator reliability
Open Access

The Concept of an it System Supporting the Processes of Operating Technical Facilities in the Military

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 265 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

This manuscript was dedicated to the IT logistics and operation support system of technical facilities in the military. At the beginning, there was a brief description of the integrated ZWSI RON IT system’s genesis and a characterization of the basic functions of the aforementioned system. The advantages of the IT system have been highlighted, which facilitates the process of controlling the logistics and the operation of technical facilities. Attention was also drawn to the key issues related to the analysis of primary operational characteristics, such as readiness, weapon reliability and military equipment. In the end, a proposal to solve the identified operational problems was submitted by formulating the assumptions for a modern IT system for the Polish Armed Forces.

Keywords

  • IT system
  • operation support
  • system efficiency
Open Access

Counteracting Unmanned Aerial Systems in the Operational Area of Airports

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 285 - 293

Abstract

Abstract

Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are treated as an opportunity, a challenge and a threat to airports, but the author decided to focus on the last aspect, in particular on countering UAS in operational area of airports. Due to the above, this article aims to address the characteristics of systems used to counteract and combat (neutralize) UAV in the airport’s operational area. There are used the following research methods: analysis, synthesis, inference, comparison, abstracting and expert interview. To achieve the assumed aim, the author performed two research tasks: presentation of the importance of unmanned aerial systems as well as identification and discussion of the selected threats to airports resulting from the use of unmanned aerial systems. The presented material shows that countering unmanned aerial systems is a complex issue which requires the use of a com-bination of different solutions.

Keywords

  • unmanned aerial system
  • threat
  • safety
  • technology
  • human factor
Open Access

An Efficient Algorithm for 2-Dimensional Pattern Matching Problem

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 295 - 313

Abstract

Abstract

Pattern matching is the area of computer science which deals with security and analysis of data. This work proposes two 2D pattern matching algorithms based on two different input domains. The first algorithm is for the case when the given pattern contains only two symbols, that is, binary symbols 0 and 1. The second algorithm is in the case when the given pattern contains decimal numbers, that is, the collection of symbols between 0 and 9. The algorithms proposed in this manuscript convert the given pattern into an equivalent binary or decimal number, correspondingly find the cofactors of the same dimension and convert these cofactors into numbers if a particular cofactor number matches indicate the matching of the pattern. Furthermore, the algorithm is enhanced for decimal numbers. In the case of decimal numbers, each row of the pattern is changed to its decimal equivalent, and then, modulo with a suitable prime number changes the decimal equivalent into a number less than the prime number. If the number mismatched pattern does not exist, the complexity of the proposed algorithm is very low as compared to other traditional algorithms.

Keywords

  • 2-dimensional
  • algorithm
  • cofactors
  • complexity
Open Access

Phenomena of Adiabatic Shear Bands Forming of Structural Steels Under Impact Load Conditions

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 315 - 337

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of an experimental study on adiabatic shear bands (ASB) in two grades of steel with three different microstructures. Samples were subjected to impact forces in order to obtain a targeted shear band. The process of deforming the samples was carried out with a bar impact rod moving at high speeds in the range of 1.4 m/s to 16.5 m/s was carried out. Microstructural studies of deformed samples were performed using the Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) method. The results of the experiments show that the ASB type depends on the initial microstructure of the material and the deformation speed. It has been shown that, depending on the type of microstructure, ASBs are characterized by a different mechanism of formation and show different character.

Keywords

  • adiabatic shear bands
  • dynamic deformation
  • 40HM steel
  • 04J steel
Open Access

Literature Review on the Rail Transport Schedule Robustness

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 339 - 358

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents issues concerning rail transport (rail, metro and tramway) and factors influencing the planned implementation of the schedule. At the beginning, the scope of application of the robustness concept was analysed, based on scientific and industry literature. Then the attention was focused on the model of the rail transport system and the schedule, the basic indicator of robustness assessment was discussed, taking into account the methods of analysis used and many variables occurring in rail transport. Finally, a review of the state of knowledge is summarised and the most important observations from the analysis are indicated. In the case of a robust schedule there is no propagation of disruption across the network after an adverse event has occurred.

