Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 3 (October 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 3 (October 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 3 (October 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 48 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 47 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 46 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 45 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 44 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 43 (2017): Issue 1 (October 2017)

Volume 42 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 41 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 40 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 39 (2016): Issue 1 (October 2016)

Volume 38 (2016): Issue 1 (October 2016)

Volume 37 (2016): Issue 1 (July 2016)

Volume 36 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 35 (2015): Issue 1 (November 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 33 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 32 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 31 (2014): Issue 1 (September 2014)

Volume 30 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)

Volume 29 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 27 (2014): Issue 1 (February 2014)

Volume 26 (2013): Issue 1 (June 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 24 (2012): Issue 1 (December 2012)

Volume 23 (2012): Issue 1 (September 2012)

Volume 22 (2012): Issue 1 (June 2012)

Volume 21 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Volume 20 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Volume 14-15 (2010): Issue 2010 (December 2010)

Volume 13 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Volume 11-12 (2009): Issue 1 (December 2009)

Volume 9-10 (2009): Issue 1 (January 2009)

Volume 8 (2008): Issue 1 (December 2008)

Volume 7 (2008): Issue 4 (December 2008)

Volume 6 (2008): Issue 3 (September 2008)

Volume 5 (2008): Issue 2 (June 2008)

Volume 4 (2008): Issue 1 (March 2008)

Volume 3 (2007): Issue 2007 (January 2007)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

23 Articles
Open Access

The Concept of Risk Analysis of Actions Taken in the Reconstruction of Technical Infrastructure in the Areas After the Disaster on the Example of Syria

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 1 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the article is the time-cost analysis of the risk of actions taken in the reconstruction of technical infrastructure (in particular housing) in the areas after the disaster on the example of Syria. As a result of the analysis of actions taken at the reconstruction of the technical (housing) infrastructure in the areas after the disaster, an attempt was made to identify the inconveniences in the management of the risk of targeted activity after the incident. Requests for efficient planning of technical (residential) infrastructure projects have been developed, including foreseeable future natural hazards.

Keywords

  • risk assessment
  • post-disaster infrastructure
  • reconstruction concept model
Open Access

Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation Model for Risk Assessment the Power Systems for Electromobility Use

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 15 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

A simulation model to evaluate risks in Power Systems including green energy sources to generate electricity for electro mobility use is presented in the paper. The model allows to calculate risk indicator that characterize the performance of the Power Systems. The model considers the additional risks of wind and solar variability in the Power Systems, through wind farms and PV farms, respectively. Also, in the recent years, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) on the road have been rapidly increasing. Charging this increasing number of EVs is expected to have an impact on the power grid especially if high charging powers and opportunistic charging are used. Multiple papers have observed that the charging stations are used by multiple users during the day. In a context where electric mobility is gaining increasing importance as a more sustainable solution for urban environments, this work presents the optimization of charging profiles of the potential users of these charging stations. We analyzed the charging profiles in a power grid with renewables sources of energy and we determine the optimal charging profiles for the power grid based on maximizing the energy delivered by renewable sources of energy.

Keywords

  • Power system
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Markov chains
Open Access

The Concept of a Sustainable Urban Transport System Model for Developing Countries on the Example of Lagos

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 29 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the article is the concept of a sustainable urban transport system model for developing countries on the example of Lagos in Nigeria. The city of Lagos is the largest and most populated city in Africa. Nowadays, the state of Lagos is facing many challenges, and the problem of urban transport is becoming more and more important due to the increase in the number of inhabitants and the size of the city. Significant problems were identified in the urban transport system in the Lagos state, and conceptual solutions were proposed taking into account the approach of sustainable development.

Keywords

  • risk urban transport
  • sustainable development
  • safety in transportation
Open Access

Requirements of the 4th Railway Package Towards Safety Management Systems

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 39 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

In accordance with the new requirements of rail law, from June 2020, a railway undertaking or rail infrastructure manager applying for a single safety certificate/ authorization should demonstrate compliance with the relevant requirements of the Safety Management System (SMS) set out in the Commission delegated regulation (UE) 2018/762. To this end, he should provide proof to the national safety authority or, where applicable, to the European Union Agency for Railway Safety, of the establishment of a safety management system in accordance with Art. 9 of Directive (EU) 2016/798. According to Regulation, the organization should describe the scope of the safety management system, indicating which parts of the business are covered by it, considering legal requirements. The publication attempts to identify necessary changes and additions to hitherto functioning SMS.

