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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 3 (October 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

25 Articles
Open Access

Possibility Analysis of Using Acoustic Emission for Monitoring Technical Condition of Compressed Air Installation of 3AL25/30 Engine

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 1 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the methodology and research results of monitoring of compressed air starting system of 3AL25/30 engine placed in Maritime Engineering Faculty of Gdynia Maritime University. Research was carried out using a set of acoustic emission Vallen System. Analysis of recorded parameters revealed leakage in the installation – damage of one of the valves. The test results indicate that the AE method can be useful for monitoring the technical condition of pressure systems of engines and devices in a ship's engine room during normal operation as an on-line system.

Keywords

  • acoustic emission
  • diagnostics
  • monitoring
  • compressed air installation
Open Access

The Possibility of Extending the Life of Cast Steel Hulls of the Steam Turbine

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 17 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the analyze the lifetime of the HP steam turbine hull for the EC Gdynia TG1 combined heat and power plant as part of the renovation. The impact of exploitation on changes in mechanical properties of the steam turbine hulls was determined. At the preliminary material tests were carried out, qualifying the hull of the steam turbine to undertake the revitalization process. Then, after non-destructive testing, trepanation samples were taken from the cold zone and the hot hull, which were subjected to mechanical properties tests. The next stage of work was the revitalization process including hardening and tempering. The mechanical properties and metallographic were carried out testing. In the next stage of work, non-destructive testing was performed to detect cracks and a decision was made to repair these areas by welding. The last stage of the work includes an analysis of the vitality of the steam turbine hull after revitalization.

Keywords

  • cast steel
  • hull
  • heat treatment
  • steam turbine
Open Access

Measurement and Diagnostic System for Marine Engines

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 33 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

The Scheduled Maintenance System allows ship-owners and operators to plan, carry out and document the maintenance and repair of equipment and mechanisms on board the ship at intervals in accordance with the class requirements imposed by the Classification Societies and the manufacturer of the equipment. In order to develop the research capabilities of the Faculty of Marine Engineering of Gdynia Maritime University, a Measurement and Diagnostic System has been developed to assess the technical condition of machinery and equipment in operation on board the ship. Modernization of measuring equipment, significantly expanded the research capabilities, which resulted in increasing the scope, improving quality, and speeding up the research and development work in the field of safety of operation and diagnostics of engine rooms and ship operation.

Keywords

  • technical diagnostics
  • diesel engines
  • vessel power plants
Open Access

Preliminary Research of Possibility of Using Thermovision for Diagnosis and Predictive Maintenance of Marine Engines

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 49 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

Infrared thermography has evolved as an effective condition monitoring tool for real-time temperature monitoring of objects or processes in a noncontact way. This paper presents the results of research conducted with use of infrared camera for monitoring 3AL25/30 engine, especially turbocharger, placed in Marine Engineering Faculty of Gdynia Maritime University. Research was carried out using a thermal camera NEC Thermo Gear G100 with appropriate software. Test results improved that infrared thermography is useful also for monitoring the condition of ship engine equipment, and enable anticipating failures during engine work.

Keywords

  • infrared thermography
  • technical diagnostics
  • monitoring
  • predictive maintenance
  • internal combustion engines
Open Access

The Positioning of the Aircraft Using GPS/GLONASS Data

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 65 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the results of aircraft positioning using GPS/GLONASS data in air navigation. In the work, the flight trajectory of the Cessna 172 aircraft was determined on the basis of GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS data. The coordinates of the Cessna 172 were determined using the least squares method in a stochastic processing compliant with the ICAO recommendations. In the air test, the Cessna 172 made a test flight over EPDE military airfield in Dęblin. The GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS measurement data from the Topcon HiperPro on-board aircraft installed on the Cessna 172 aircraft were used in the research experiment. The coordinates of the Cessna 172 in the geocentric XYZ and ellipsoidal BLh were compared with the precise flight reference trajectory determined from the differential technique RTK-OTF.

Keywords

  • GPS
  • GLONASS
  • accuracy
  • precision
  • SPP method
  • aircraft
Open Access

Overview of the Workload Assessment Methods in the Aspect of Improvement of the Operator-Technical Subsystem Relations on the Example of a Pilot

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 97 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of the pilot workload assessment methods taking into account their applicability, reliability and use in shaping flight safety. This article discusses some subjective and objective methods, and also discusses the role of observation and audit of the crew during the flight. The analysis performed was based on the concept of monitoring the safety and quality of performing the operations. Based on Heinrich's Law, which differentiates between three basic safety approaches: reactive, proactive and predictive, the possibilities of applying particular methods in the above-mentioned safety approaches have been presented.