Keywords

  • robustness
  • timetable
  • train delays
  • transport
  • management
  • planning
Open Access

Decision-Making Problems of Collective Transport Development in Terms of Sustainable Urban Mobility

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 359 - 375

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents decision problems related to the development of transport systems facing planning challenges of sustainable urban mobility. Currently, city decision-makers must deal with growing difficulties related to the organisation of public transport systems. These difficulties involve the primary need for effective and ecological public transport systems and the capacity of transport service providers. These issues require a wide spectrum of research and analysis to determine expected future economic and social benefits from the implementation of environmentally friendly infrastructure investments and increasing capacity of service providers. The paper touches on the problem of the so-called green mobility in urban areas and the main management strategies associated with its development. A general formulation of the decision model, including boundary conditions and the criteria function using a sum of revenues from making the public transport offer more attractive, were proposed and discussed.

Keywords

  • urban mobility
  • preferences of choice
  • transport ecology
  • urban transport
  • green mobility
  • transport decision models
Open Access

Tests and Assessment of the Contact Surface of Selected Measuring Tires of Friction Testers with the Airport Surface Depending on Changes in Pressure and Load

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 377 - 397

Abstract

Abstract

The basis of the work was to estimate the relationship between wheel pressure and wheel pressure on the surface, and the size of the contact surface. The article presents world experience in the field and presents the theoretical basis for calculating the contact area of a wheel with the road surface. The tests were carried out for two types of tires - ASTM E-1551 and ASFT T520. The tests proved a significant influence of the wheel pressure value and wheel pressure on the surface on the obtained surface area of the wheel contact with the surface.

Keywords

  • airfield pavements
  • friction tester tire
  • tire-surface contact area
  • skid resistance
Open Access

Is the Common Technical Solution Always an Insignificant Change?

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 399 - 421

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents problems related to the implementation of railway investments related to obtaining authorization for placing in service of structural subsystems. The main purpose of the investment is to increase speed on railway lines while keeping or improving the level of safety. All modernized railway lines are subject to the certification process. Any interference in the certified subsystem involves the need to assess the introduced change in accordance with the requirements of the common safety method for risk evaluation and assessment. Such assessment may also generate various interpretation problems, therefore it is necessary to assess the impact of implemented investments on already built-in devices of the control - command and signalling subsystem - trackside equipment.

Keywords

  • certification
  • control - command and signalling subsystem
  • authorization for permission
23 Articles
Open Access

Application of the FMEA Method for the Risk Assessment in Raliway Transport According to the Requirements of PN-EN IEC 60812:2018-12 Standard

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 1 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the procedure of performing the safety assessment using the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) method, according to the latest version of the PN-EN IEC 60812:2018 standard. The attention was paid to the application of the method for the assemblies and subassemblies of rail vehicles, for which it is increasingly used. The example used in the following paper refers to the fire protection system of a rail vehicle that meets the requirements of the PN-EN IEC 60812:2018 standard. Performing the risk assessment at the design stage of railway products is a part of the customer’s requirements and is a key factor in the certification and placing them in service.

Keywords

  • FMEA
  • safety assessment
  • rail vehicles
Open Access

Reverse Logistics as a Burden in the Context of Airport

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 19 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

From the perspective of management, reverse logistics constitutes a certain burden to the functioning of airports. In the light of the State Transport Policy for 2006 - 2025, the operation of such facilities in a manner that will enable the fulfillment of specific reverse logistics needs without causing threats becomes an important objective of airport security. The focus of reverse logistics is waste flows, and, in addition to returns, reverse logistics also takes into account the protection of natural resources and minimization of pollution. Reverse logistics is characterized by the fact that the direction of the flow of goods that have been partially utilized, but still have a certain value that can be recovered, is opposite to that in a traditional distribution channel. The article focuses on public security from the perspective of environmental threats, on the basis of the results of research studies in waste reverse logistics, at selected Polish civil airports, as a potential risk factor for ground operations in air transport.