Keywords

  • safety
  • railway
  • Safety Management System
  • IV railway package
Open Access

Impact of Using a Filter in a Direct Gasoline Injection Engine Exhaust System on the Emitted Particle Mass and Number

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 61 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents emission test results comparison carried out on a dynamic engine dynamometer. Parameters were recorded during a drive made in accordance with the requirements of the RDE. Test bench allowed to determine the particle mass and number emission in the repetitive engine operation conditions. One of three used elements wan an OEM solution from one of particulate filters producers, the other was intended for use in original systems, the third was a custom product. The highest efficiency of particulate filtration was demonstrated by the last filter, which was adapted to the engine.

Keywords

  • GPF
  • particle mass
  • particle number
  • GDI engine
Open Access

Reliability Aspects of the Effect of Application 2% and 8% Ferro-Oil as a Lubricant in a Slide Journal Bearing on its Operating Parameters

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 77 - 93

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of using ferro-oil with 2% or 8% concentration of the magnetic particles as the lubricant of the slide journal bearing on its operating parameters regarding the reliability aspect. There has been presented an analytical and numerical calculation model based on experimentally determined physical quantities describing the dependence of viscosity of ferro-oil on fundamental parameters in the paper. Numerical calculations were performed by solving the Reynold’s type equation using the finite difference method using Mathcad 15 and own calculation procedures.

Keywords

  • slide journal bearing
  • ferro-oil
  • operating parameters
  • reliability
Open Access

Decision Trees in the Tests of Artillery Igniters

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 95 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

The article addressed the method for building decision trees paying attention to the binary character of the tree structure. The methodology for building our decision tree for KW-4 igniters was presented. It involves determining features of tested igniters and applied predictors, which are necessary to create the correct model of the tree. The classification tree was built based on the possessed test results, determining the adopted post-diagnostic decision as the qualitative independent variable. The schema of the resultant classification tree and the full structure of this tree together with the results in end nodes were shown. The obtained graphic and tabular sequence of the designed tree was characterized, and the prediction accuracy was evaluated on the basis of the resultant matrix of incorrect classifications. The quality of the resultant predictive model was assessed on the basis of the chosen examples by means of the ‘ROC’ curve and the graph of the cumulative value of increase coefficient.

Keywords

  • decision trees
  • igniter
  • node
  • branch
  • leaf
  • laboratory tests
Open Access

Optimization Model for Planning Set of Measures to Prevent Occupational Injuries in Machine-Building Enterprises

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 117 - 129

Abstract

Abstract

Criteria of occupational injuries potential risk in the machine-building industry are described in the article. Systemic analysis of the structure of the measures to prevent occupational injuries is given. Main tasks to reduce the risk of industrial injury at the machine-building enterprise are analysed. The methodology for optimal planning of accident prevention measures at the machine-building enterprise is described. A mathematical interpretation of the problem is given. The objective function is an argument of the maximum integral effectiveness for the set of planned measures to prevent occupational injuries. Constraint set of the optimization model describes the impossibility to exceed the allowable limit of cost, the feasibility and the possibility of implementing the measure’s plan reasoning from the technological and construction requirements of existing production engineering.

Keywords

  • safety
  • occupational injury
  • accident
  • risk
  • injury source
  • optimization model
Open Access

Reliability Approach to Resilience of Critical Infrastructure Impacted by Operation Process

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 131 - 153

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on a critical infrastructure reliability and resilience to its operation process and particularly is devoted to critical infrastructure reliability and resilience indicators. First, the model of critical infrastructure reliability without considering outside impacts is proposed and applied to determine the port oil terminal reliability indicators. In the next step, the operation impact model of critical infrastructure reliability is created and applied to reliability and resilience analysis of the port oil terminal. The comparison of the port oil terminal critical infrastructure reliability indicators without considering outside impacts with indicators considering impact of its operation process is performed. A significant influence of the operation process on the port oil terminal reliability is proved.

Keywords

  • critical infrastructure
  • reliability
  • operation process
  • risk
  • resilience
Open Access

Monte Carlo Simulation Approach to Reliability Analysis of Complex Systems

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 155 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents new results concerned with general procedures and algorithms to assess the reliability of complex systems with various reliability structures. The analytical method and based on it the simulation method were used to estimate the reliability characteristics of the port grain transportation system. Finally, the general simulation algorithm was developed to evaluate the reliability characteristics of ageing complex systems. In this case, the systems operating processes were described by any distributions of sojourn times in operation states and the reliability functions of their components were modified in such a way that these components are not characterized by a “lack of memory”. The application of this algorithm has been illustrated by the results for exemplary complex two-state systems.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • complex system
  • Monte Carlo simulation
Open Access

On Designing an Expert Diagnostic System of the Aircraft Turbine Engine Functional Units

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 171 - 192

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents issues related to the design of an expert diagnostic system of turbine engine functional units. Dedicated diagnostic stations and on-board flight data recorders are the sources of diagnostic signals. The signals were parameterized or identified dynamic models to get a compact representation in the form of a set of parameters. The set of diagnostic parameters was subjected to integer encoding. On this basis, a multi-valued diagnostic model describing the relationship between the set of faults and the set of symptoms (code values of diagnostic parameters) was determined. The proposed approach can be used in the design of expert diagnostic systems for propulsion units of any aircraft.

