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Volume 52 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 3 (October 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 3 (October 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 3 (October 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 48 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 47 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 46 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 45 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 44 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 43 (2017): Issue 1 (October 2017)

Volume 42 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 41 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 40 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 39 (2016): Issue 1 (October 2016)

Volume 38 (2016): Issue 1 (October 2016)

Volume 37 (2016): Issue 1 (July 2016)

Volume 36 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 35 (2015): Issue 1 (November 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 33 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 32 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 31 (2014): Issue 1 (September 2014)

Volume 30 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)

Volume 29 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 27 (2014): Issue 1 (February 2014)

Volume 26 (2013): Issue 1 (June 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 24 (2012): Issue 1 (December 2012)

Volume 23 (2012): Issue 1 (September 2012)

Volume 22 (2012): Issue 1 (June 2012)

Volume 21 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Volume 20 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Volume 14-15 (2010): Issue 2010 (December 2010)

Volume 13 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Volume 11-12 (2009): Issue 1 (December 2009)

Volume 9-10 (2009): Issue 1 (January 2009)

Volume 8 (2008): Issue 1 (December 2008)

Volume 7 (2008): Issue 4 (December 2008)

Volume 6 (2008): Issue 3 (September 2008)

Volume 5 (2008): Issue 2 (June 2008)

Volume 4 (2008): Issue 1 (March 2008)

Volume 3 (2007): Issue 2007 (January 2007)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

29 Articles
Open Access

Geometrical Optimisation of a Wing Strut Joint. Part I

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 1 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

This paper provides the result of the geometrical optimisation of a wing strut joint of an aircraft. The objective of the geometrical optimisation was to modify the geometry of the wing strut joint components to meet an optimisation criterion defined as yield strength determined by static tensile testing. The geometrical optimisation was processed on a computer model of the wing strut joint using FEM (finite element method). The design variables assumed in this geometrical optimisation were the load option and boundary conditions of interaction between the wing strut joint components. An analysis carried out as part of the geometrical optimisation was based on proposing modifications to the geometry of the joint features at their maximum stress levels. The geometry optimisation results will be applied in the preparation and performance of validation strength testing of the wing strut joint assembly.

Keywords

  • geometrical optimisation
  • aircraft
  • wing strut joint
  • numerical analysis
Open Access

Reliability Assessment of the Transport System, Addis Ababa Case Study

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 27 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the article is the method of assessing the reliability of the transport system on the example of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. The transport system and its technical condition, transport infrastructure, organization of the transport system, environment (users, environmental and climatic conditions), and legal provisions, have a significant impact on the reliability of the transport system. The most common means of transport in Addis Ababa is a car (including: taxis and minibuses). An important problem in public transport is the long waiting time for the vehicles, resulting from random events accompanying transportation processes in a defined infrastructure with limited resources. The article presents also the concept of a transport system availability model for developing countries on the example of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia.

Keywords

  • transport system
  • system reliability
  • system availability
Open Access

The Vision Technique Concept Support Crane Safety Exploitation Process

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 37 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

The issue of ensuring safety in the crane operation process is the subject of standards and regulations: the aim is to apply solutions aimed at ensuring the health and safety of users of cranes and the work environment. The subject of the paper is the concept of using vision technology in ensuring the safety of overhead travelling type cranes. Using a camera based vision system in conjunction with dedicated sensors, it is possible to build a system for monitoring the degradation process of selected crane operating parameters and conditions of use in a specific dynamically changing environment, as well as the operator’s characteristics. Using the developed standards of safe use of the crane, it is possible to generate safe behaviors resulting in the device being immobilized or the potential hazard being evaporated.

Keywords

  • vision techniques
  • work safety
  • cranes
Open Access

Magnetic Metal Memory in the Assessment of the Technical Condition of Crane Girders for the Needs of Safety

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 49 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

With the passage of time of exploitation of means of technological transport, their degradation takes place and the threat to operational safety increases. The source of development of fatigue damages of gantry crane girders are areas of stress concentration caused by loads. The subject of the publication is to determine the possibility of diagnosing potential damage sites of the overhead travelling crane (girders) by magnetic metal memory (MPM). As a result of the test with the use of the TSC-7M-16 ferrite magnetometer, stress concentration areas were determined in which processes leading to the reduction of material strength or damage to the material structure may take place. Residual tangential magnetic field distributions and normal components of their gradients were determined. A magnetogram database for the needs of girder diagnostics was created.

Keywords

  • magnetic metal memory
  • work safety
  • condition monitoring
Open Access

Research into the Integrity of Galileo Positioning at Dęblin Aerodrome

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 75 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the integrity of Galileo satellite positioning for the area of the military aerodrome in Dęblin. The integrity parameters of the Galileo satellite positioning have been determined for en-route navigation and the precision approach. To study the integrity parameter, Galileo satellite measurements from the GNSS reference station located in the area of the Aviation Department of the Polish Air Force University, located near EPDE military aerodrome in Dęblin, were used. In particular, in the research, to determine the integrity parameter, the mean errors of the determined coordinates of GNSS reference station in the BLh ellipsoid frame were used. The research test was carried out on 11 January,2019. The authors of the work studied the parameter of the integrity of Galileo positioning used HPL and VPL protection levels.