Keywords

  • flight safety
  • workload
  • anthropotechnical system
  • operator reliability
Open Access

Integration the Meteorological Data for Monitoring the Troposphere Condition Over the Military Aerodrome in Dęblin

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 115 - 135

Abstract

Abstract

The integration of meteorological and tropospheric data is extremely important in precise monitoring of the atmosphere condition over a selected aerodrome. The paper presents the results of troposphere monitoring over the military aerodrome EPDE in Dęblin in Lubelskie Voivodeship in Poland. The three sources of meteorological data were applied for troposphere monitoring, namely: GNSS satellite technique, SYNOP data, TAF data. The troposphere empirical models within the GNSS satellite technique were utilized in the designation of the meteorological parameters, e. g. temperature, pressure and relative humidity. In paper, the meteorological parameters were estimated using three deterministic model, e.g.: SA model, RTCA-MOPS model and also GPT model.

Keywords

  • GNSS satellite technique
  • troposphere empirical models
  • SYNOP data
  • TAF data
  • meteorological data
Open Access

Designation of the Troposphere Radio Refractivity for the Area of the Military Aerodrome in Dęblin

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 137 - 158

Abstract

Abstract

The radio refractivity is one of major parameters in troposphere monitoring over a selected military aerodrome. The paper makes an in-depth analysis and description of the results of radio refractivity of the troposphere zone. The radio refractivity of the troposphere zone was estimated for the area of the military aerodrome EPDE in Dęblin, Poland. The radio refractivity of the troposphere zone was calculated using empirical troposphere models for the GNSS satellite technique as well as real meteorological data from the SYNOP message. In the paper, the authors demonstrate the results of wet, hydrostatic and total radio refractivity of the troposphere zone for EPDE military aerodrome. The SA and UNB3m models were applied in numerical computations of troposphere refractivity in an annual period.

Keywords

  • troposphere
  • meteorological data
  • refractivity
  • military aerodrome
Open Access

Problem of Modelling Road Transport

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 159 - 193

Abstract

Abstract

The article addressed road transport based on the proprietary numerical example. It is a typical optimization issue consisting in reducing the transportation costs between different drop-off locations. To determine the optimum transport plan, the following methods were used: North West Corner Method, Matrix Minima Method and Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM).

Keywords

  • modelling
  • transport
  • optimization
  • costs
Open Access

Human Factor as a Determinant of Reliability and Safety of Technical Systems

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 195 - 220

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the analysis of the state of knowledge about the impact of the human factor on selected aspects of reliability of technical systems based on selected papers delivered at the ESREL 2018 conference, which took place on June 17-22, 2018 in Trondheim, Norway. In the first part, statistical analysis was carried out in the area of thematic and methodological conference papers. Next, the impact of the human factor on the correct functioning of selected technical systems was discussed, using conference papers on the role of man in ensuring an appropriate level of cyber security, the role of expert knowledge in risk assessment, and innovative risk management methods. In summary, challenges for scientists were identified and further research directions in the analysed area.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • technical systems
  • ESREL
  • human factor
Open Access

The Analysis of the Possibilities of Using 3D Printer for Making Components and Parts of Marine Equipment for Example Flexible Clutch Coupling

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 221 - 239

Abstract

Abstract

The advantage of incremental techniques is the reduction of material losses as opposed to loss techniques, i.e. machining. The element of flexible insert of the flexible coupling was made with the use of the incremental technique using the FDM method made of ABS plastic and the exploitation tests of the performed insert were performed in the device simulating the operation of the thruster on the ship. The use of materials obtained from the recycling of plastic waste is of great importance for printing.

Keywords

  • 3D printer
  • methods of incremental techniques
  • materials for printers
  • flexible couplings
Open Access

Application of the Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy in Determining the Yield Point, as Exemplified by the EN AW-7020 Alloy

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 241 - 269

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a method of determining the yield point, applying calculations based on the Kolmogorov-Sinai (K-S) metric entropy model. Data used in metric entropy calculations was obtained during a static tensile test of the AW-7020 aluminium alloy. The methodology of K-S entropy calculations was presented and illustrated by a selected example from a data collection. Analyzing the results obtained, the values of an arbitrary yield point were compared for R02 selected samples with the values ReK−S.