Keywords

  • turbine engine
  • signal parameterization
  • multi-valued diagnostic model
  • diagnostic expert system
Open Access

Applying Protective Coating on the Turbine Engine Turbine Blades by Means of Plasma Spraying

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 193 - 213

Abstract

Abstract

The tendency to increase the temperature of gases and the desire to extend the service life forces the use of a protective coating on the blade. The publication presents the technology of applying a heat-resistant protective coating onto the jet engine turbine blade by means of plasma thermal spraying, taking into account the process of aluminizing and heat treatment after aluminizing. The paper presents the results of work on the possibilities of shaping the thickness of the protective coating on the blade by changing the parameters of the spraying process, such as spraying distance, amount of hydrogen, amount of argon and the number of torch passes.

Keywords

  • turbojet engine
  • engine turbine
  • turbine blade
  • protective coating
Open Access

Application of the GWR Model for Predicting the Road Fatalities Rate on the Road Network in the Nuts 3 Regions in Europe on the Example of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 215 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the application of the GWR (Geographically Weighted Regression) model to the description of differences in the level of road traffic safety in individual counties on the example of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The GWR model developed for counties, taking into account the diversity of NUTS 3 regions, can be a helpful tool for traffic safety management in voivodships and lower administrative units, and such an approach has not yet been applied.

Keywords

  • road safety
  • GWR models
  • NUTS 3 regions
  • fatalities
Open Access

The Automated System of Optical Observation and Tracking of Space Objects

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 237 - 258

Abstract

Abstract

Having a fleet of artificial satellites necessitates the construction of a system that will enable obtaining information on the situation in the Earth orbit (Space Situation Awareness - SSA). Such systems are built either as active radar systems or as passive optical systems. The automated system of optical observation and tracking of space objects (ASOPEK) consists of two optical systems (wide-angle and narrow-angle) and software enabling: detection of artificial satellites in the field of view of the system, identification of detected objects, updating the satellite database with unknown objects, updating orbits of observed objects. The ASOPEK system was created as part of a project financed by the National Center for Research and Development No. DOB-BIO7/25/02/2015.

Keywords

  • satellite
  • LEO
  • telescope
  • SSA
  • SST
Open Access

Thermal Stress in Concrete Slab of the Airfield Pavement

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 259 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

Stress occurring in concrete pavement slab changes on daily and annual basis. Daily changes of air temperature in between environments depend on the following: latitude where the structure is located and season. Change of air temperature causes the variable thermal stress of a slab and consequently change of its linear dimensions (slab extension or shortening. “Thermal balance of pavement” prepared for individual structure solutions, should be the basis for construction design and geometric solutions concerning air field structure. This publication refers only to natural changes of temperature conditions of the environment. Other phenomena occurring on concrete airfield pavement under the influence of imposed thermal loads will be the subject of another publication in this regard.

Keywords

  • concrete pavement
  • thermal balance of the surface
  • daily and annual cycles of temperature changes
  • amplitude of temperature changes
Open Access

Mathematical Model of Military Equipment Products Maintenance for the Condition-Based Operation Strategy Taking Into Account Type I Errors

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 269 - 281

Abstract

Abstract

For military equipment products maintained according to the condition-based operation strategy with control of parameters a mathematical model is constructed using semi-Markov random process. The diffusion-monotonic distribution law which is inherent in mechanical type products is taken for the fault model. The model takes into account type I errors. The analytical dependence of the utilization factor on the parameters of the scale and shape of the diffusion-monotonic distribution, the of regulated maintenance periodicity, the duration of complete restoration of a sample of equipment, the reliability of its control, is established. Graphs of the dependence of the utilization factor on the given parameters of the model are shown.

Keywords

  • mathematical model
  • military equipment products
  • type I errors
Open Access

Selected Aspects of Phonoscopic Examinations of Aircraft Records. Part II

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 283 - 303

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents crucial aspects related to examinations of records from cockpit voice recorders (CVR) and the possible effects of the application of digital correction of these type of records. It also presents the resulting limitations concerning phonoscopic recognition examinations of speakers and determining the content of their utterances. A method for the real reduction of the described limitations was suggested. Part II of the article describes research experiments conducted at Air Force Institute of Technology.

