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Volume 36 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

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Volume 34 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

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Volume 29 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 27 (2014): Issue 1 (February 2014)

Volume 26 (2013): Issue 1 (June 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 24 (2012): Issue 1 (December 2012)

Volume 23 (2012): Issue 1 (September 2012)

Volume 22 (2012): Issue 1 (June 2012)

Volume 21 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Volume 20 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

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Volume 6 (2008): Issue 3 (September 2008)

Volume 5 (2008): Issue 2 (June 2008)

Volume 4 (2008): Issue 1 (March 2008)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 36 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

16 Articles
Open Access

Evaluation method of allowable variance for results of tribological measurement on the basis of their the coherence trends and of the covariance trends

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 5 - 16

Abstract

Abstract

This article discusses the possibility of assessing the technical condition of rolling bearings based on tribological tests of oil samples. The problem is to define diagnostic levels, especially when has a relatively small number of measurements (3, 4, 5 etc.). Rating variance of measurements can be performed using the dimensionless factor covariance ρ(τ) and the dimensionless coherence function γ2(ω). The set is compact enough when ρ (τ) and γ 2(ω) will be close enough to oscillate around the value of 1 [1, 3]. In summary, it is concluded that the thresholds δ, 2δ, 3δ are reliable when ρ (τ) and γ 2(ω) are greater than 0.7 [6].

Keywords

  • ball bearing
  • the diagnostic signals
  • diagnostic level
  • the variance of data
  • covariance
  • coherence
Open Access

Evaluation of diagnostic thresholds dependability for tribologic signals received in the environment disturbed by vibroacoustic and functional signals

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 17 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

Determination of dependable diagnostic thresholds for tribologic signals received e.g. from antifriction bearings (in particular for insufficient number of measurements, only 4÷5) is a really difficult task due to complexity of working environment where such bearings are operated. Typical working environment for such objects must take account for operation time under various working conditions and accompanying (and disturbing) signals, e.g. vibroacoustic ones. The sought assessment of the relationship between diagnostic signals and environmental noise can be determined from convolution of both diagnostic and environments signals that make up the complete set of received information. The convolution of these two series of signals can be obtained from an algorithm based on the Cauchy product. Then one has to find the coherence factor and the square of amplitude gain for the set of diagnostic signals with reference to various sets of signals received from environment, which makes it possible to evaluate cohesion of the investigated series of signals, thus their suitability to determine diagnostic threshold for tribologic signals intended for the analysis.

Keywords

  • diagnostic thresholds
  • tribologic signals
Open Access

Creating mechanisms of toxic substances emission of combustion engines

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 33 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyses the mechanisms of creation of toxic exhaust gases, which mainly derived from inexact fuel metering and improper air-fuel mixture preparation. The paper describes the process of creating toxic components in the exhaust gases of piston engines during engine operation, and impact on the emission of these components determining the composition of the fuel mixture determined equivalence factor Φ. The principal mechanisms of formation of toxic exhaust gases, in particular nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and also essential according to create each of toxic exhaust gases are the subject of the paper. Moreover, empirical relationships, by means of which it is possible to determine the time of creation of the individual components of toxic exhaust gases, are presented. For example, one of the mechanisms for prompt formation of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons graphic illustration of formation as a function of crank angle is described. At the conclusion, the summary and significance of information on creation mechanisms of toxic components in the exhaust gases of piston engines are presented.

Keywords

  • combustion engines
  • air pollution
  • environmental protection
Open Access

Influence of the quality of fuel atomization on the emission of exhaust gases toxic components of combustion engines

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 43 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

The paper contains analysis of the impact on the quality of the fuel spray of droplets on the number and the value of the surface area of the droplets that have a direct impact on the efficiency of the combustion process. It presents a change in the level of toxic exhaust emissions with an increase in the so-called. Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of fuel droplets. The presented figures show that the increase in the average droplet diameter SMD in particular causes an increase of toxic exhaust gases emissions, i.e. mainly nitrogen oxides NO, carbon monoxide CO, hydrocarbons HC and Particulate Matter (PM). This tendency is not constant, because it is changing according to changes of the coefficient of equivalence Φ. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides for the lean mixtures (Φ <1), with an increase in average droplet diameter increases, while now for the rich mixtures (Φ> 1), this trend is significantly changed, i.e. the level of this emission decreases.