Keywords

  • Kolmogorov-Sinai metric entropy
  • yield point
  • determination of arbitrary yield point applying the K-S metric entropy method
Open Access

Innovative Research Into Road Restraint Systems

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 271 - 292

Abstract

Abstract

Key to understanding the needs and building road infrastructure management tools to prevent and mitigate run-off-road accidents is to identify hazards and their sources which are a result of wrong design, construction, installation and maintenance of road restraint systems [1]. Building such tools requires advanced studies with field tests, simulations and models [30]. Delivered under the Road Innovation programme, two research projects (ROSE and LifeROSE) are designed to help with that. The main aim of the projects is to develop a method to help with an optimal choice of road restraint systems.

Keywords

  • road safety
  • safety barriers
  • crash tests
Open Access

Assessing Tram Infrastructure Safety Using the Example of the City of Gdańsk

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 293 - 322

Abstract

Abstract

Analysis of Gdańsk tram network statistics shows that incidents are quite frequent (about 650 within five years) and mostly involve collisions and crashes. As well as reducing the tram systems’ efficiency and reliability, incidents have a negative effect on road safety. As Polish cities extend their tram networks, they must also ensure that their existing networks are safe. This is to be achieved by conducting safety assessments. The article presents different assessment methods, at different stages of tram infrastructure lifecycle, providing a basis for a comprehensive diagnosis and recommendations for improvement. The objective of the study was to conduct a comprehensive safety assessment and analysis of the existing and planned tram network across Gdańsk, using different study methods and tools.

Keywords

  • tram infrastructure
  • safety
  • research methods
Open Access

Assessing the Effects of the Road Surface and Weather Conditions on Road Safety

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 323 - 349

Abstract

Abstract

When transport is analysed for its safe delivery the focus is mainly on assessing the safety of roads and the risk of undesired events. These include road accidents, an occurrence which is relatively rare and random. Randomness means that accidents depend on several factors which are partly deterministic and partly. The authors conducted an assessment of how weather conditions affect the risk of an accident due to the factor’s significant contribution to road accidents. This case involves a combination of two sources of hazard: external conditions in the form of the weather which are beyond the driver’s control and anthropotechnical factors that address vehicle condition and driver behaviour controlled by the driver.

Keywords

  • road safety
  • weather conditions
  • road surface
Open Access

The Risk of Hazards Analysis in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 351 - 374

Abstract

Abstract

Along with development Commercial Air Transport were observed increase popularity of general aviation, include RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System). In manned air transport through years created a lot of standards and regulations. For still developing RPAS not created any official rules came from ICAO. This article is a trial to arranged available and commonly using methods risk management hazard to RPAS area. Prepared a list of 72 questions about the hazard sources occurring in the analyzed area. The answers allow to identify 45 sources of hazard. Based on them, 18 hazards were identified. Guided by the ideas and good practices of manned aviation, it is necessary to harmonize legal regulations concerning safety management in unmanned flights.

Keywords

  • risk of hazards management
  • remotely piloted aircraft system
  • hazard sources
Open Access

Analysis of Available Methods for Risk Assessment Dedicated to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 375 - 400

Abstract

Abstract

Aviation is becoming more and more popular. It is influenced, inter alia, by the development of general aviation (GA) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Due to the increasing number of qualified UAV users (in April 2018 there were 6846 operators in Poland with a valid certificate of qualifications) and those performing only recreational flights, it is important to ensure an acceptable level of risk in these operations. Using the available methods, the risk of five exemplary unmanned operations was assessed. The results were compared to determine their validity.

Keywords

  • risk assessment
  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • matrix method
Open Access

Risk Assessment for Flight in Uncontrolled Airspace Under Visual Flight Rules

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 401 - 419

Abstract

Abstract

The paper attempts to assess the risk in the area of analysis which is the flight of general aviation (GA) aircraft carried out under Visual Flights Rules in the uncontrolled airspace. The flight, selected for further analysis, is a typical air operation performed in GA. The risk assessment was carried out in accordance with the risk management algorithm. The identification of hazard sources was made using a checklist of 123 questions about their occurrence. On this base a list of 37 threats identified in the presented area of analysis was obtained. The risk assessment was carried out by the MICE-RISK method. Among the defined threats, 16 threats fall into the accepted category, 15 threats are characterized by the tolerated category, and for 6 threats the category is defined as unaccepted. A dealing with risk methods were proposed. The re-evaluation indicated that the number of threats in particular categories are: 27, 6 and 6.

Keywords

  • risk assessment
  • hazard source
  • general aviation
  • risk management
Open Access

Forecasting and Predicting in Engineering Tasks

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 421 - 431

Abstract

Abstract

The work analyzes the tasks of solving problems, which consist in determining the events that may occur through some time after the completion of the process of solving the problem. One of the possible classifications of such tasks is proposed. The analysis of differences between different types of tasks is carried out, features of implementing the processes of their resolution are revealed. The paper considers in detail such types of tasks as prognosis and prediction. Differences are described between these processes with each other and the characteristics that determine each of the processes. The comparison of various types of processes in the overall forecasting process is presented.