Keywords

  • GPS
  • GLONASS
  • Galileo
  • integrity
  • GNSS reference station
Open Access

New Technical Challenges for Operators

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 97 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the article are new challenges for operators of machines and technical devices, in particular in the digital industry. The present reality of the environment in which man lives and works is increasingly complex. This results in certain disorders. Combined with the health, lifestyle and development aspects of medicine, shaping the operator’s reliability, remains an extremely difficult challenge. Modern technologies have enabled older workers to function on the labor market, returning to work after successful treatment of illnesses, that have recently eliminated those group of man from labor market. The above results with the new set of requirements for the development of a reliable operator of various machines and devices. Significant dispersal of men health determinants from biological, environmental, social, cultural, economic and political causes with great difficulties in consolidating specific actions, which are also a challenge for years to come.

Keywords

  • technology operator
  • human health
  • human machine interfaces
Open Access

Influence of Operating Media on the Parameters of Cement Concrete Intended for Airfield Pavements

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 103 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the influence of the suggested operating media on the modification of parameters of cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. Cement concrete contains cement CEM I 42,5, granite grit, fine washed aggregate, water and air entraining as well as plasticizing additive. Analyses included the assessment of changes in mechanical and physical parameters (weight absorbability and water capillary action) of hardened concrete. The observed changes were associated with the internal structure of concrete composite. Based on the obtained results, different influence of the applied operating media on mechanical parameters of hardened concrete was determined.

Keywords

  • concrete pavement
  • operating media
  • cement concrete
Open Access

Application of the Transport Problem from the Criterion of Time to Optimize Supply Network with Products „Fast-Running”

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 127 - 137

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the application in practice of a transport problem with the criterion of time to optimize the supply of store chains. When transporting perishable goods (e.g. dairy products, fruits, vegetables) the most important goal is to minimize delivery time. Shortening the delivery time gives the opportunity to meet the expectations of potential customers, as well as to maintain the functional properties of transported goods.

Keywords

  • transport
  • optimization
  • time
Open Access

The Need to Recognize Conditions for River Crossing Operations in the Polish Lowlands by Military Vehicles in the Light of NATO Regulations

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 139 - 156

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the methods for obtaining the geomorphological information needed to determine the crossing conditions of river beds as well as requirements concerning its interpretation, both historical as well as currently binding and arising from NATO normative documents. The included procedures were analyzed in view of their usefulness in estimating the possibilities of crossing river beds in the Polish lowlands. Detecting the appropriate places to cross big rivers situated in the area of the so-called “eastern NATO flank” appears to be thoroughly essential, especially in the current geopolitical situation.

Keywords

  • crossing of river beds
  • air reconnaissance
  • analysis of reconnaissance imaging
  • NATO documents and requirements
Open Access

Neural Networks for Tested MG Artillery Fuses

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 157 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the information about the usage of artificial neural networks. The automation process of neural networks of the analysed evaluation data results is highlighted. The kinds of MG type artillery fuses are described and the kinds of cartridges’ calibres, in which they are used, are also specified. The way of preparation of databases of test results to computer simulation is described. Building of neural networks determining the main technical parameters and sizes of learning, test and validation sets is characterized. The summary for chosen active neural networks for individual kinds of the analysed MG type artillery fuses is presented. Graphs of learning, values of sensibility indicators and fragments of prediction sheets for the chosen neural networks were shown.

Keywords

  • neural networks
  • artillery fuse
  • neuron
  • hidden layer
  • laboratory tests
  • evaluation module
  • importance classes
Open Access

Selected Aspects of Phonoscopic Examinations of Aircraft Records. Part I

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 187 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents crucial aspects related to examinations of records from cockpit voice recorders (CVR) and the possible effects of the application of digital correction of these type of records. It also presents the resulting limitations concerning phonoscopic recognition examinations of speakers and determining the content of their utterances. A method for the real reduction of the described limitations was suggested. Part 1 of this paper provides a theoretical introduction to the subject matter under consideration.

Keywords

  • cockpit voice recorders
  • flight safety
  • investigation of the reasons for aircraft incidents
Open Access

Field of Work and Energy Efficiency of Hydrostatic Drives on the Example of Two Tested Systems with Proportional Control of the Cylinder’s Speed

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 203 - 219

Abstract

Abstract

The presented test results are an example of simulating determination of the hydrostatic field of the drive system and the energy efficiency of the system as a dependence on the speed and load coefficients of the hydraulic motor used in the system. The issues related to the determination of energy losses and energy efficiency of the hydraulic motor or drive system, which should be determined as dependent on the physical quantities independent of these losses, were also discussed. A Paszota diagram of the power increase in the direction opposite to the direction of the power flow, replacing the Sankey diagram of the power decrease in the direction of the power flow in the hydraulic motor or in the drive system was analyzed.

Keywords

  • field of work
  • energy efficiency
  • drive system
  • hydrostatic transmission
Open Access

The Use of Statistical Inference in the Water Supply Network Managing Operation Process

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 221 - 244

Abstract

Abstract

Based on operational data concerning the dates of failure of the water supply network, a mean time to failure was performed. The calculations were performed for the main network, distribution network and water supply connections. The hypothesis about exponential working time between failures was verified using the Pearson test (χ2). The presented analyses provide an attitude of further analyses related to modelling the work of renovation and repair teams, associated with the selection of their appropriate number, and also to ensure the required level of safety and reliability of water supply to the consumers.