Keywords

  • combustion engines
  • fuel atomizing
  • air pollution
  • environmental protection
Open Access

Methodological aspects of risk management in road transport

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 51 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

Safe functioning of transport systems depends on the effective management of safety, which is “management by objectives”, i.e. the kind of management system. Its basic principle is: “we manage safety” by “risk management”. The need to describe this problem was the main motivation to write an article. A reminder of the central place of road transport on the “map of transport safety researches”- was second motivation to write this article.

Keywords

  • risk management
  • road risk
  • road safety
Open Access

Rating forces grip and driving and accelerations of the car with drive different configuration

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 65 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

The paper shows a typical drive systems used in today's vehicles, mainly cars. Approximated scheme of the formation of the driving force of the vehicle and the necessary mathematical relations for the calculation. For example, a typical passenger car BMW 320 was analyzed and calculations obtained a driving force, of adhesion and acceleration. The calculations were performed for the drive system, the classical (i.e. the rear axle of the vehicle) for front-wheel drive and four-wheel drive (4×4). Virtually assumed that to the above mentioned vehicle it is possible buildings of each of said system. These are shown graphically in diagrams bearing a distribution of the forces acting on the substrate and the reactions - the data necessary for the calculations. The resulting calculation is graphically shown in the diagrams, in which is illustrated a change value of the resulting adhesive strength, and the acceleration depending on the drive type vehicle.

Keywords

  • drive systems cars
  • siła przyczepności pojazdu
  • siła napędowa
Open Access

The laboratory test rig with miniature jet engine to research aviation fuels combustion process

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 79 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine (MiniJETRig – Miniature Jet Engine Test Rig), that was built in the Air Force Institute of Technology. The test rig has been developed for research and development works aimed at modelling and investigating processes and phenomena occurring in full scale jet engines. In the article construction of a test rig is described, with a brief discussion on the functionality of each of its main components. Additionally examples of measurement results obtained during the realization of the initial tests have been included, presenting the capabilities of the test rig.

Keywords

  • miniature turbojet engine
  • combustion process
  • aviation fuels
  • exhaust gases
Open Access

The property changes of ammunition elements due to the exploitation time

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 91 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

The way carry out of analysis concerning correctness working of evaluation module proposed in functioning research methodology, chosen features elements of artillery fuses was presented in the article. Probability distributions of the aptitude time of tested ammunition elements were applied for verification of undertaken post diagnostic decisions. The analysis of test results chosen fuses elements, based on the standard normal distributions were executed, further the graphic interpretations of these distributions were made. A measurement of the strength of resistance decline of the side-bolt spring was chosen for the analysis, as a way of checking MG-37 and MG-57 fuse types features. Furthermore, the author presents an illustrative comparison of normal distributions, which confirms that post diagnostic decisions had been undertaken correctly. The graphic interpretations of analyzed test results of MG-37 fuse elements type were executed by means of two-parameters gamma distribution in the comparison. Concise conclusions confirming the correctness of functioning of evaluation module in the research methodology were introduced at the end of the article.

Keywords

  • normal distribution
  • feature
  • testing cycle
  • test
  • properties
Open Access

Proactive methods – new quality in aircraft flight safety management

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 105 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

This article reviews methods that apply in data and information analysis on flight safety and also was made a review of the features and examples of system resources of proactive management of flight safety. It proposes a general methodology for IT support of proactive flight safety management in the form of an algorithm, whose individual elements been described. Was presented an example of the application of the algorithm, selected methods and tools for data analysis and identification of corrective and/or preventive actions, as part of flight safety management and the monitoring of their effectiveness and efficiency through continuous analysis and assessment of data and information from the system, as an element of flight safety management. This article presents a methodological approach to the analysis and assessment of the risks to flight safety with regard to proactive processes

Keywords

  • flight safety
  • flight safety management
  • proactive processes
Open Access

Estimating the system efficiency to ensure aircraft flight safety

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 115 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

In the article was presented approach logical - probabilistic to assess the efficiency of the flight safety assurance system of aircraft considering that it is justified by the random nature of the process, which describe the indicators and logic is necessary during qualifying the threats and prevent such threats. Was proposed a method of quantitative estimation of system efficiency based on data and information collected in the information systems exploited in the Air Force. Was presented an analytical method for determining the probability of counteracting by the pilot emergency situation in-flight in cases where we have relevant data on the risks of flight safety. The probability of counteracting by the pilot emergency situation in-flight is even greater the higher the expected value and the lower the variance.