Keywords

  • prognosis
  • prediction
  • prediction models
  • hypotheses
  • heuristics
Open Access

Bayesian Inference in the Analysis of the Failure Risk of the Water Supply Network

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 433 - 450

Abstract

Abstract

One of the basic subsystems of the collective water supply system is the water distribution subsystem which has a direct impact on the reliability and safety of water supply to consumers. Failures of water pipes may cause water losses (leaks), interruptions in the water supply to consumers and can be the cause of secondary water pollution in the water supply network. It was proposed to use Bayesian inference to locate failures on the water supply network and to determine a posteriori probability of water network failure. It was found that the conditional probability of distribution water supply network failure is definitely higher than the conditional probability of home connections failure. The research results should be used by the water supply company during the development of an operational strategy for the renovation and modernization of the water supply network.

Keywords

  • water supply network
  • failure
  • Bayes theorem
Open Access

Prevention of Defeating Interlocking Devices Associated with Guards

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 451 - 470

Abstract

Abstract

Machine guards are commonly used safety measures that reduce the risk of machine use by preventing access to danger zones. However, a significant problem is the defeating of guards and safety devices. Research conducted in several EU countries has shown that in every country, over a dozen percent of shields are constantly defeated. The article presents the methodology of selecting and designing logic circuits that provide interlocking and locking safety functions. This methodology includes measures to limit the motivation to defeating interlocking and locking devices on guards and technical solutions that prevent defeating.

Keywords

  • safety of machinery
  • defeating
  • guards
  • safety devices
  • prevention solution
Open Access

Analysis of Accuracy of the Generous Orthophotomap on the Basis of Digital Aerial Photos Collected for the Airport Dęblin

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 471 - 496

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the technological process of generating an orthophotomap based on photos obtained from the aviation ceiling. To achieve the intended goal, it was necessary to design and measure a field photogrammetric matrix. A method of GNSS technique measurement was chosen for the measurement of the photopoints. The aim of the research was to generate an orthophotomap and to evaluate the impact of parameter selection on the orthophotomap accuracy. The obtained ortho-images were compared with the orthophotomap obtained from the resources of the Central Geodesic and Cartographic Documentation Center. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the change of parameters during the generation of intermediate products does not significantly affect the accuracy of the resulting orthophotomap.

Keywords

  • aerial photogrammetry
  • orthophotomap
  • accuracy analysis
  • Digital Terrain Model
Open Access

The Effect of a Surface Roughness on Load Carrying Capacity in Slide Journal Bearing Lubricated with Oil of Non-Newtonian Properties

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 497 - 526

Abstract

Abstract

The Author presents the method that taking account an influence of surface roughness on both flow and operating parameters of a slide journal bearing in the paper. For this purpose, the expected value for the gap height function should be determined. The expected value is then the most probable value of the height of the lubrication gap. There are presented the results of analytical and numerical calculations of flow and operating parameters in slide journal bearings. Numerical calculations were performed using the finite difference method as well as own calculation procedures and the Mathcad 15 software.

Keywords

  • random changes in the gap
  • apparent viscosity
  • expected values
Open Access

An Analysis of Reliability of Military Vehicles

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 527 - 546

Abstract

Abstract

The paper describes issues related to reliability of military vehicles based on recorded operational events. Seeking the quantification of reliability for exploiting vehicles in military units, an extensive analysis of factors shaping the reliability level was made, taking into consideration all phases of military vehicles existence and a peculiar character of the exploitation process of military vehicles. The importance of reliability research in the decision process optimization was emphasized, controlling the efficiency and availability of the exploitation system.

Keywords

  • military vehicle
  • availability
  • reliability
Open Access

Reliability Analysis of Critical Kinematic Pair of the RD-33 Engine

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 547 - 574

Abstract

Abstract

The article addressed the technological problem occurring in the RD-33 turbine engine on the kinematic pair between the accessory gearbox (AGB) and fuel regulator pump HP-59A (Polish: NR-59A). In the beginning, examples of operational problems were described. Then, the power balance for the accessory gearbox and strength calculations of gear and splines of a critical pair were presented. It was demonstrated that gear made from an original material complies with strength criteria and the observed operational problems with splines are created by other factors.