Keywords

  • statistical inference
  • water supply network
  • managing
Open Access

Risk Management in Crisis

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 245 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

The hierarchy of human needs published in 1954 by Maslow states that human behavior is determined by the desire to satisfy needs and does not depend on temporary emotional states. The security needs described in it are the needs of the mental and emotional environment. These are the needs of a sense of stability, a lack of sense of chaos, fear and anxiety, a sense of care and support [5]. Satisfying the need for security motivates people to act, leads to the fact that people can look forward to the future while planning a further life. According to the Dictionary of Social Sciences, security is a state of certainty and means no unacceptable threats or protection against it. Lack of sense of security both in relation to the individual and the general public causes anxiety and a sense of danger, which results in the inability to maintain order and order [3]. Maintaining a sense of security among the population is particularly important and difficult in the case of actions in crisis situations.. The publication describes the basic sources of threats in crisis situations and proposes a method of risk assessment for exemplary hazard scenarios.

Keywords

  • safety
  • risk analysis
  • sources of hazards
  • transport
  • crisis
Open Access

Reliability as an Element of Process in Managing a Fleet of Railway Vehicles

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 265 - 280

Abstract

Abstract

Safe and economical devices, which are constantly growing in demand, lead to improvement of operational strategies applied in railway enterprises. Economic analysis and safety, and hence reliability and readiness, are the most important parameters in the operation of railway vehicles. The article presents a strategy for maintaining railway vehicles based on reliability indicators. The strategy was verified based on empirical research in a transport company.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • rail vehicles
  • transport management
Open Access

Diagnostics of the Internal Combustion Engines Operation by Measurement of Crankshaft Instantaneous Angular Speed

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 281 - 295

Abstract

Abstract

Diagnostics based on measuring of crankshaft instantaneous rotational speed allows precise location of damage to the injection system and detection of external disturbances. Active measurement of instantaneous rotational speed requires use of equipment with high sensitivity, permanent assembly at the ends of the crankshaft and the analysis of a very large amount of data.

Presented method can be used for measurement of torsional vibration of crankshaft, indirectly through simultaneous measurement of the width of the pulses generated by the encoder disks. Momentary, relative displacement of both disks determines the angle of temporary crankshaft twisting. This paper presents first results of pulse width measurement, obtained by using described system.

Keywords

  • torsional vibrations
  • incremental encoder
  • angular speed
Open Access

Use of Data from Satellite Navigation System in Operational and Strategic Management of Transport in Cities

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 297 - 320

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the possibilities of using data from the Global Positioning System for the development of traffic models and examples of use this data in the transport management. Traffic models are useful tools in planning and evaluation of transport solutions, but also can be used for current, operational transport management.

Keywords

  • Intelligent Transportation Systems
  • GPS
  • transport telematics
Open Access

Commercial Vehicles Incapacity Risk Analysis in the Transport Company

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 321 - 340

Abstract

Abstract

A proposal was presented to assess the incapacity risk of commercial vehicles performing transport tasks under market conditions. The risk assessment model in the form of cost was used, which is based on the determination of operational efficiency, referring the probable costs of ensuring the reliability of the transport system to the estimated threshold income. It includes costs: incidental repairs, unplanned downtime and resulting from the presumed loss of client’s trust. Operational research were carried out on a group of several dozen vehicles, registering their operational states during several years of use. The results of the research confirmed the suitability of the incapacity risk model for predicting potential expenses for guarantee the vehicle’s continuity of running in the company and to verify the selection of the vehicle brand and the period of use.

Keywords

  • road transport
  • reliability
  • operational efficiency
  • operational costs
Open Access

Cellular Geosynthetics in the Aspect of Application in Airfield Construction

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 341 - 362

Abstract

Abstract

The natural airport pavement is formed by an adequate preparation of the ground. It should be adapted or constructed in such a way as to minimize the risk to aircraft in the event of an airplane running off the runway. Research indicates that a significant part of natural airport surfaces in Poland do not meet the requirements for load capacity and require reinforcement. The article presents methodology for reinforcing soils, describes the methods of testing the capacity of natural airport pavements and presents the results of research on the natural airport pavement, in reference to the construction with a cellular geosynthetic (geocell).

Keywords

  • cellular geosynthetics
  • soil reinforcement
  • load capacity
  • natural airfield pavements
Open Access

Analysis of Possibility of Phase Shift Model Usage for Identification of Gas Leakage from Pipeline with Corrective Elements

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 363 - 381

Abstract

Abstract

Proposed method of leakage identification uses a parametric model in the form of signals phase shift (φ). Signals from the test stand will be used: r1, r2 - signals from the corrective elements connected to the tested pipeline, pressure signals x, mass flow y and simulated mass flow yw. For these signals, their auto and cross power spectral densities are determined: Sxx, Syy, Srr, Sxy, Sxr, Syr, which are the basis to determine spectral transfer functions described as the relations between these signals and next the phase shifts (φ). Thanks that, we get a large set of transfer functions, hence a large set of phase shifts between the measured.

Keywords

  • diagnostics
  • corrective element
  • weak interactions
  • amplitude gain
  • phase shift
Open Access

Correlation between Strength, Hardness and the Share of Welding Imperfections in an AW 5754 Aluminium Alloy Weld Executed with the TIG Method

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 383 - 400

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the impact of welding imperfections on the strength and microhardness of AW 5754 aluminium alloy welded joints executed with the TIG method. It presents the results of tomographic tests of welds. The results of strength and microhardness tests involving welds executed under various welding process parameters were shown. The impact of welding imperfections on the strength and microhardness of a welded joint was analysed. Based on analysing the relations between the r Pearson coefficient values and multiple correlation, significant relationships between strength, hardness and weld defects were evidenced. Furthermore, a very strong relation between the welding process parameters, welding imperfections, and weld strength and microhardness was shown.