Keywords

  • airport
  • environmental protection
  • waste
  • logistics
Open Access

The Process of Storing Aviation Parts in the Context of Flight Safety

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 29 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes the general principles of storing aviation products as well as a classification of individual groups of stock range. Moreover, the general chara-cteristics of storage processes are covered. The main factors that have an influence on the quality of stored products are discussed. The option to use an IT system for warehouse management is also mentioned. The main part of this manuscript analyzes the risk of storage processes. Based on this analysis, the cause-and-result relationships between product storage errors and authorization of a faulty product to use. Hence, the most probable storage errors and their sources are indicated. This enabled to determine the methods to improve flight safety due to reduction of errors in storage management.

Keywords

  • storage
  • storage processes
  • storing
  • flight safety
Open Access

Indicator Analysis of Security Risk for Electronic Systems Used to Protect Field Command Posts of Army Groupings

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 43 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a method for determining the security risk indicator for electronic systems that are used to secure field command posts (FCP). Security of FCP of army groupings is a property of the process they carry out which is related to the tasks and functions performed, the human, hardware and environment components. Determining the security risk indicator for FCPs with different organizational structures will allow optimal organization of integrated electronic security systems, including: selection of these devices, their configuration, project implementation and optimal implementation of technical structures, which should also take into account reliability and operational aspects.

Keywords

  • field command posts
  • electronic security system
Open Access

Simulation-Based Forecasting of the Reliability of Systems Consisting of Elements Described by a Number of Failure Probability Distributions

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 63 - 82

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the developed simulation model enabling the evaluation of the reliability of technical objects, which in the process of operation is subjected to several different groups of factors causing their failures. Probability distributions of failures resulting from wear and random factors are used in the developed model to estimate the time of operation of the elements and the reliability of the system. The developed model together with the appropriate computer program is a tool of significant importance for design and operational practice. It enables decision-makers to estimate the reliability of elements and the whole system before the beginning of their operation.

Keywords

  • simulation
  • reliability
  • causes of failures
Open Access

Studying the Wear of Titanium Thread of Aircraft Fuel Filter

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 83 - 105

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the tests that were conducted to examine the possibility of the fuel filter shank’s thread shearing under the impact of hydrostatic pressure. Increased wear due to friction was confirmed on the threads of the titanium shanks that were tested, together with significantly reduced wear of the mating threads and steel sleeves. Shearing tests confirmed that to shear a thread that is worn to a degree similar to the threads that were tested, it is necessary to apply eight times more static pressure than the maximum pressure in the filter. A comparison of the shape of the coils of the thread that was subjected to the pressure test with the thread from the damaged filter demonstrated a significant difference in the wearing of these elements due to friction.

Keywords

  • titanium
  • titanium alloys
  • tribology
  • shearing
  • fuel filter
  • thread connection
  • replica testing
  • pressure tests
Open Access

Application of Infrared Spectrometry in Studying Fuels and Biofules for Aircraft Turbine Engines

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 107 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

The research paper presents hydrocarbon biocomponents approved for use in aircraft turbine engines. The properties of these biocomponents are governed by ASTM D 7566 standard. One of the new issues regarding the utilization of fuels for aircraft turbine engines is the identification of non-petroleum elements, including hydrocarbon biocom-ponents. This article proposes applying infrared spectrometry as a technique for in-strumental analysis, which enables quick and qualitative identification of a used hydro-carbon biocomponent. Differences in the infrared spectrum between the mineral fuel and used fuel biocomponent were indicated based on the conducted preliminary tests.