Keywords

  • aviation
  • reliability
  • analysis
  • strength
  • power
  • gear
25 Articles
Open Access

Possibility Analysis of Using Acoustic Emission for Monitoring Technical Condition of Compressed Air Installation of 3AL25/30 Engine

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 1 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the methodology and research results of monitoring of compressed air starting system of 3AL25/30 engine placed in Maritime Engineering Faculty of Gdynia Maritime University. Research was carried out using a set of acoustic emission Vallen System. Analysis of recorded parameters revealed leakage in the installation – damage of one of the valves. The test results indicate that the AE method can be useful for monitoring the technical condition of pressure systems of engines and devices in a ship's engine room during normal operation as an on-line system.

Keywords

  • acoustic emission
  • diagnostics
  • monitoring
  • compressed air installation
Open Access

The Possibility of Extending the Life of Cast Steel Hulls of the Steam Turbine

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 17 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the analyze the lifetime of the HP steam turbine hull for the EC Gdynia TG1 combined heat and power plant as part of the renovation. The impact of exploitation on changes in mechanical properties of the steam turbine hulls was determined. At the preliminary material tests were carried out, qualifying the hull of the steam turbine to undertake the revitalization process. Then, after non-destructive testing, trepanation samples were taken from the cold zone and the hot hull, which were subjected to mechanical properties tests. The next stage of work was the revitalization process including hardening and tempering. The mechanical properties and metallographic were carried out testing. In the next stage of work, non-destructive testing was performed to detect cracks and a decision was made to repair these areas by welding. The last stage of the work includes an analysis of the vitality of the steam turbine hull after revitalization.

Keywords

  • cast steel
  • hull
  • heat treatment
  • steam turbine
Open Access

Measurement and Diagnostic System for Marine Engines

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 33 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

The Scheduled Maintenance System allows ship-owners and operators to plan, carry out and document the maintenance and repair of equipment and mechanisms on board the ship at intervals in accordance with the class requirements imposed by the Classification Societies and the manufacturer of the equipment. In order to develop the research capabilities of the Faculty of Marine Engineering of Gdynia Maritime University, a Measurement and Diagnostic System has been developed to assess the technical condition of machinery and equipment in operation on board the ship. Modernization of measuring equipment, significantly expanded the research capabilities, which resulted in increasing the scope, improving quality, and speeding up the research and development work in the field of safety of operation and diagnostics of engine rooms and ship operation.

Keywords

  • technical diagnostics
  • diesel engines
  • vessel power plants
Open Access

Preliminary Research of Possibility of Using Thermovision for Diagnosis and Predictive Maintenance of Marine Engines

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 49 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

Infrared thermography has evolved as an effective condition monitoring tool for real-time temperature monitoring of objects or processes in a noncontact way. This paper presents the results of research conducted with use of infrared camera for monitoring 3AL25/30 engine, especially turbocharger, placed in Marine Engineering Faculty of Gdynia Maritime University. Research was carried out using a thermal camera NEC Thermo Gear G100 with appropriate software. Test results improved that infrared thermography is useful also for monitoring the condition of ship engine equipment, and enable anticipating failures during engine work.

Keywords

  • infrared thermography
  • technical diagnostics
  • monitoring
  • predictive maintenance
  • internal combustion engines
Open Access

The Positioning of the Aircraft Using GPS/GLONASS Data

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 65 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the results of aircraft positioning using GPS/GLONASS data in air navigation. In the work, the flight trajectory of the Cessna 172 aircraft was determined on the basis of GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS data. The coordinates of the Cessna 172 were determined using the least squares method in a stochastic processing compliant with the ICAO recommendations. In the air test, the Cessna 172 made a test flight over EPDE military airfield in Dęblin. The GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS measurement data from the Topcon HiperPro on-board aircraft installed on the Cessna 172 aircraft were used in the research experiment. The coordinates of the Cessna 172 in the geocentric XYZ and ellipsoidal BLh were compared with the precise flight reference trajectory determined from the differential technique RTK-OTF.

Keywords

  • GPS
  • GLONASS
  • accuracy
  • precision
  • SPP method
  • aircraft
Open Access

Overview of the Workload Assessment Methods in the Aspect of Improvement of the Operator-Technical Subsystem Relations on the Example of a Pilot

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 97 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of the pilot workload assessment methods taking into account their applicability, reliability and use in shaping flight safety. This article discusses some subjective and objective methods, and also discusses the role of observation and audit of the crew during the flight. The analysis performed was based on the concept of monitoring the safety and quality of performing the operations. Based on Heinrich's Law, which differentiates between three basic safety approaches: reactive, proactive and predictive, the possibilities of applying particular methods in the above-mentioned safety approaches have been presented.

Keywords

  • flight safety
  • workload
  • anthropotechnical system
  • operator reliability
Open Access

Integration the Meteorological Data for Monitoring the Troposphere Condition Over the Military Aerodrome in Dęblin

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 115 - 135

Abstract

Abstract

The integration of meteorological and tropospheric data is extremely important in precise monitoring of the atmosphere condition over a selected aerodrome. The paper presents the results of troposphere monitoring over the military aerodrome EPDE in Dęblin in Lubelskie Voivodeship in Poland. The three sources of meteorological data were applied for troposphere monitoring, namely: GNSS satellite technique, SYNOP data, TAF data. The troposphere empirical models within the GNSS satellite technique were utilized in the designation of the meteorological parameters, e. g. temperature, pressure and relative humidity. In paper, the meteorological parameters were estimated using three deterministic model, e.g.: SA model, RTCA-MOPS model and also GPT model.

Keywords

  • GNSS satellite technique
  • troposphere empirical models
  • SYNOP data
  • TAF data
  • meteorological data
Open Access

Designation of the Troposphere Radio Refractivity for the Area of the Military Aerodrome in Dęblin

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 137 - 158

Abstract

Abstract

The radio refractivity is one of major parameters in troposphere monitoring over a selected military aerodrome. The paper makes an in-depth analysis and description of the results of radio refractivity of the troposphere zone. The radio refractivity of the troposphere zone was estimated for the area of the military aerodrome EPDE in Dęblin, Poland. The radio refractivity of the troposphere zone was calculated using empirical troposphere models for the GNSS satellite technique as well as real meteorological data from the SYNOP message. In the paper, the authors demonstrate the results of wet, hydrostatic and total radio refractivity of the troposphere zone for EPDE military aerodrome. The SA and UNB3m models were applied in numerical computations of troposphere refractivity in an annual period.

Keywords

  • troposphere
  • meteorological data
  • refractivity
  • military aerodrome
Open Access

Problem of Modelling Road Transport

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 159 - 193

Abstract

Abstract

The article addressed road transport based on the proprietary numerical example. It is a typical optimization issue consisting in reducing the transportation costs between different drop-off locations. To determine the optimum transport plan, the following methods were used: North West Corner Method, Matrix Minima Method and Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM).

Keywords

  • modelling
  • transport
  • optimization
  • costs
Open Access

Human Factor as a Determinant of Reliability and Safety of Technical Systems

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 195 - 220

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the analysis of the state of knowledge about the impact of the human factor on selected aspects of reliability of technical systems based on selected papers delivered at the ESREL 2018 conference, which took place on June 17-22, 2018 in Trondheim, Norway. In the first part, statistical analysis was carried out in the area of thematic and methodological conference papers. Next, the impact of the human factor on the correct functioning of selected technical systems was discussed, using conference papers on the role of man in ensuring an appropriate level of cyber security, the role of expert knowledge in risk assessment, and innovative risk management methods. In summary, challenges for scientists were identified and further research directions in the analysed area.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • technical systems
  • ESREL
  • human factor
Open Access

The Analysis of the Possibilities of Using 3D Printer for Making Components and Parts of Marine Equipment for Example Flexible Clutch Coupling

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 221 - 239

Abstract

Abstract

The advantage of incremental techniques is the reduction of material losses as opposed to loss techniques, i.e. machining. The element of flexible insert of the flexible coupling was made with the use of the incremental technique using the FDM method made of ABS plastic and the exploitation tests of the performed insert were performed in the device simulating the operation of the thruster on the ship. The use of materials obtained from the recycling of plastic waste is of great importance for printing.

Keywords

  • 3D printer
  • methods of incremental techniques
  • materials for printers
  • flexible couplings
Open Access

Application of the Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy in Determining the Yield Point, as Exemplified by the EN AW-7020 Alloy

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 241 - 269

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents a method of determining the yield point, applying calculations based on the Kolmogorov-Sinai (K-S) metric entropy model. Data used in metric entropy calculations was obtained during a static tensile test of the AW-7020 aluminium alloy. The methodology of K-S entropy calculations was presented and illustrated by a selected example from a data collection. Analyzing the results obtained, the values of an arbitrary yield point were compared for R02 selected samples with the values ReK−S.