Keywords

  • aluminium alloy
  • weld
  • welding imperfections
  • strength
  • microhardness
Open Access

Sliding Wear Examination of New Protecting Coatings on Railway Buffer Heads

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 401 - 419

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of tests of sliding wear of bronze coatings made on the surface of specimen made of S355J2 steel by laser cladding method. On the basis of the conducted tests it was found that the wear of the specimens with CuAl9Fe3 bronze coating is characterized by average values which are close to lubricated specimens. In addition, the registration of friction coefficients of particular couples showed very similar characteristics of these two friction couples and friction coefficient values at a very similar level. This allows to assume that the currently used method of protecting railway buffer heads, consisting of periodically covering their surface with lubricant, can be replaced with another, more durable, based on bronze protection coatings.

Keywords

  • railway buffer
  • sliding wear
  • laser cladding
  • bronze coatings
Open Access

Exhaust Emissions from a EURO 6c Compliant PC Vehicle in Real Operating Conditions

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 421 - 440

Abstract

Abstract

The current EURO 6c standard has introduced a limit on the number of solid particles for spark ignition engines equal to that for compression ignition engines (6x10e11). To meet the requirements, manufacturers install particulate filters in the exhaust systems of most new engines. The article presents the results of vehicle testing with this solution during the drive carried out in accordance with the RDE procedure. The measurement results, after taking into account the Conformity Factor in relation to the approval limits, confirmed the efficiency of aftertreatment system in terms of both gas and solid components.

Keywords

  • emissions
  • RDE
  • EURO limits
  • GPF
  • Particulate Matter
Open Access

Using Fuzzy Logic to Stabilize the Position of a Multi Rotor

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 441 - 461

Abstract

Abstract

The article is a continuation of research into a stabilization system for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle of vertical takeoff and landing. The stabilization system was designed on the basis of a fuzzy logic Mamdani type controller. In the framework of the research, the authors built a test stand with a Multi Rotor model, which allows “Hardware In The Loop” testing in real time. The control system was written in the Matlab/Simulink software and implemented to the Arduino microcontroller.

Keywords

  • flight dynamics
  • unmanned aerial aircraft
  • embedded systems
  • fuzzy logic
  • MATLAB
Open Access

Analysis of the Operation Process of Vehicles Equipped with Telematic On-Board Systems

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 463 - 479

Abstract

Abstract

Modern vehicles are equipped with telematic on-board systems, which connect electronic devices between them. The sent data are among others used to control systems and devices. They also have a certain operational potential. They can, indeed, also be used to rationalize the technical service of the vehicle fleet. This publication presents the author’s graph of the operation process, including the monitoring of the vehicle fleet. The application of the presented approach will contribute to the improvement of the value of certain vehicle reliability and operation indicators.

Keywords

  • transport telematics systems
  • operation
  • reliability
Open Access

Perspective Assumptions of Pilot Training on Multi-Role Combat Aircraft in Poland

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 481 - 489

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with the subject of diagnosing the current system of pilot training on multi-role aircraft in Poland. The authors pay particular attention to changes in its organization, arising from the compromise between technology, needs and funds on the part of the organizers. The recommended perspective changes in its organization in Poland result from the past three years of research in the Air Force University and institutions engaged in the discussed issues. The issues continue the research process handled in the dissertation [5], resulting from analyses and comparisons with world trends in this respect. The obtained findings suggest that it is essential to achieve the planned outcomes of training pilots on multi-role aircraft, at the same time reducing time and costs. It is linked to the introduction of modern aircraft or equipment supporting the process of pilot training.

Keywords

  • pilot training
  • pilot
  • multi-role combat aircraft
Open Access

Identification of Measurement Chain Properties in the Inertial Navigation Gimbal Systems of Aircraft

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 491 - 509

Abstract

Abstract

The article discusses the characteristics of measuring chains found in the gimbal inertial navigation systems of the IKW-8 type (used on Su-22 aircraft) are presented. The research paper also addresses the method for the identification of measurement chain properties of the gyroscopic KW-1 platform developed at AFIT, including sensors for the parameters of aircraft motion within an inertial space (linear accelerations and angular velocities) and signal processing systems (used to level and gyrocompass the platform). The methodology for the identification of measurement chain properties developed at AFIT found its application as a complementary technology in the process of assessing the technical condition of an IKW-8 inertial navigation system implemented in the conditions of a military unit operating Su-22 aircraft.

Keywords

  • inertial navigation systems
  • identification of technical parameters
Open Access

Maintaining a Continuous Readiness for Military Pilot Flights by Using Mobile Technology

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 511 - 519

Abstract

Abstract

Usage of mobile technology will help the flying personnel to coordinate and implement assigned tasks. Due to usage of smartphone, equipped with appropriate application, user will have the ability to track all task and recommendations with are automatically generated by the system. This type of solution will eliminate prophylaxis and training failings and positively affect the ability to flight of aviation personnel. Furthermore presented tool is also a mobile source of knowledge, data base containing: bulletins, information about aviation events, etc. The paper is a characteristic of the mobile application designated to supervise preventive and training duties of flying personnel, it presents operation algorithm, mathematical model and describes the purpose of the application.