Keywords

  • infrared spectrophotometry
  • fuel for aircraft turbine engines
  • hydrocarbon biocomponent
Open Access

Method for Improving the Aircraft Hydraulic Drives Ability to Work

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 127 - 144

Abstract

Abstract

One of the approaches to ensure friction stability in hydraulic precise pairs can be coating their components with low-friction materials with the friction coating method using a metal, e.g. brass. The article presents the method of applying brass on the steel surface of a hydraulic pair using friction. It discusses the technology of brass plating of hydraulic precise pairs and the results of laboratory tests involving friction-brasses hydraulic precise pairs. The factors impacting the quality of brass-coating process of hydraulic precise pairs and the requirements set for hydraulic precise pairs subject to friction-brassing were also discussed.

Keywords

  • aviation
  • aircraft
  • hydraulic drive
  • reliability
Open Access

Modernisation of LEMACH 6 Design-Research Method as a Reliability Engineering Tool

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 145 - 164

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the developed design-research method for mechanical objects, which is a modernisation of the sequential-iterative design method LEMACH 6. As part of the design process organised by method guidelines, a number of activities related to designed object’s reliability testing and engineering were included. The article charac-terises selected design methods, with particular emphasis on the LEMACH 6 method. Next, assumptions were made regarding the development and use of the proposed solution, and a diagram and detailed analysis of individual elements of the new method were presented. The developed method enables the organisation of design works, allowing one to rapidly create new solutions and avoid mistakes during designing.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • design method
  • designing
Open Access

Ecological and Functional Aspects of Operation of Electric Vehicles With Fuel Cell

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 165 - 176

Abstract

Abstract

Hydrogen can have great importance in seven areas of necessary changes in the transformation of the power system, including transport (especially motor transport), industrial processes, thermal and energy production in the construction industry and production processes. Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) do not cause local air pollution because they have zero “tailpipe” emissions. Essential are ecological and func-tional aspects of operating vehicles equipped with fuel cells. However, noteworthy is also the development of the refilling infrastructure. The functionality of FCEVs to a considerable degree depends on the functionality of fuel cells.

Keywords

  • ecology
  • vehicles (FCEV)
  • infrastructure
Open Access

The Environmental Research of the Pneumatic Parachute Rescue System for UAV Vertical Take-Off and Landing

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 177 - 197

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the article is the environmental research of the Pneumatic Para-chute Rescue System (PPRS) for an unmanned aerial vehicle, in which the parachute will be initiated from the reservoir by means of compressed carbon dioxide (CO2) stored in a special chamber. The research team has developed a program for researching the natural environment to simulate the conditions that may occur during the operation of an unmanned aerial vehicle and thus the Pneumatic Parachute Rescue System. UAV emergency scenarios were developed in which the developed rescue system should operate.

Keywords

  • parachute
  • UAV
  • environmental research
Open Access

Magnetic Tests of SNA - HP-59A Kinematic Connection Details in the RD-33 Engine

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 199 - 218

Abstract

Abstract

Aspects of assessing the technical condition of selected elements of the kinematic system in the renovation of RD-33 engines have been presented. In the beginning, typical operational problems have been discussed, and the test object was defined. Then, the theoretical foundations of three non-destructive testing methods based on magnetic field measurement were discussed. Next, the preliminary results of the research of a defective gear obtained by the magnetic metal memory method are presented. Finally, the conclusions have been made.

Keywords

  • transport
  • power unit
  • gear
  • non-destructive testing
Open Access

Analysis of modernization influence on main battle tank properties

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 219 - 230

Abstract

Abstract

Functional quality of caterpillar fighting vehicles can be assessed upon its original project design and technical characteristics. However, lapse of time, technical and technological progress, battlefield dynamics, new and evolving threats can negatively verify both offensive and defensive effectiveness of such vehicles. As a result, appears need of modernization addressing new threats and requirements. Main goal of modernization is to achieve advantage over potential enemy fighting vehicles. This work is an attempt to analyse possible development patches and despite technological and materials progress inseparable increase of the vehicle’s combat weight on operating capabilities of such vehicles.