Keywords

  • cockpit voice recorders
  • flight safety
  • investigation of the reasons for aircraft incidents
Open Access

Methodology for Conducting Preliminary and State Tests of an Aerial Jet Target Set

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 305 - 318

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a methodology for the implementation of preliminary and state tests on the example of the project entitled “Jet air targets with a programmable flight route” conducted by the Air Force Institute of Technology. The experience in the field of maneuvering aerial targets has allowed for implementation of an aerial jet target set. The further stages of research necessary to implement the set for operation have been presented. Investigations of the aerial jet targets were carried out based on the regulations in force in the Polish Armed Forces.

Keywords

  • aerial jet target
  • state tests
Open Access

Analysis of the Operation of the Ground Handling Agent in the Aspect of Safety

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 319 - 339

Abstract

Abstract

The role of the human factor in aviation is a critical element for the safety of flight operations. It is described by methods such as SHELL and BowTie, which propose solutions to minimize the risk of occurrence of aviation events. The work presents the development of these concepts by introducing the method of testing the predisposition of airport staff using a specialized system which is the Polipsychograph - a system dedicated to designing and carrying out psychological tasks testing human mental, cognitive and motor skills in connection with the assessment of his professional capabilities. The work contains the results of 40 tests performed on employees dealing with airport ground handling on a daily basis. Research has shown that the employee’s predisposition depends on the quality of work entrusted to him. The paper presents a method of assessing the psychophysical predisposition of an employee allowing him to be directed to work corresponding to his qualifications.

Keywords

  • human factor
  • handling
  • airport
Open Access

Analysis of Fan Blade Vibration with a Non-Contact Method

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 341 - 357

Abstract

Abstract

Composite fan blades are more and more common both in aviation and ground applications. This work aims to characterize the vibration parameters of plastic blades installed in a wind tunnel fan by a non-contact method, namely blade tip timing (BTT). Blade dynamics was predicted with finite element modelling (FEM) and confirmed experimentally by tip timing measurements and analysis of data. BTT results were acquired and compared in two different configurations. A good agreement between predicted and measured frequency values was obtained for the fundamental mode. Significant differences were observed for the second and third modes due to material anisotropy and contact effects which could not be modelled because necessary material data were unavailable.

Keywords

  • blade vibration
  • composite blade
  • non-contact measurement
  • wind tunnel
  • axial fan
  • tip timing
  • vibration analysis
Open Access

A New Strategy for Developing of Space Logistics

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 359 - 370

Abstract

Abstract

This paper shows a new strategy for developing of space logistics which is supported by safety engineering for the operational techniques and technologies in space. A new strategy is a very important for developing of space technology because account improvement range and its independence from most terrestrial network failures. The developing space logistics is observable during make of satellites which are ensuring wide-ranging continuous information flow among people, businesses and governments for assuring of safety and security when terrestrial network connections are disrupted. The main goal in this publication is presenting example of analysis and assessment in an industrial enterprise of space logistics.

Keywords

  • engineering system
  • space logistics
  • innovation
Open Access

Assessment of Glycol Antifreeze to Combustion Engines in the Perspective of Using them in the Infrastructure HVAC Systems

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 371 - 389

Abstract

Abstract

Corrosion inhibitors in the antifreeze include both inorganic and organic compounds. Organic additives applied in the antifreeze usually form thinner protective coatings. In spite of this fact, it is believed that they protect the exposed surfaces against corrosion more efficiently than fluids with inorganic additives. This work investigates whether the effects on the steel surface occurring due to the antifreeze meet key normative requirements. Microscopic imaging was used to identify the alterations in the surface invisible in the macro scale. The tests aimed to evaluate the potential of the antifreeze intended for combustion engines in the perspective of applying them in HVAC systems.

Keywords

  • corrosion
  • corrosion inhibitors
  • antifreeze
  • HVAC
  • corrosion of steel
  • additives
  • coolants
Open Access

Properties of De-Icing Agents for Use on Paved Airfield Pavements After Their Expiration Dates

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 391 - 405

Abstract

Abstract

The NO-17-A205:2017 “Airfield maintenance in winter. Use of de-icers. Requirements and tests” Military Standard is applicable at Polish Armed Forces airports in the process of winter maintenance of airport pavements, both in the process of supplying airports with de-icing agents based on acetates and formates, as in testing, acceptance and control of de-icing agents based on formates, acetates and urea. After the expiration date of product, the tests specified in NO-17-A205:2017 shall be repeated.