Keywords

  • mobile application
  • preventive measures
  • military pilot
Open Access

Development of a Self-Destroying Fuse for Rocket Propelled Grenade Munitions

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 521 - 532

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a proposal for modernising the DCR-type self-destroying fuse for rocket propelled grenade munitions. It features a description of the fuse’s structure concept, its design and operation by presenting its particular stages. The further part is a description of the structural materials used for constructing the modernised fuse. Then, a conducted analysis of laboratory and field testing of the developed fuse models was presented. The results of the field testing of the devised and developed modernised fuse technology demonstrator are shown. The high quality of the fuse’s operation was demonstrated. The research paper is concluded with a short summary and a list of the literature used.

Keywords

  • self-destroying fuse
  • rocket propelled grenade munitions
  • munition fuse modernisation
29 Articles
Open Access

Geometrical Optimisation of a Wing Strut Joint. Part I

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 1 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

This paper provides the result of the geometrical optimisation of a wing strut joint of an aircraft. The objective of the geometrical optimisation was to modify the geometry of the wing strut joint components to meet an optimisation criterion defined as yield strength determined by static tensile testing. The geometrical optimisation was processed on a computer model of the wing strut joint using FEM (finite element method). The design variables assumed in this geometrical optimisation were the load option and boundary conditions of interaction between the wing strut joint components. An analysis carried out as part of the geometrical optimisation was based on proposing modifications to the geometry of the joint features at their maximum stress levels. The geometry optimisation results will be applied in the preparation and performance of validation strength testing of the wing strut joint assembly.

Keywords

  • geometrical optimisation
  • aircraft
  • wing strut joint
  • numerical analysis
Open Access

Reliability Assessment of the Transport System, Addis Ababa Case Study

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 27 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the article is the method of assessing the reliability of the transport system on the example of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. The transport system and its technical condition, transport infrastructure, organization of the transport system, environment (users, environmental and climatic conditions), and legal provisions, have a significant impact on the reliability of the transport system. The most common means of transport in Addis Ababa is a car (including: taxis and minibuses). An important problem in public transport is the long waiting time for the vehicles, resulting from random events accompanying transportation processes in a defined infrastructure with limited resources. The article presents also the concept of a transport system availability model for developing countries on the example of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia.

Keywords

  • transport system
  • system reliability
  • system availability
Open Access

The Vision Technique Concept Support Crane Safety Exploitation Process

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 37 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

The issue of ensuring safety in the crane operation process is the subject of standards and regulations: the aim is to apply solutions aimed at ensuring the health and safety of users of cranes and the work environment. The subject of the paper is the concept of using vision technology in ensuring the safety of overhead travelling type cranes. Using a camera based vision system in conjunction with dedicated sensors, it is possible to build a system for monitoring the degradation process of selected crane operating parameters and conditions of use in a specific dynamically changing environment, as well as the operator’s characteristics. Using the developed standards of safe use of the crane, it is possible to generate safe behaviors resulting in the device being immobilized or the potential hazard being evaporated.

Keywords

  • vision techniques
  • work safety
  • cranes
Open Access

Magnetic Metal Memory in the Assessment of the Technical Condition of Crane Girders for the Needs of Safety

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 49 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

With the passage of time of exploitation of means of technological transport, their degradation takes place and the threat to operational safety increases. The source of development of fatigue damages of gantry crane girders are areas of stress concentration caused by loads. The subject of the publication is to determine the possibility of diagnosing potential damage sites of the overhead travelling crane (girders) by magnetic metal memory (MPM). As a result of the test with the use of the TSC-7M-16 ferrite magnetometer, stress concentration areas were determined in which processes leading to the reduction of material strength or damage to the material structure may take place. Residual tangential magnetic field distributions and normal components of their gradients were determined. A magnetogram database for the needs of girder diagnostics was created.

Keywords

  • magnetic metal memory
  • work safety
  • condition monitoring
Open Access

Research into the Integrity of Galileo Positioning at Dęblin Aerodrome

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 75 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the integrity of Galileo satellite positioning for the area of the military aerodrome in Dęblin. The integrity parameters of the Galileo satellite positioning have been determined for en-route navigation and the precision approach. To study the integrity parameter, Galileo satellite measurements from the GNSS reference station located in the area of the Aviation Department of the Polish Air Force University, located near EPDE military aerodrome in Dęblin, were used. In particular, in the research, to determine the integrity parameter, the mean errors of the determined coordinates of GNSS reference station in the BLh ellipsoid frame were used. The research test was carried out on 11 January,2019. The authors of the work studied the parameter of the integrity of Galileo positioning used HPL and VPL protection levels.

Keywords

  • GPS
  • GLONASS
  • Galileo
  • integrity
  • GNSS reference station
Open Access

New Technical Challenges for Operators

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 97 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of the article are new challenges for operators of machines and technical devices, in particular in the digital industry. The present reality of the environment in which man lives and works is increasingly complex. This results in certain disorders. Combined with the health, lifestyle and development aspects of medicine, shaping the operator’s reliability, remains an extremely difficult challenge. Modern technologies have enabled older workers to function on the labor market, returning to work after successful treatment of illnesses, that have recently eliminated those group of man from labor market. The above results with the new set of requirements for the development of a reliable operator of various machines and devices. Significant dispersal of men health determinants from biological, environmental, social, cultural, economic and political causes with great difficulties in consolidating specific actions, which are also a challenge for years to come.