Keywords

  • tank
  • weight
  • load
Open Access

The Research Into the Integrity Parameter in Air Transport Using GLONASS Data

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 231 - 241

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the results of the integrity parameter of the GLONASS satellite positioning system in civil aviation. As a source material for the research the authors used observation and navigation data of the GLONASS system from the onboard GNSS receiver mounted on the Cessna 172. In the research, the authors used a model to determine the aircraft position based on the single-frequency SPP code method for GLONASS L1-C/A observations. The numerical calculations were conducted in the RTKLIB software, in the RTKPOST library. The obtained results are interesting from the point of using an application of the GLONASS system in aviation and the possible implementation of the single-frequency GLONASS code observations in the SPP model in order to determine the aircraft position. On the basis of the obtained results it was found that the GLONASS integrity performance data can be used in a procedure of non-precision approach to landing NPA GNSS.

Keywords

  • GPS
  • GLONASS
  • integrity
  • SPP code method
  • air transport
Open Access

Selected Tools Increasing Human Reliability in the Antropotechnical System

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 243 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

Distributed control systems (DCS) consist of process stations, operator stations, engineering stations and other elements, which all enable the exchange of data between industrial systems. Process stations are industrial controllers. They manage process control. Operator stations are used for visualisation and operator interactions. Engineering stations are designed for configuration, programming and executing control and visualisation software. Elements of the DCS system are connected by an industrial network. DCS must be properly designed, commissioned, used and operated. There is a human factor in each of these phases of the system’s existence. The article discusses software tools that increase human reliability in such a system, made in the visualisation package, i.e. the graphic environment used to visualize the process at the operator’s station.

Keywords

  • social engineering system
  • distributed control system
  • operator reliability
Open Access

The Concept of an it System Supporting the Processes of Operating Technical Facilities in the Military

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 265 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

This manuscript was dedicated to the IT logistics and operation support system of technical facilities in the military. At the beginning, there was a brief description of the integrated ZWSI RON IT system’s genesis and a characterization of the basic functions of the aforementioned system. The advantages of the IT system have been highlighted, which facilitates the process of controlling the logistics and the operation of technical facilities. Attention was also drawn to the key issues related to the analysis of primary operational characteristics, such as readiness, weapon reliability and military equipment. In the end, a proposal to solve the identified operational problems was submitted by formulating the assumptions for a modern IT system for the Polish Armed Forces.

Keywords

  • IT system
  • operation support
  • system efficiency
Open Access

Counteracting Unmanned Aerial Systems in the Operational Area of Airports

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 285 - 293

Abstract

Abstract

Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are treated as an opportunity, a challenge and a threat to airports, but the author decided to focus on the last aspect, in particular on countering UAS in operational area of airports. Due to the above, this article aims to address the characteristics of systems used to counteract and combat (neutralize) UAV in the airport’s operational area. There are used the following research methods: analysis, synthesis, inference, comparison, abstracting and expert interview. To achieve the assumed aim, the author performed two research tasks: presentation of the importance of unmanned aerial systems as well as identification and discussion of the selected threats to airports resulting from the use of unmanned aerial systems. The presented material shows that countering unmanned aerial systems is a complex issue which requires the use of a com-bination of different solutions.

Keywords

  • unmanned aerial system
  • threat
  • safety
  • technology
  • human factor
Open Access

An Efficient Algorithm for 2-Dimensional Pattern Matching Problem

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 295 - 313

Abstract

Abstract

Pattern matching is the area of computer science which deals with security and analysis of data. This work proposes two 2D pattern matching algorithms based on two different input domains. The first algorithm is for the case when the given pattern contains only two symbols, that is, binary symbols 0 and 1. The second algorithm is in the case when the given pattern contains decimal numbers, that is, the collection of symbols between 0 and 9. The algorithms proposed in this manuscript convert the given pattern into an equivalent binary or decimal number, correspondingly find the cofactors of the same dimension and convert these cofactors into numbers if a particular cofactor number matches indicate the matching of the pattern. Furthermore, the algorithm is enhanced for decimal numbers. In the case of decimal numbers, each row of the pattern is changed to its decimal equivalent, and then, modulo with a suitable prime number changes the decimal equivalent into a number less than the prime number. If the number mismatched pattern does not exist, the complexity of the proposed algorithm is very low as compared to other traditional algorithms.