Purpose of the research is to determine physico-chemical properties changes of de-icing agents applied on artificial airfield pavements, after its expiration dates. The results of research on physical and chemical parameters of de-icing agents obtained at the stage of delivery and after its expiration dates have been given. The tests included determination of appearance, density, refractive index and pH value measurement, as well as checking the freezing point temperature and, in the case of deicing agents in form of granulate, checking the granules size distribution. The requirements and test methods for deicing agents in accordance with NO-17-A205:2017 are also presented. In case of parameters changes, recommendations regarding further use of these agents shall be made. Positive tests results shall be the basis for extending the shelf life of de-icing products for the next winter season.

Keywords

  • de-icing agents
  • physico-chemical properties
  • expiration dates
23 Articles
Open Access

The Concept of Risk Analysis of Actions Taken in the Reconstruction of Technical Infrastructure in the Areas After the Disaster on the Example of Syria

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 1 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the article is the time-cost analysis of the risk of actions taken in the reconstruction of technical infrastructure (in particular housing) in the areas after the disaster on the example of Syria. As a result of the analysis of actions taken at the reconstruction of the technical (housing) infrastructure in the areas after the disaster, an attempt was made to identify the inconveniences in the management of the risk of targeted activity after the incident. Requests for efficient planning of technical (residential) infrastructure projects have been developed, including foreseeable future natural hazards.

Keywords

  • risk assessment
  • post-disaster infrastructure
  • reconstruction concept model
Open Access

Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation Model for Risk Assessment the Power Systems for Electromobility Use

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 15 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

A simulation model to evaluate risks in Power Systems including green energy sources to generate electricity for electro mobility use is presented in the paper. The model allows to calculate risk indicator that characterize the performance of the Power Systems. The model considers the additional risks of wind and solar variability in the Power Systems, through wind farms and PV farms, respectively. Also, in the recent years, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) on the road have been rapidly increasing. Charging this increasing number of EVs is expected to have an impact on the power grid especially if high charging powers and opportunistic charging are used. Multiple papers have observed that the charging stations are used by multiple users during the day. In a context where electric mobility is gaining increasing importance as a more sustainable solution for urban environments, this work presents the optimization of charging profiles of the potential users of these charging stations. We analyzed the charging profiles in a power grid with renewables sources of energy and we determine the optimal charging profiles for the power grid based on maximizing the energy delivered by renewable sources of energy.

Keywords

  • Power system
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Markov chains
Open Access

The Concept of a Sustainable Urban Transport System Model for Developing Countries on the Example of Lagos

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 29 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the article is the concept of a sustainable urban transport system model for developing countries on the example of Lagos in Nigeria. The city of Lagos is the largest and most populated city in Africa. Nowadays, the state of Lagos is facing many challenges, and the problem of urban transport is becoming more and more important due to the increase in the number of inhabitants and the size of the city. Significant problems were identified in the urban transport system in the Lagos state, and conceptual solutions were proposed taking into account the approach of sustainable development.

Keywords

  • risk urban transport
  • sustainable development
  • safety in transportation
Open Access

Requirements of the 4th Railway Package Towards Safety Management Systems

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 39 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

In accordance with the new requirements of rail law, from June 2020, a railway undertaking or rail infrastructure manager applying for a single safety certificate/ authorization should demonstrate compliance with the relevant requirements of the Safety Management System (SMS) set out in the Commission delegated regulation (UE) 2018/762. To this end, he should provide proof to the national safety authority or, where applicable, to the European Union Agency for Railway Safety, of the establishment of a safety management system in accordance with Art. 9 of Directive (EU) 2016/798. According to Regulation, the organization should describe the scope of the safety management system, indicating which parts of the business are covered by it, considering legal requirements. The publication attempts to identify necessary changes and additions to hitherto functioning SMS.

Keywords

  • safety
  • railway
  • Safety Management System
  • IV railway package
Open Access

Impact of Using a Filter in a Direct Gasoline Injection Engine Exhaust System on the Emitted Particle Mass and Number

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 61 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents emission test results comparison carried out on a dynamic engine dynamometer. Parameters were recorded during a drive made in accordance with the requirements of the RDE. Test bench allowed to determine the particle mass and number emission in the repetitive engine operation conditions. One of three used elements wan an OEM solution from one of particulate filters producers, the other was intended for use in original systems, the third was a custom product. The highest efficiency of particulate filtration was demonstrated by the last filter, which was adapted to the engine.