Keywords

  • technology operator
  • human health
  • human machine interfaces
Open Access

Influence of Operating Media on the Parameters of Cement Concrete Intended for Airfield Pavements

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 103 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the influence of the suggested operating media on the modification of parameters of cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. Cement concrete contains cement CEM I 42,5, granite grit, fine washed aggregate, water and air entraining as well as plasticizing additive. Analyses included the assessment of changes in mechanical and physical parameters (weight absorbability and water capillary action) of hardened concrete. The observed changes were associated with the internal structure of concrete composite. Based on the obtained results, different influence of the applied operating media on mechanical parameters of hardened concrete was determined.

Keywords

  • concrete pavement
  • operating media
  • cement concrete
Open Access

Application of the Transport Problem from the Criterion of Time to Optimize Supply Network with Products „Fast-Running”

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 127 - 137

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the application in practice of a transport problem with the criterion of time to optimize the supply of store chains. When transporting perishable goods (e.g. dairy products, fruits, vegetables) the most important goal is to minimize delivery time. Shortening the delivery time gives the opportunity to meet the expectations of potential customers, as well as to maintain the functional properties of transported goods.

Keywords

  • transport
  • optimization
  • time
Open Access

The Need to Recognize Conditions for River Crossing Operations in the Polish Lowlands by Military Vehicles in the Light of NATO Regulations

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 139 - 156

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the methods for obtaining the geomorphological information needed to determine the crossing conditions of river beds as well as requirements concerning its interpretation, both historical as well as currently binding and arising from NATO normative documents. The included procedures were analyzed in view of their usefulness in estimating the possibilities of crossing river beds in the Polish lowlands. Detecting the appropriate places to cross big rivers situated in the area of the so-called “eastern NATO flank” appears to be thoroughly essential, especially in the current geopolitical situation.

Keywords

  • crossing of river beds
  • air reconnaissance
  • analysis of reconnaissance imaging
  • NATO documents and requirements
Open Access

Neural Networks for Tested MG Artillery Fuses

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 157 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the information about the usage of artificial neural networks. The automation process of neural networks of the analysed evaluation data results is highlighted. The kinds of MG type artillery fuses are described and the kinds of cartridges’ calibres, in which they are used, are also specified. The way of preparation of databases of test results to computer simulation is described. Building of neural networks determining the main technical parameters and sizes of learning, test and validation sets is characterized. The summary for chosen active neural networks for individual kinds of the analysed MG type artillery fuses is presented. Graphs of learning, values of sensibility indicators and fragments of prediction sheets for the chosen neural networks were shown.

Keywords

  • neural networks
  • artillery fuse
  • neuron
  • hidden layer
  • laboratory tests
  • evaluation module
  • importance classes
Open Access

Selected Aspects of Phonoscopic Examinations of Aircraft Records. Part I

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 187 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents crucial aspects related to examinations of records from cockpit voice recorders (CVR) and the possible effects of the application of digital correction of these type of records. It also presents the resulting limitations concerning phonoscopic recognition examinations of speakers and determining the content of their utterances. A method for the real reduction of the described limitations was suggested. Part 1 of this paper provides a theoretical introduction to the subject matter under consideration.

Keywords

  • cockpit voice recorders
  • flight safety
  • investigation of the reasons for aircraft incidents
Open Access

Field of Work and Energy Efficiency of Hydrostatic Drives on the Example of Two Tested Systems with Proportional Control of the Cylinder’s Speed

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 203 - 219

Abstract

Abstract

The presented test results are an example of simulating determination of the hydrostatic field of the drive system and the energy efficiency of the system as a dependence on the speed and load coefficients of the hydraulic motor used in the system. The issues related to the determination of energy losses and energy efficiency of the hydraulic motor or drive system, which should be determined as dependent on the physical quantities independent of these losses, were also discussed. A Paszota diagram of the power increase in the direction opposite to the direction of the power flow, replacing the Sankey diagram of the power decrease in the direction of the power flow in the hydraulic motor or in the drive system was analyzed.

Keywords

  • field of work
  • energy efficiency
  • drive system
  • hydrostatic transmission
Open Access

The Use of Statistical Inference in the Water Supply Network Managing Operation Process

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 221 - 244

Abstract

Abstract

Based on operational data concerning the dates of failure of the water supply network, a mean time to failure was performed. The calculations were performed for the main network, distribution network and water supply connections. The hypothesis about exponential working time between failures was verified using the Pearson test (χ2). The presented analyses provide an attitude of further analyses related to modelling the work of renovation and repair teams, associated with the selection of their appropriate number, and also to ensure the required level of safety and reliability of water supply to the consumers.

Keywords

  • statistical inference
  • water supply network
  • managing
Open Access

Risk Management in Crisis

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 245 - 264

Abstract

Abstract

The hierarchy of human needs published in 1954 by Maslow states that human behavior is determined by the desire to satisfy needs and does not depend on temporary emotional states. The security needs described in it are the needs of the mental and emotional environment. These are the needs of a sense of stability, a lack of sense of chaos, fear and anxiety, a sense of care and support [5]. Satisfying the need for security motivates people to act, leads to the fact that people can look forward to the future while planning a further life. According to the Dictionary of Social Sciences, security is a state of certainty and means no unacceptable threats or protection against it. Lack of sense of security both in relation to the individual and the general public causes anxiety and a sense of danger, which results in the inability to maintain order and order [3]. Maintaining a sense of security among the population is particularly important and difficult in the case of actions in crisis situations.. The publication describes the basic sources of threats in crisis situations and proposes a method of risk assessment for exemplary hazard scenarios.