Keywords

  • 2-dimensional
  • algorithm
  • cofactors
  • complexity
Open Access

Phenomena of Adiabatic Shear Bands Forming of Structural Steels Under Impact Load Conditions

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 315 - 337

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of an experimental study on adiabatic shear bands (ASB) in two grades of steel with three different microstructures. Samples were subjected to impact forces in order to obtain a targeted shear band. The process of deforming the samples was carried out with a bar impact rod moving at high speeds in the range of 1.4 m/s to 16.5 m/s was carried out. Microstructural studies of deformed samples were performed using the Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) method. The results of the experiments show that the ASB type depends on the initial microstructure of the material and the deformation speed. It has been shown that, depending on the type of microstructure, ASBs are characterized by a different mechanism of formation and show different character.

Keywords

  • adiabatic shear bands
  • dynamic deformation
  • 40HM steel
  • 04J steel
Open Access

Literature Review on the Rail Transport Schedule Robustness

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 339 - 358

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents issues concerning rail transport (rail, metro and tramway) and factors influencing the planned implementation of the schedule. At the beginning, the scope of application of the robustness concept was analysed, based on scientific and industry literature. Then the attention was focused on the model of the rail transport system and the schedule, the basic indicator of robustness assessment was discussed, taking into account the methods of analysis used and many variables occurring in rail transport. Finally, a review of the state of knowledge is summarised and the most important observations from the analysis are indicated. In the case of a robust schedule there is no propagation of disruption across the network after an adverse event has occurred.

Keywords

  • robustness
  • timetable
  • train delays
  • transport
  • management
  • planning
Open Access

Decision-Making Problems of Collective Transport Development in Terms of Sustainable Urban Mobility

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 359 - 375

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents decision problems related to the development of transport systems facing planning challenges of sustainable urban mobility. Currently, city decision-makers must deal with growing difficulties related to the organisation of public transport systems. These difficulties involve the primary need for effective and ecological public transport systems and the capacity of transport service providers. These issues require a wide spectrum of research and analysis to determine expected future economic and social benefits from the implementation of environmentally friendly infrastructure investments and increasing capacity of service providers. The paper touches on the problem of the so-called green mobility in urban areas and the main management strategies associated with its development. A general formulation of the decision model, including boundary conditions and the criteria function using a sum of revenues from making the public transport offer more attractive, were proposed and discussed.

Keywords

  • urban mobility
  • preferences of choice
  • transport ecology
  • urban transport
  • green mobility
  • transport decision models
Open Access

Tests and Assessment of the Contact Surface of Selected Measuring Tires of Friction Testers with the Airport Surface Depending on Changes in Pressure and Load

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 377 - 397

Abstract

Abstract

The basis of the work was to estimate the relationship between wheel pressure and wheel pressure on the surface, and the size of the contact surface. The article presents world experience in the field and presents the theoretical basis for calculating the contact area of a wheel with the road surface. The tests were carried out for two types of tires - ASTM E-1551 and ASFT T520. The tests proved a significant influence of the wheel pressure value and wheel pressure on the surface on the obtained surface area of the wheel contact with the surface.

Keywords

  • airfield pavements
  • friction tester tire
  • tire-surface contact area
  • skid resistance
Open Access

Is the Common Technical Solution Always an Insignificant Change?

Published Online: 22 Jun 2020
Page range: 399 - 421

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents problems related to the implementation of railway investments related to obtaining authorization for placing in service of structural subsystems. The main purpose of the investment is to increase speed on railway lines while keeping or improving the level of safety. All modernized railway lines are subject to the certification process. Any interference in the certified subsystem involves the need to assess the introduced change in accordance with the requirements of the common safety method for risk evaluation and assessment. Such assessment may also generate various interpretation problems, therefore it is necessary to assess the impact of implemented investments on already built-in devices of the control - command and signalling subsystem - trackside equipment.

Keywords

  • certification
  • control - command and signalling subsystem
  • authorization for permission

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