Keywords

  • Kolmogorov-Sinai metric entropy
  • yield point
  • determination of arbitrary yield point applying the K-S metric entropy method
Open Access

Innovative Research Into Road Restraint Systems

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 271 - 292

Abstract

Abstract

Key to understanding the needs and building road infrastructure management tools to prevent and mitigate run-off-road accidents is to identify hazards and their sources which are a result of wrong design, construction, installation and maintenance of road restraint systems [1]. Building such tools requires advanced studies with field tests, simulations and models [30]. Delivered under the Road Innovation programme, two research projects (ROSE and LifeROSE) are designed to help with that. The main aim of the projects is to develop a method to help with an optimal choice of road restraint systems.

Keywords

  • road safety
  • safety barriers
  • crash tests
Open Access

Assessing Tram Infrastructure Safety Using the Example of the City of Gdańsk

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 293 - 322

Abstract

Abstract

Analysis of Gdańsk tram network statistics shows that incidents are quite frequent (about 650 within five years) and mostly involve collisions and crashes. As well as reducing the tram systems’ efficiency and reliability, incidents have a negative effect on road safety. As Polish cities extend their tram networks, they must also ensure that their existing networks are safe. This is to be achieved by conducting safety assessments. The article presents different assessment methods, at different stages of tram infrastructure lifecycle, providing a basis for a comprehensive diagnosis and recommendations for improvement. The objective of the study was to conduct a comprehensive safety assessment and analysis of the existing and planned tram network across Gdańsk, using different study methods and tools.

Keywords

  • tram infrastructure
  • safety
  • research methods
Open Access

Assessing the Effects of the Road Surface and Weather Conditions on Road Safety

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 323 - 349

Abstract

Abstract

When transport is analysed for its safe delivery the focus is mainly on assessing the safety of roads and the risk of undesired events. These include road accidents, an occurrence which is relatively rare and random. Randomness means that accidents depend on several factors which are partly deterministic and partly. The authors conducted an assessment of how weather conditions affect the risk of an accident due to the factor’s significant contribution to road accidents. This case involves a combination of two sources of hazard: external conditions in the form of the weather which are beyond the driver’s control and anthropotechnical factors that address vehicle condition and driver behaviour controlled by the driver.

Keywords

  • road safety
  • weather conditions
  • road surface
Open Access

The Risk of Hazards Analysis in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 351 - 374

Abstract

Abstract

Along with development Commercial Air Transport were observed increase popularity of general aviation, include RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System). In manned air transport through years created a lot of standards and regulations. For still developing RPAS not created any official rules came from ICAO. This article is a trial to arranged available and commonly using methods risk management hazard to RPAS area. Prepared a list of 72 questions about the hazard sources occurring in the analyzed area. The answers allow to identify 45 sources of hazard. Based on them, 18 hazards were identified. Guided by the ideas and good practices of manned aviation, it is necessary to harmonize legal regulations concerning safety management in unmanned flights.

Keywords

  • risk of hazards management
  • remotely piloted aircraft system
  • hazard sources
Open Access

Analysis of Available Methods for Risk Assessment Dedicated to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 375 - 400

Abstract

Abstract

Aviation is becoming more and more popular. It is influenced, inter alia, by the development of general aviation (GA) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Due to the increasing number of qualified UAV users (in April 2018 there were 6846 operators in Poland with a valid certificate of qualifications) and those performing only recreational flights, it is important to ensure an acceptable level of risk in these operations. Using the available methods, the risk of five exemplary unmanned operations was assessed. The results were compared to determine their validity.

Keywords

  • risk assessment
  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • matrix method
Open Access

Risk Assessment for Flight in Uncontrolled Airspace Under Visual Flight Rules

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 401 - 419

Abstract

Abstract

The paper attempts to assess the risk in the area of analysis which is the flight of general aviation (GA) aircraft carried out under Visual Flights Rules in the uncontrolled airspace. The flight, selected for further analysis, is a typical air operation performed in GA. The risk assessment was carried out in accordance with the risk management algorithm. The identification of hazard sources was made using a checklist of 123 questions about their occurrence. On this base a list of 37 threats identified in the presented area of analysis was obtained. The risk assessment was carried out by the MICE-RISK method. Among the defined threats, 16 threats fall into the accepted category, 15 threats are characterized by the tolerated category, and for 6 threats the category is defined as unaccepted. A dealing with risk methods were proposed. The re-evaluation indicated that the number of threats in particular categories are: 27, 6 and 6.

Keywords

  • risk assessment
  • hazard source
  • general aviation
  • risk management
Open Access

Forecasting and Predicting in Engineering Tasks

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 421 - 431

Abstract

Abstract

The work analyzes the tasks of solving problems, which consist in determining the events that may occur through some time after the completion of the process of solving the problem. One of the possible classifications of such tasks is proposed. The analysis of differences between different types of tasks is carried out, features of implementing the processes of their resolution are revealed. The paper considers in detail such types of tasks as prognosis and prediction. Differences are described between these processes with each other and the characteristics that determine each of the processes. The comparison of various types of processes in the overall forecasting process is presented.

Keywords

  • prognosis
  • prediction
  • prediction models
  • hypotheses
  • heuristics
Open Access

Bayesian Inference in the Analysis of the Failure Risk of the Water Supply Network

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 433 - 450

Abstract

Abstract

One of the basic subsystems of the collective water supply system is the water distribution subsystem which has a direct impact on the reliability and safety of water supply to consumers. Failures of water pipes may cause water losses (leaks), interruptions in the water supply to consumers and can be the cause of secondary water pollution in the water supply network. It was proposed to use Bayesian inference to locate failures on the water supply network and to determine a posteriori probability of water network failure. It was found that the conditional probability of distribution water supply network failure is definitely higher than the conditional probability of home connections failure. The research results should be used by the water supply company during the development of an operational strategy for the renovation and modernization of the water supply network.

Keywords

  • water supply network
  • failure
  • Bayes theorem
Open Access

Prevention of Defeating Interlocking Devices Associated with Guards

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 451 - 470

Abstract

Abstract

Machine guards are commonly used safety measures that reduce the risk of machine use by preventing access to danger zones. However, a significant problem is the defeating of guards and safety devices. Research conducted in several EU countries has shown that in every country, over a dozen percent of shields are constantly defeated. The article presents the methodology of selecting and designing logic circuits that provide interlocking and locking safety functions. This methodology includes measures to limit the motivation to defeating interlocking and locking devices on guards and technical solutions that prevent defeating.

Keywords

  • safety of machinery
  • defeating
  • guards
  • safety devices
  • prevention solution
Open Access

Analysis of Accuracy of the Generous Orthophotomap on the Basis of Digital Aerial Photos Collected for the Airport Dęblin

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 471 - 496

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the technological process of generating an orthophotomap based on photos obtained from the aviation ceiling. To achieve the intended goal, it was necessary to design and measure a field photogrammetric matrix. A method of GNSS technique measurement was chosen for the measurement of the photopoints. The aim of the research was to generate an orthophotomap and to evaluate the impact of parameter selection on the orthophotomap accuracy. The obtained ortho-images were compared with the orthophotomap obtained from the resources of the Central Geodesic and Cartographic Documentation Center. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the change of parameters during the generation of intermediate products does not significantly affect the accuracy of the resulting orthophotomap.

Keywords

  • aerial photogrammetry
  • orthophotomap
  • accuracy analysis
  • Digital Terrain Model
Open Access

The Effect of a Surface Roughness on Load Carrying Capacity in Slide Journal Bearing Lubricated with Oil of Non-Newtonian Properties

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 497 - 526

Abstract

Abstract

The Author presents the method that taking account an influence of surface roughness on both flow and operating parameters of a slide journal bearing in the paper. For this purpose, the expected value for the gap height function should be determined. The expected value is then the most probable value of the height of the lubrication gap. There are presented the results of analytical and numerical calculations of flow and operating parameters in slide journal bearings. Numerical calculations were performed using the finite difference method as well as own calculation procedures and the Mathcad 15 software.

Keywords

  • random changes in the gap
  • apparent viscosity
  • expected values
Open Access

An Analysis of Reliability of Military Vehicles

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 527 - 546

Abstract

Abstract

The paper describes issues related to reliability of military vehicles based on recorded operational events. Seeking the quantification of reliability for exploiting vehicles in military units, an extensive analysis of factors shaping the reliability level was made, taking into consideration all phases of military vehicles existence and a peculiar character of the exploitation process of military vehicles. The importance of reliability research in the decision process optimization was emphasized, controlling the efficiency and availability of the exploitation system.

Keywords

  • military vehicle
  • availability
  • reliability
Open Access

Reliability Analysis of Critical Kinematic Pair of the RD-33 Engine

Published Online: 30 Oct 2019
Page range: 547 - 574

Abstract

Abstract

The article addressed the technological problem occurring in the RD-33 turbine engine on the kinematic pair between the accessory gearbox (AGB) and fuel regulator pump HP-59A (Polish: NR-59A). In the beginning, examples of operational problems were described. Then, the power balance for the accessory gearbox and strength calculations of gear and splines of a critical pair were presented. It was demonstrated that gear made from an original material complies with strength criteria and the observed operational problems with splines are created by other factors.

Keywords

  • aviation
  • reliability
  • analysis
  • strength
  • power
  • gear

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