Keywords

  • safety
  • risk analysis
  • sources of hazards
  • transport
  • crisis
Open Access

Reliability as an Element of Process in Managing a Fleet of Railway Vehicles

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 265 - 280

Abstract

Abstract

Safe and economical devices, which are constantly growing in demand, lead to improvement of operational strategies applied in railway enterprises. Economic analysis and safety, and hence reliability and readiness, are the most important parameters in the operation of railway vehicles. The article presents a strategy for maintaining railway vehicles based on reliability indicators. The strategy was verified based on empirical research in a transport company.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • rail vehicles
  • transport management
Open Access

Diagnostics of the Internal Combustion Engines Operation by Measurement of Crankshaft Instantaneous Angular Speed

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 281 - 295

Abstract

Abstract

Diagnostics based on measuring of crankshaft instantaneous rotational speed allows precise location of damage to the injection system and detection of external disturbances. Active measurement of instantaneous rotational speed requires use of equipment with high sensitivity, permanent assembly at the ends of the crankshaft and the analysis of a very large amount of data.

Presented method can be used for measurement of torsional vibration of crankshaft, indirectly through simultaneous measurement of the width of the pulses generated by the encoder disks. Momentary, relative displacement of both disks determines the angle of temporary crankshaft twisting. This paper presents first results of pulse width measurement, obtained by using described system.

Keywords

  • torsional vibrations
  • incremental encoder
  • angular speed
Open Access

Use of Data from Satellite Navigation System in Operational and Strategic Management of Transport in Cities

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 297 - 320

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the possibilities of using data from the Global Positioning System for the development of traffic models and examples of use this data in the transport management. Traffic models are useful tools in planning and evaluation of transport solutions, but also can be used for current, operational transport management.

Keywords

  • Intelligent Transportation Systems
  • GPS
  • transport telematics
Open Access

Commercial Vehicles Incapacity Risk Analysis in the Transport Company

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 321 - 340

Abstract

Abstract

A proposal was presented to assess the incapacity risk of commercial vehicles performing transport tasks under market conditions. The risk assessment model in the form of cost was used, which is based on the determination of operational efficiency, referring the probable costs of ensuring the reliability of the transport system to the estimated threshold income. It includes costs: incidental repairs, unplanned downtime and resulting from the presumed loss of client’s trust. Operational research were carried out on a group of several dozen vehicles, registering their operational states during several years of use. The results of the research confirmed the suitability of the incapacity risk model for predicting potential expenses for guarantee the vehicle’s continuity of running in the company and to verify the selection of the vehicle brand and the period of use.

Keywords

  • road transport
  • reliability
  • operational efficiency
  • operational costs
Open Access

Cellular Geosynthetics in the Aspect of Application in Airfield Construction

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 341 - 362

Abstract

Abstract

The natural airport pavement is formed by an adequate preparation of the ground. It should be adapted or constructed in such a way as to minimize the risk to aircraft in the event of an airplane running off the runway. Research indicates that a significant part of natural airport surfaces in Poland do not meet the requirements for load capacity and require reinforcement. The article presents methodology for reinforcing soils, describes the methods of testing the capacity of natural airport pavements and presents the results of research on the natural airport pavement, in reference to the construction with a cellular geosynthetic (geocell).

Keywords

  • cellular geosynthetics
  • soil reinforcement
  • load capacity
  • natural airfield pavements
Open Access

Analysis of Possibility of Phase Shift Model Usage for Identification of Gas Leakage from Pipeline with Corrective Elements

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 363 - 381

Abstract

Abstract

Proposed method of leakage identification uses a parametric model in the form of signals phase shift (φ). Signals from the test stand will be used: r1, r2 - signals from the corrective elements connected to the tested pipeline, pressure signals x, mass flow y and simulated mass flow yw. For these signals, their auto and cross power spectral densities are determined: Sxx, Syy, Srr, Sxy, Sxr, Syr, which are the basis to determine spectral transfer functions described as the relations between these signals and next the phase shifts (φ). Thanks that, we get a large set of transfer functions, hence a large set of phase shifts between the measured.

Keywords

  • diagnostics
  • corrective element
  • weak interactions
  • amplitude gain
  • phase shift
Open Access

Correlation between Strength, Hardness and the Share of Welding Imperfections in an AW 5754 Aluminium Alloy Weld Executed with the TIG Method

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 383 - 400

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the impact of welding imperfections on the strength and microhardness of AW 5754 aluminium alloy welded joints executed with the TIG method. It presents the results of tomographic tests of welds. The results of strength and microhardness tests involving welds executed under various welding process parameters were shown. The impact of welding imperfections on the strength and microhardness of a welded joint was analysed. Based on analysing the relations between the r Pearson coefficient values and multiple correlation, significant relationships between strength, hardness and weld defects were evidenced. Furthermore, a very strong relation between the welding process parameters, welding imperfections, and weld strength and microhardness was shown.

Keywords

  • aluminium alloy
  • weld
  • welding imperfections
  • strength
  • microhardness
Open Access

Sliding Wear Examination of New Protecting Coatings on Railway Buffer Heads

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 401 - 419

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of tests of sliding wear of bronze coatings made on the surface of specimen made of S355J2 steel by laser cladding method. On the basis of the conducted tests it was found that the wear of the specimens with CuAl9Fe3 bronze coating is characterized by average values which are close to lubricated specimens. In addition, the registration of friction coefficients of particular couples showed very similar characteristics of these two friction couples and friction coefficient values at a very similar level. This allows to assume that the currently used method of protecting railway buffer heads, consisting of periodically covering their surface with lubricant, can be replaced with another, more durable, based on bronze protection coatings.