Keywords

  • GPF
  • particle mass
  • particle number
  • GDI engine
Open Access

Reliability Aspects of the Effect of Application 2% and 8% Ferro-Oil as a Lubricant in a Slide Journal Bearing on its Operating Parameters

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 77 - 93

Abstract

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of using ferro-oil with 2% or 8% concentration of the magnetic particles as the lubricant of the slide journal bearing on its operating parameters regarding the reliability aspect. There has been presented an analytical and numerical calculation model based on experimentally determined physical quantities describing the dependence of viscosity of ferro-oil on fundamental parameters in the paper. Numerical calculations were performed by solving the Reynold’s type equation using the finite difference method using Mathcad 15 and own calculation procedures.

Keywords

  • slide journal bearing
  • ferro-oil
  • operating parameters
  • reliability
Open Access

Decision Trees in the Tests of Artillery Igniters

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 95 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

The article addressed the method for building decision trees paying attention to the binary character of the tree structure. The methodology for building our decision tree for KW-4 igniters was presented. It involves determining features of tested igniters and applied predictors, which are necessary to create the correct model of the tree. The classification tree was built based on the possessed test results, determining the adopted post-diagnostic decision as the qualitative independent variable. The schema of the resultant classification tree and the full structure of this tree together with the results in end nodes were shown. The obtained graphic and tabular sequence of the designed tree was characterized, and the prediction accuracy was evaluated on the basis of the resultant matrix of incorrect classifications. The quality of the resultant predictive model was assessed on the basis of the chosen examples by means of the ‘ROC’ curve and the graph of the cumulative value of increase coefficient.

Keywords

  • decision trees
  • igniter
  • node
  • branch
  • leaf
  • laboratory tests
Open Access

Optimization Model for Planning Set of Measures to Prevent Occupational Injuries in Machine-Building Enterprises

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 117 - 129

Abstract

Abstract

Criteria of occupational injuries potential risk in the machine-building industry are described in the article. Systemic analysis of the structure of the measures to prevent occupational injuries is given. Main tasks to reduce the risk of industrial injury at the machine-building enterprise are analysed. The methodology for optimal planning of accident prevention measures at the machine-building enterprise is described. A mathematical interpretation of the problem is given. The objective function is an argument of the maximum integral effectiveness for the set of planned measures to prevent occupational injuries. Constraint set of the optimization model describes the impossibility to exceed the allowable limit of cost, the feasibility and the possibility of implementing the measure’s plan reasoning from the technological and construction requirements of existing production engineering.

Keywords

  • safety
  • occupational injury
  • accident
  • risk
  • injury source
  • optimization model
Open Access

Reliability Approach to Resilience of Critical Infrastructure Impacted by Operation Process

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 131 - 153

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on a critical infrastructure reliability and resilience to its operation process and particularly is devoted to critical infrastructure reliability and resilience indicators. First, the model of critical infrastructure reliability without considering outside impacts is proposed and applied to determine the port oil terminal reliability indicators. In the next step, the operation impact model of critical infrastructure reliability is created and applied to reliability and resilience analysis of the port oil terminal. The comparison of the port oil terminal critical infrastructure reliability indicators without considering outside impacts with indicators considering impact of its operation process is performed. A significant influence of the operation process on the port oil terminal reliability is proved.

Keywords

  • critical infrastructure
  • reliability
  • operation process
  • risk
  • resilience
Open Access

Monte Carlo Simulation Approach to Reliability Analysis of Complex Systems

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 155 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents new results concerned with general procedures and algorithms to assess the reliability of complex systems with various reliability structures. The analytical method and based on it the simulation method were used to estimate the reliability characteristics of the port grain transportation system. Finally, the general simulation algorithm was developed to evaluate the reliability characteristics of ageing complex systems. In this case, the systems operating processes were described by any distributions of sojourn times in operation states and the reliability functions of their components were modified in such a way that these components are not characterized by a “lack of memory”. The application of this algorithm has been illustrated by the results for exemplary complex two-state systems.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • complex system
  • Monte Carlo simulation
Open Access

On Designing an Expert Diagnostic System of the Aircraft Turbine Engine Functional Units

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 171 - 192

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents issues related to the design of an expert diagnostic system of turbine engine functional units. Dedicated diagnostic stations and on-board flight data recorders are the sources of diagnostic signals. The signals were parameterized or identified dynamic models to get a compact representation in the form of a set of parameters. The set of diagnostic parameters was subjected to integer encoding. On this basis, a multi-valued diagnostic model describing the relationship between the set of faults and the set of symptoms (code values of diagnostic parameters) was determined. The proposed approach can be used in the design of expert diagnostic systems for propulsion units of any aircraft.