Keywords

  • flight safety
  • system efficiency
  • flight safety assurance
  • efficiency indicator
Open Access

The electrical conductivity of jet fuels F–34 and F–35 (JET A–1) in distribution

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 123 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a changeability of electrical conductivity of jet fuels in distribution. Author described the methods used to prevent the formation of the dangers of static electricity. Research was carried out on two basic fuels used worldwide to power engines in civil (Jet A – 1) and military aircrafts (F – 34), during real fuel supplies in aviation military unit. Results of influence of temperature on the electrical conductivity of jet fuel are presented.

Keywords

  • static electricity
  • electrical conductivity
  • jet fuels
  • static dissipator additives
Open Access

The assessment of toxic emission from the engines of the W-3 helicopter in the preflight engine run

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 135 - 146

Abstract

Abstract

Helicopters are used in a variety of tasks like sea, mountain and land search and rescue, civil transportation or military operations. Their amount is growing, their ceiling is usually low, however, the exhaust emission from their engines is not restricted by any directive. That is why an attempt was made to determine the real exhaust emission. The research was done on the W-3 helicopter during the preflight engine run. Based on the results set the standard was created which reflects the working conditions of the engines during the test cycle. The research allowed to establish the unit emission of toxic gasses and then the influence on environment of the engines.

Keywords

  • exhaust emission
Open Access

Inductive sensors for blade tip-timing in gas turbines

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 147 - 164

Abstract

Abstract

The paper reviews features and applications of the upgraded inductive sensor for BTT, which is able to operate in contact with exhaust gases of temperature even as high as 1200 K. The new design includes metal-ceramic housing ensuring proper heat transfer, magnetic circuit containing set of permanent magnets with various magnetic field values and Curie temperatures, completely redesigned windings and current/voltage converter used instead of an electromotive force amplifier. Its principle of operation is based on electro-dynamical interaction and therefore it may be referred as a passive eddy-current sensor. The sensor technique has been demonstrated on four stages of a surplus military turbofan including the high pressure turbine as part of the engine health monitoring system. We present signal samples and review methods used for online processing of time-of-arrival signals when only a limited number of sensors is available.

Keywords

  • blade vibration
  • tip-timing
  • structural integrity
  • eddy-current sensor
Open Access

Qualitative analysis of maintenance and services carried out in a repair plant on the example of a multi-purpose aircraft

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 165 - 174

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents revealed failures and damages of the multi-task aircraft (ACFT) reported by users to the service organization, aimed at assessing and removing them. In the course of the analysis process, damages and malfunctions were grouped, depending on aviation specialities. A review was conducted that targeted occurring malfunctions and damages in a set of ACFT of the same type, over a twelve-year operational period. In the assessed period, trend lines were determined, showing a drop in the number of accepted claims submitted by ACFT users.

Keywords

  • operation
  • malfunction
  • damage
  • aircraft
Open Access

The risk analysis during production process of an innovative baby carriage with a bike function

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 175 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the risk assesment of damages occurance in production stage of a babycarriage with a bike function. The analysis of risk is done by using the FMEA – Failure Made and Effect Analysis that is used in aviation and automotive industry. This way of innovative product assessment allows to evaluate the risk of defects and indicate the priorities of quality for key parts as well as the device.

Keywords

  • FMEA analysis
  • innovative product
  • babycarriage with a bike function
Open Access

Termovision and electricity capacitance measurements as a evaluation of a helicopter rotor’s blades delamination

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 187 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents essential elements reached during investigations of heat section of rotor blades which have been done in AFIT. The investigations were related to a valuation of helicopter’s rotor blades delamination. They used a method of thermal field measurement as well as a electricity capacitance between an airframe and a heat element of the installation. A suggestion of such measurements appeared during the disassembly of rotor blade heat sections when some local unglue of heat element’s tape from the structure of blade’s heating pack has seen. Spots nearby separation of adhesive are a potential area of a local temperature increase, both the electric heating element and the mechanical structure of the blade. This is especially dangerous for composite structures. Overheated composite structures characterized by reduced flexibility and becomes prone to cracking. Therefore, the possibility of non-invasive monitoring adhesive spots, without removing the blades would be particularly useful.

Keywords

  • delamination of a composite helicopter blades
  • heat sections of rotor blades
  • an anti-icing electric heating
  • an isolation of rotor blade’s heating pack
  • electricity capacity of an isolation
16 Articles
Open Access

Evaluation method of allowable variance for results of tribological measurement on the basis of their the coherence trends and of the covariance trends

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 5 - 16

Abstract

Abstract

This article discusses the possibility of assessing the technical condition of rolling bearings based on tribological tests of oil samples. The problem is to define diagnostic levels, especially when has a relatively small number of measurements (3, 4, 5 etc.). Rating variance of measurements can be performed using the dimensionless factor covariance ρ(τ) and the dimensionless coherence function γ2(ω). The set is compact enough when ρ (τ) and γ 2(ω) will be close enough to oscillate around the value of 1 [1, 3]. In summary, it is concluded that the thresholds δ, 2δ, 3δ are reliable when ρ (τ) and γ 2(ω) are greater than 0.7 [6].

Keywords

  • ball bearing
  • the diagnostic signals
  • diagnostic level
  • the variance of data
  • covariance
  • coherence
Open Access

Evaluation of diagnostic thresholds dependability for tribologic signals received in the environment disturbed by vibroacoustic and functional signals

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 17 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

Determination of dependable diagnostic thresholds for tribologic signals received e.g. from antifriction bearings (in particular for insufficient number of measurements, only 4÷5) is a really difficult task due to complexity of working environment where such bearings are operated. Typical working environment for such objects must take account for operation time under various working conditions and accompanying (and disturbing) signals, e.g. vibroacoustic ones. The sought assessment of the relationship between diagnostic signals and environmental noise can be determined from convolution of both diagnostic and environments signals that make up the complete set of received information. The convolution of these two series of signals can be obtained from an algorithm based on the Cauchy product. Then one has to find the coherence factor and the square of amplitude gain for the set of diagnostic signals with reference to various sets of signals received from environment, which makes it possible to evaluate cohesion of the investigated series of signals, thus their suitability to determine diagnostic threshold for tribologic signals intended for the analysis.

Keywords

  • diagnostic thresholds
  • tribologic signals
Open Access

Creating mechanisms of toxic substances emission of combustion engines

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 33 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

The paper analyses the mechanisms of creation of toxic exhaust gases, which mainly derived from inexact fuel metering and improper air-fuel mixture preparation. The paper describes the process of creating toxic components in the exhaust gases of piston engines during engine operation, and impact on the emission of these components determining the composition of the fuel mixture determined equivalence factor Φ. The principal mechanisms of formation of toxic exhaust gases, in particular nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and also essential according to create each of toxic exhaust gases are the subject of the paper. Moreover, empirical relationships, by means of which it is possible to determine the time of creation of the individual components of toxic exhaust gases, are presented. For example, one of the mechanisms for prompt formation of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons graphic illustration of formation as a function of crank angle is described. At the conclusion, the summary and significance of information on creation mechanisms of toxic components in the exhaust gases of piston engines are presented.

Keywords

  • combustion engines
  • air pollution
  • environmental protection
Open Access

Influence of the quality of fuel atomization on the emission of exhaust gases toxic components of combustion engines

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 43 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

The paper contains analysis of the impact on the quality of the fuel spray of droplets on the number and the value of the surface area of the droplets that have a direct impact on the efficiency of the combustion process. It presents a change in the level of toxic exhaust emissions with an increase in the so-called. Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of fuel droplets. The presented figures show that the increase in the average droplet diameter SMD in particular causes an increase of toxic exhaust gases emissions, i.e. mainly nitrogen oxides NO, carbon monoxide CO, hydrocarbons HC and Particulate Matter (PM). This tendency is not constant, because it is changing according to changes of the coefficient of equivalence Φ. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides for the lean mixtures (Φ <1), with an increase in average droplet diameter increases, while now for the rich mixtures (Φ> 1), this trend is significantly changed, i.e. the level of this emission decreases.

Keywords

  • combustion engines
  • fuel atomizing
  • air pollution
  • environmental protection
Open Access

Methodological aspects of risk management in road transport

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 51 - 64

Abstract

Abstract

Safe functioning of transport systems depends on the effective management of safety, which is “management by objectives”, i.e. the kind of management system. Its basic principle is: “we manage safety” by “risk management”. The need to describe this problem was the main motivation to write an article. A reminder of the central place of road transport on the “map of transport safety researches”- was second motivation to write this article.