Keywords

  • railway buffer
  • sliding wear
  • laser cladding
  • bronze coatings
Open Access

Exhaust Emissions from a EURO 6c Compliant PC Vehicle in Real Operating Conditions

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 421 - 440

Abstract

Abstract

The current EURO 6c standard has introduced a limit on the number of solid particles for spark ignition engines equal to that for compression ignition engines (6x10e11). To meet the requirements, manufacturers install particulate filters in the exhaust systems of most new engines. The article presents the results of vehicle testing with this solution during the drive carried out in accordance with the RDE procedure. The measurement results, after taking into account the Conformity Factor in relation to the approval limits, confirmed the efficiency of aftertreatment system in terms of both gas and solid components.

Keywords

  • emissions
  • RDE
  • EURO limits
  • GPF
  • Particulate Matter
Open Access

Using Fuzzy Logic to Stabilize the Position of a Multi Rotor

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 441 - 461

Abstract

Abstract

The article is a continuation of research into a stabilization system for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle of vertical takeoff and landing. The stabilization system was designed on the basis of a fuzzy logic Mamdani type controller. In the framework of the research, the authors built a test stand with a Multi Rotor model, which allows “Hardware In The Loop” testing in real time. The control system was written in the Matlab/Simulink software and implemented to the Arduino microcontroller.

Keywords

  • flight dynamics
  • unmanned aerial aircraft
  • embedded systems
  • fuzzy logic
  • MATLAB
Open Access

Analysis of the Operation Process of Vehicles Equipped with Telematic On-Board Systems

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 463 - 479

Abstract

Abstract

Modern vehicles are equipped with telematic on-board systems, which connect electronic devices between them. The sent data are among others used to control systems and devices. They also have a certain operational potential. They can, indeed, also be used to rationalize the technical service of the vehicle fleet. This publication presents the author’s graph of the operation process, including the monitoring of the vehicle fleet. The application of the presented approach will contribute to the improvement of the value of certain vehicle reliability and operation indicators.

Keywords

  • transport telematics systems
  • operation
  • reliability
Open Access

Perspective Assumptions of Pilot Training on Multi-Role Combat Aircraft in Poland

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 481 - 489

Abstract

Abstract

The article deals with the subject of diagnosing the current system of pilot training on multi-role aircraft in Poland. The authors pay particular attention to changes in its organization, arising from the compromise between technology, needs and funds on the part of the organizers. The recommended perspective changes in its organization in Poland result from the past three years of research in the Air Force University and institutions engaged in the discussed issues. The issues continue the research process handled in the dissertation [5], resulting from analyses and comparisons with world trends in this respect. The obtained findings suggest that it is essential to achieve the planned outcomes of training pilots on multi-role aircraft, at the same time reducing time and costs. It is linked to the introduction of modern aircraft or equipment supporting the process of pilot training.

Keywords

  • pilot training
  • pilot
  • multi-role combat aircraft
Open Access

Identification of Measurement Chain Properties in the Inertial Navigation Gimbal Systems of Aircraft

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 491 - 509

Abstract

Abstract

The article discusses the characteristics of measuring chains found in the gimbal inertial navigation systems of the IKW-8 type (used on Su-22 aircraft) are presented. The research paper also addresses the method for the identification of measurement chain properties of the gyroscopic KW-1 platform developed at AFIT, including sensors for the parameters of aircraft motion within an inertial space (linear accelerations and angular velocities) and signal processing systems (used to level and gyrocompass the platform). The methodology for the identification of measurement chain properties developed at AFIT found its application as a complementary technology in the process of assessing the technical condition of an IKW-8 inertial navigation system implemented in the conditions of a military unit operating Su-22 aircraft.

Keywords

  • inertial navigation systems
  • identification of technical parameters
Open Access

Maintaining a Continuous Readiness for Military Pilot Flights by Using Mobile Technology

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 511 - 519

Abstract

Abstract

Usage of mobile technology will help the flying personnel to coordinate and implement assigned tasks. Due to usage of smartphone, equipped with appropriate application, user will have the ability to track all task and recommendations with are automatically generated by the system. This type of solution will eliminate prophylaxis and training failings and positively affect the ability to flight of aviation personnel. Furthermore presented tool is also a mobile source of knowledge, data base containing: bulletins, information about aviation events, etc. The paper is a characteristic of the mobile application designated to supervise preventive and training duties of flying personnel, it presents operation algorithm, mathematical model and describes the purpose of the application.

Keywords

  • mobile application
  • preventive measures
  • military pilot
Open Access

Development of a Self-Destroying Fuse for Rocket Propelled Grenade Munitions

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 521 - 532

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a proposal for modernising the DCR-type self-destroying fuse for rocket propelled grenade munitions. It features a description of the fuse’s structure concept, its design and operation by presenting its particular stages. The further part is a description of the structural materials used for constructing the modernised fuse. Then, a conducted analysis of laboratory and field testing of the developed fuse models was presented. The results of the field testing of the devised and developed modernised fuse technology demonstrator are shown. The high quality of the fuse’s operation was demonstrated. The research paper is concluded with a short summary and a list of the literature used.

Keywords

  • self-destroying fuse
  • rocket propelled grenade munitions
  • munition fuse modernisation

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