Keywords

  • turbine engine
  • signal parameterization
  • multi-valued diagnostic model
  • diagnostic expert system
Open Access

Applying Protective Coating on the Turbine Engine Turbine Blades by Means of Plasma Spraying

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 193 - 213

Abstract

Abstract

The tendency to increase the temperature of gases and the desire to extend the service life forces the use of a protective coating on the blade. The publication presents the technology of applying a heat-resistant protective coating onto the jet engine turbine blade by means of plasma thermal spraying, taking into account the process of aluminizing and heat treatment after aluminizing. The paper presents the results of work on the possibilities of shaping the thickness of the protective coating on the blade by changing the parameters of the spraying process, such as spraying distance, amount of hydrogen, amount of argon and the number of torch passes.

Keywords

  • turbojet engine
  • engine turbine
  • turbine blade
  • protective coating
Open Access

Application of the GWR Model for Predicting the Road Fatalities Rate on the Road Network in the Nuts 3 Regions in Europe on the Example of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 215 - 236

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the application of the GWR (Geographically Weighted Regression) model to the description of differences in the level of road traffic safety in individual counties on the example of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The GWR model developed for counties, taking into account the diversity of NUTS 3 regions, can be a helpful tool for traffic safety management in voivodships and lower administrative units, and such an approach has not yet been applied.

Keywords

  • road safety
  • GWR models
  • NUTS 3 regions
  • fatalities
Open Access

The Automated System of Optical Observation and Tracking of Space Objects

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 237 - 258

Abstract

Abstract

Having a fleet of artificial satellites necessitates the construction of a system that will enable obtaining information on the situation in the Earth orbit (Space Situation Awareness - SSA). Such systems are built either as active radar systems or as passive optical systems. The automated system of optical observation and tracking of space objects (ASOPEK) consists of two optical systems (wide-angle and narrow-angle) and software enabling: detection of artificial satellites in the field of view of the system, identification of detected objects, updating the satellite database with unknown objects, updating orbits of observed objects. The ASOPEK system was created as part of a project financed by the National Center for Research and Development No. DOB-BIO7/25/02/2015.

Keywords

  • satellite
  • LEO
  • telescope
  • SSA
  • SST
Open Access

Thermal Stress in Concrete Slab of the Airfield Pavement

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 259 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

Stress occurring in concrete pavement slab changes on daily and annual basis. Daily changes of air temperature in between environments depend on the following: latitude where the structure is located and season. Change of air temperature causes the variable thermal stress of a slab and consequently change of its linear dimensions (slab extension or shortening. “Thermal balance of pavement” prepared for individual structure solutions, should be the basis for construction design and geometric solutions concerning air field structure. This publication refers only to natural changes of temperature conditions of the environment. Other phenomena occurring on concrete airfield pavement under the influence of imposed thermal loads will be the subject of another publication in this regard.

Keywords

  • concrete pavement
  • thermal balance of the surface
  • daily and annual cycles of temperature changes
  • amplitude of temperature changes
Open Access

Mathematical Model of Military Equipment Products Maintenance for the Condition-Based Operation Strategy Taking Into Account Type I Errors

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 269 - 281

Abstract

Abstract

For military equipment products maintained according to the condition-based operation strategy with control of parameters a mathematical model is constructed using semi-Markov random process. The diffusion-monotonic distribution law which is inherent in mechanical type products is taken for the fault model. The model takes into account type I errors. The analytical dependence of the utilization factor on the parameters of the scale and shape of the diffusion-monotonic distribution, the of regulated maintenance periodicity, the duration of complete restoration of a sample of equipment, the reliability of its control, is established. Graphs of the dependence of the utilization factor on the given parameters of the model are shown.

Keywords

  • mathematical model
  • military equipment products
  • type I errors
Open Access

Selected Aspects of Phonoscopic Examinations of Aircraft Records. Part II

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 283 - 303

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents crucial aspects related to examinations of records from cockpit voice recorders (CVR) and the possible effects of the application of digital correction of these type of records. It also presents the resulting limitations concerning phonoscopic recognition examinations of speakers and determining the content of their utterances. A method for the real reduction of the described limitations was suggested. Part II of the article describes research experiments conducted at Air Force Institute of Technology.

Keywords

  • cockpit voice recorders
  • flight safety
  • investigation of the reasons for aircraft incidents
Open Access

Methodology for Conducting Preliminary and State Tests of an Aerial Jet Target Set

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 305 - 318

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a methodology for the implementation of preliminary and state tests on the example of the project entitled “Jet air targets with a programmable flight route” conducted by the Air Force Institute of Technology. The experience in the field of maneuvering aerial targets has allowed for implementation of an aerial jet target set. The further stages of research necessary to implement the set for operation have been presented. Investigations of the aerial jet targets were carried out based on the regulations in force in the Polish Armed Forces.