Keywords

  • risk management
  • road risk
  • road safety
Open Access

Rating forces grip and driving and accelerations of the car with drive different configuration

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 65 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

The paper shows a typical drive systems used in today's vehicles, mainly cars. Approximated scheme of the formation of the driving force of the vehicle and the necessary mathematical relations for the calculation. For example, a typical passenger car BMW 320 was analyzed and calculations obtained a driving force, of adhesion and acceleration. The calculations were performed for the drive system, the classical (i.e. the rear axle of the vehicle) for front-wheel drive and four-wheel drive (4×4). Virtually assumed that to the above mentioned vehicle it is possible buildings of each of said system. These are shown graphically in diagrams bearing a distribution of the forces acting on the substrate and the reactions - the data necessary for the calculations. The resulting calculation is graphically shown in the diagrams, in which is illustrated a change value of the resulting adhesive strength, and the acceleration depending on the drive type vehicle.

Keywords

  • drive systems cars
  • siła przyczepności pojazdu
  • siła napędowa
Open Access

The laboratory test rig with miniature jet engine to research aviation fuels combustion process

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 79 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine (MiniJETRig – Miniature Jet Engine Test Rig), that was built in the Air Force Institute of Technology. The test rig has been developed for research and development works aimed at modelling and investigating processes and phenomena occurring in full scale jet engines. In the article construction of a test rig is described, with a brief discussion on the functionality of each of its main components. Additionally examples of measurement results obtained during the realization of the initial tests have been included, presenting the capabilities of the test rig.

Keywords

  • miniature turbojet engine
  • combustion process
  • aviation fuels
  • exhaust gases
Open Access

The property changes of ammunition elements due to the exploitation time

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 91 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

The way carry out of analysis concerning correctness working of evaluation module proposed in functioning research methodology, chosen features elements of artillery fuses was presented in the article. Probability distributions of the aptitude time of tested ammunition elements were applied for verification of undertaken post diagnostic decisions. The analysis of test results chosen fuses elements, based on the standard normal distributions were executed, further the graphic interpretations of these distributions were made. A measurement of the strength of resistance decline of the side-bolt spring was chosen for the analysis, as a way of checking MG-37 and MG-57 fuse types features. Furthermore, the author presents an illustrative comparison of normal distributions, which confirms that post diagnostic decisions had been undertaken correctly. The graphic interpretations of analyzed test results of MG-37 fuse elements type were executed by means of two-parameters gamma distribution in the comparison. Concise conclusions confirming the correctness of functioning of evaluation module in the research methodology were introduced at the end of the article.

Keywords

  • normal distribution
  • feature
  • testing cycle
  • test
  • properties
Open Access

Proactive methods – new quality in aircraft flight safety management

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 105 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

This article reviews methods that apply in data and information analysis on flight safety and also was made a review of the features and examples of system resources of proactive management of flight safety. It proposes a general methodology for IT support of proactive flight safety management in the form of an algorithm, whose individual elements been described. Was presented an example of the application of the algorithm, selected methods and tools for data analysis and identification of corrective and/or preventive actions, as part of flight safety management and the monitoring of their effectiveness and efficiency through continuous analysis and assessment of data and information from the system, as an element of flight safety management. This article presents a methodological approach to the analysis and assessment of the risks to flight safety with regard to proactive processes

Keywords

  • flight safety
  • flight safety management
  • proactive processes
Open Access

Estimating the system efficiency to ensure aircraft flight safety

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 115 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

In the article was presented approach logical - probabilistic to assess the efficiency of the flight safety assurance system of aircraft considering that it is justified by the random nature of the process, which describe the indicators and logic is necessary during qualifying the threats and prevent such threats. Was proposed a method of quantitative estimation of system efficiency based on data and information collected in the information systems exploited in the Air Force. Was presented an analytical method for determining the probability of counteracting by the pilot emergency situation in-flight in cases where we have relevant data on the risks of flight safety. The probability of counteracting by the pilot emergency situation in-flight is even greater the higher the expected value and the lower the variance.

Keywords

  • flight safety
  • system efficiency
  • flight safety assurance
  • efficiency indicator
Open Access

The electrical conductivity of jet fuels F–34 and F–35 (JET A–1) in distribution

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 123 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a changeability of electrical conductivity of jet fuels in distribution. Author described the methods used to prevent the formation of the dangers of static electricity. Research was carried out on two basic fuels used worldwide to power engines in civil (Jet A – 1) and military aircrafts (F – 34), during real fuel supplies in aviation military unit. Results of influence of temperature on the electrical conductivity of jet fuel are presented.

Keywords

  • static electricity
  • electrical conductivity
  • jet fuels
  • static dissipator additives
Open Access

The assessment of toxic emission from the engines of the W-3 helicopter in the preflight engine run

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 135 - 146

Abstract

Abstract

Helicopters are used in a variety of tasks like sea, mountain and land search and rescue, civil transportation or military operations. Their amount is growing, their ceiling is usually low, however, the exhaust emission from their engines is not restricted by any directive. That is why an attempt was made to determine the real exhaust emission. The research was done on the W-3 helicopter during the preflight engine run. Based on the results set the standard was created which reflects the working conditions of the engines during the test cycle. The research allowed to establish the unit emission of toxic gasses and then the influence on environment of the engines.

Keywords

  • exhaust emission
Open Access

Inductive sensors for blade tip-timing in gas turbines

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 147 - 164

Abstract

Abstract

The paper reviews features and applications of the upgraded inductive sensor for BTT, which is able to operate in contact with exhaust gases of temperature even as high as 1200 K. The new design includes metal-ceramic housing ensuring proper heat transfer, magnetic circuit containing set of permanent magnets with various magnetic field values and Curie temperatures, completely redesigned windings and current/voltage converter used instead of an electromotive force amplifier. Its principle of operation is based on electro-dynamical interaction and therefore it may be referred as a passive eddy-current sensor. The sensor technique has been demonstrated on four stages of a surplus military turbofan including the high pressure turbine as part of the engine health monitoring system. We present signal samples and review methods used for online processing of time-of-arrival signals when only a limited number of sensors is available.

Keywords

  • blade vibration
  • tip-timing
  • structural integrity
  • eddy-current sensor
Open Access

Qualitative analysis of maintenance and services carried out in a repair plant on the example of a multi-purpose aircraft

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 165 - 174

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents revealed failures and damages of the multi-task aircraft (ACFT) reported by users to the service organization, aimed at assessing and removing them. In the course of the analysis process, damages and malfunctions were grouped, depending on aviation specialities. A review was conducted that targeted occurring malfunctions and damages in a set of ACFT of the same type, over a twelve-year operational period. In the assessed period, trend lines were determined, showing a drop in the number of accepted claims submitted by ACFT users.

Keywords

  • operation
  • malfunction
  • damage
  • aircraft
Open Access

The risk analysis during production process of an innovative baby carriage with a bike function

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 175 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the risk assesment of damages occurance in production stage of a babycarriage with a bike function. The analysis of risk is done by using the FMEA – Failure Made and Effect Analysis that is used in aviation and automotive industry. This way of innovative product assessment allows to evaluate the risk of defects and indicate the priorities of quality for key parts as well as the device.

Keywords

  • FMEA analysis
  • innovative product
  • babycarriage with a bike function
Open Access

Termovision and electricity capacitance measurements as a evaluation of a helicopter rotor’s blades delamination

Published Online: 16 Jun 2016
Page range: 187 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents essential elements reached during investigations of heat section of rotor blades which have been done in AFIT. The investigations were related to a valuation of helicopter’s rotor blades delamination. They used a method of thermal field measurement as well as a electricity capacitance between an airframe and a heat element of the installation. A suggestion of such measurements appeared during the disassembly of rotor blade heat sections when some local unglue of heat element’s tape from the structure of blade’s heating pack has seen. Spots nearby separation of adhesive are a potential area of a local temperature increase, both the electric heating element and the mechanical structure of the blade. This is especially dangerous for composite structures. Overheated composite structures characterized by reduced flexibility and becomes prone to cracking. Therefore, the possibility of non-invasive monitoring adhesive spots, without removing the blades would be particularly useful.

Keywords

  • delamination of a composite helicopter blades
  • heat sections of rotor blades
  • an anti-icing electric heating
  • an isolation of rotor blade’s heating pack
  • electricity capacity of an isolation

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