Keywords

  • aerial jet target
  • state tests
Open Access

Analysis of the Operation of the Ground Handling Agent in the Aspect of Safety

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 319 - 339

Abstract

Abstract

The role of the human factor in aviation is a critical element for the safety of flight operations. It is described by methods such as SHELL and BowTie, which propose solutions to minimize the risk of occurrence of aviation events. The work presents the development of these concepts by introducing the method of testing the predisposition of airport staff using a specialized system which is the Polipsychograph - a system dedicated to designing and carrying out psychological tasks testing human mental, cognitive and motor skills in connection with the assessment of his professional capabilities. The work contains the results of 40 tests performed on employees dealing with airport ground handling on a daily basis. Research has shown that the employee’s predisposition depends on the quality of work entrusted to him. The paper presents a method of assessing the psychophysical predisposition of an employee allowing him to be directed to work corresponding to his qualifications.

Keywords

  • human factor
  • handling
  • airport
Open Access

Analysis of Fan Blade Vibration with a Non-Contact Method

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 341 - 357

Abstract

Abstract

Composite fan blades are more and more common both in aviation and ground applications. This work aims to characterize the vibration parameters of plastic blades installed in a wind tunnel fan by a non-contact method, namely blade tip timing (BTT). Blade dynamics was predicted with finite element modelling (FEM) and confirmed experimentally by tip timing measurements and analysis of data. BTT results were acquired and compared in two different configurations. A good agreement between predicted and measured frequency values was obtained for the fundamental mode. Significant differences were observed for the second and third modes due to material anisotropy and contact effects which could not be modelled because necessary material data were unavailable.

Keywords

  • blade vibration
  • composite blade
  • non-contact measurement
  • wind tunnel
  • axial fan
  • tip timing
  • vibration analysis
Open Access

A New Strategy for Developing of Space Logistics

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 359 - 370

Abstract

Abstract

This paper shows a new strategy for developing of space logistics which is supported by safety engineering for the operational techniques and technologies in space. A new strategy is a very important for developing of space technology because account improvement range and its independence from most terrestrial network failures. The developing space logistics is observable during make of satellites which are ensuring wide-ranging continuous information flow among people, businesses and governments for assuring of safety and security when terrestrial network connections are disrupted. The main goal in this publication is presenting example of analysis and assessment in an industrial enterprise of space logistics.

Keywords

  • engineering system
  • space logistics
  • innovation
Open Access

Assessment of Glycol Antifreeze to Combustion Engines in the Perspective of Using them in the Infrastructure HVAC Systems

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 371 - 389

Abstract

Abstract

Corrosion inhibitors in the antifreeze include both inorganic and organic compounds. Organic additives applied in the antifreeze usually form thinner protective coatings. In spite of this fact, it is believed that they protect the exposed surfaces against corrosion more efficiently than fluids with inorganic additives. This work investigates whether the effects on the steel surface occurring due to the antifreeze meet key normative requirements. Microscopic imaging was used to identify the alterations in the surface invisible in the macro scale. The tests aimed to evaluate the potential of the antifreeze intended for combustion engines in the perspective of applying them in HVAC systems.

Keywords

  • corrosion
  • corrosion inhibitors
  • antifreeze
  • HVAC
  • corrosion of steel
  • additives
  • coolants
Open Access

Properties of De-Icing Agents for Use on Paved Airfield Pavements After Their Expiration Dates

Published Online: 27 Mar 2020
Page range: 391 - 405

Abstract

Abstract

The NO-17-A205:2017 “Airfield maintenance in winter. Use of de-icers. Requirements and tests” Military Standard is applicable at Polish Armed Forces airports in the process of winter maintenance of airport pavements, both in the process of supplying airports with de-icing agents based on acetates and formates, as in testing, acceptance and control of de-icing agents based on formates, acetates and urea. After the expiration date of product, the tests specified in NO-17-A205:2017 shall be repeated.

Purpose of the research is to determine physico-chemical properties changes of de-icing agents applied on artificial airfield pavements, after its expiration dates. The results of research on physical and chemical parameters of de-icing agents obtained at the stage of delivery and after its expiration dates have been given. The tests included determination of appearance, density, refractive index and pH value measurement, as well as checking the freezing point temperature and, in the case of deicing agents in form of granulate, checking the granules size distribution. The requirements and test methods for deicing agents in accordance with NO-17-A205:2017 are also presented. In case of parameters changes, recommendations regarding further use of these agents shall be made. Positive tests results shall be the basis for extending the shelf life of de-icing products for the next winter season.

Keywords

  • de-icing agents
  • physico-chemical properties
  • expiration dates

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo