Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 52 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 3 (October 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 51 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 3 (October 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 50 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 3 (October 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 49 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 48 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 47 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 46 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 45 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 44 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 43 (2017): Issue 1 (October 2017)

Volume 42 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 41 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 40 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 39 (2016): Issue 1 (October 2016)

Volume 38 (2016): Issue 1 (October 2016)

Volume 37 (2016): Issue 1 (July 2016)

Volume 36 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 35 (2015): Issue 1 (November 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 33 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 32 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 31 (2014): Issue 1 (September 2014)

Volume 30 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)

Volume 29 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 27 (2014): Issue 1 (February 2014)

Volume 26 (2013): Issue 1 (June 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 24 (2012): Issue 1 (December 2012)

Volume 23 (2012): Issue 1 (September 2012)

Volume 22 (2012): Issue 1 (June 2012)

Volume 21 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Volume 20 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Volume 14-15 (2010): Issue 2010 (December 2010)

Volume 13 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Volume 11-12 (2009): Issue 1 (December 2009)

Volume 9-10 (2009): Issue 1 (January 2009)

Volume 8 (2008): Issue 1 (December 2008)

Volume 7 (2008): Issue 4 (December 2008)

Volume 6 (2008): Issue 3 (September 2008)

Volume 5 (2008): Issue 2 (June 2008)

Volume 4 (2008): Issue 1 (March 2008)

Volume 3 (2007): Issue 2007 (January 2007)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
ISSN
1895-8281
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 21 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
ISSN
1895-8281
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

16 Articles
Open Access

Reliability in Maritime Transport / Niezawodność W Transporcie Morskim

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 5 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the vessel reliability while realizing transportation task in maritime transport. The approach based on predicted failure intensity in particular stages of ship operation is proposed.

Keywords

  • ship reliability
  • failure intensity

Słowa kluczowe

  • niezawodność statku
  • intensywność uszkodzeń
Open Access

ProSIL Software for Functional Safety Management in Life Cycle / Aplikacja ProSIL Do Zarządzania Bezpieczeństwem Funkcjonalnym W Cyklu Życia

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 13 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

In the paper the ProSIL software to aid the functional safety management is presented. The software consists of three modules to aid: determination of the required SIL level (ProSILen), veryfication of the SIL level (ProSILver). In the aplication the method of the calibrated risk graph to determine the required safety integrity level SIL for defined safety instrumented functions is applied. The methods concerning functional safety analysis utilized in the process of the design and performing Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) according to PN-EN 61508 and PN-EN 61511 prepared by the team during researches are implemented.

Keywords

  • functional safety
  • SIL
  • ProSIL
  • ProSILer
  • ProSILen
  • BPCS
  • SIS

Słowa kluczowe

  • bezp. funkcjonalne
  • SIL
  • ProSIL
  • ProSILen
  • ProSILer
  • BPCS
  • SIS
Open Access

The Impact of Security Aspects on Functional Safety Analysis / Wpływ Aspektów Ochrony Informacji Na Wyniki Analiz Bezpieczeństwa Funkcjonalnego

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 27 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

It can be said that a distributed control and protection system’s security level may have a significant impact on functional safety analyses and their results. However the issue of integrating those both aspects are difficult and usually is neglected during functional safety analyses. Known methods of functional safety analyses don’t take into consideration this kind of concept also. This paper discusses an attempt to integrate safety and security aspects with respect to functional safety analysis as a main one. It is based on proposed classification of communication channels used in the system and the level of system distribution. The functional safety analysis is performed at every stage of system lifecycle. The most important part is related to description of required safety functions and determining required safety integrity level for them. Moreover the proposed concept should be taken into account on this stage, and assume that security should be considered as a risk parameter used in the functional safety analysis. On the other hand there is a verification of required SIL for designed safety-related system which implements safety function where security should be taken into consideration as well.

Keywords

  • functional safety
  • security
  • SIL
  • EAL
  • risk assessment
  • risk graphs

Słowa kluczowe

  • bezpieczeństwo funkcjonalne
  • ochrona informacji
  • SIL
  • EAL
  • ocena ryzyka
  • grafy ryzyka
Open Access

Assessment of Technical Condition Demonstrated by Gas Turbine Blades by Processing of Images for Their Surfaces / Oceny Stanu Łopatek Turbiny Gazowej Metodą Przetwarzania Obrazów Ich Powierzchni

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 41 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a non-destructive test method that makes it possible to assess condition of gas turbine blades based on the analysis of their images acquired in visible light. The results of high temperature’s influence on the condition of blades are revealed. The direct relationship between the temperatures of blades and discoloration of their surfaces is demonstrated. These relationships have been found out by the analysis of images in the form of first order statistical parameters derived wherefrom. The studies revealed alterations of the blade superalloy microstructures entailed by the effect of high temperature, hence the results in the form of first order statistical parameters could be correlated against alterations of the blade superalloy microstructures. Eventually, the variations of first order statistical parameters as well as variations of the blade superalloy microstructures could be determined as the functions of temperature. These relationships make it possible to assess how much the alloy microstructure is altered due to high temperature merely by discoloration of the blade surface. The innovative method can be used for in-flight evaluation of the superalloy overheating for gas turbine blades in operation.

Keywords

  • gas turbine
  • blade
  • discoloration
  • heat resistant alloy
  • microstructure

Słowa kluczowe

  • turbina gazowa
  • łopatka
  • zmiana barwy
  • stop żaroodporny
  • degradacja mikrostruktury
Open Access

Dynamic Heeling Moment Due to Liquid Sloshing in a Rectangular Tank of Different Dimensions and Elevation in Ship’S Hull / Dynamiczny Moment Przechylający Od Swobodnych Powierzchni Cieczy W Prostokątnym Zbiorniku Okrętowym O Różnych Wymiarach I Lokalizacji Pionowej

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 51 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Liquid sloshing phenomenon taking place in partly filled ships’ tanks directly affects the stability of a vessel and her safety on seaway, however, only static calculations are carried out onboard ships nowadays. The presented investigation is focused on dynamic approach towards liquid motion onboard ships. The set of numerical simulations of liquid sloshing taking place in moving tanks is carried out in terms of tank’s dimensions and its elevation within ship’s hull. A number of characteristics of the heeling moment due to liquid sloshing is obtained and analyzed.

Keywords

  • liquid sloshing in ship’s tank
  • free surface effect
  • dynamic stability of ships
  • safety of navigation

Słowa kluczowe

  • zjawisko sloshing’u w zbiornikach okrętowych
  • swobodne powierzchnie cieczy
  • stateczność dynamiczna statku
  • bezpieczeństwo żeglugi
Open Access

Ship’S Rolling Amplitude as a Significant Factor Influencing Liquid Sloshing in Partly Filled Tanks / Amplituda Kołysań Statku Jako Istotny Parametr W Badaniach Zjawiska Sloshingu W Niepełnych Zbiornikach Okrętowych

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 63 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

The study considers ship’s rolling amplitude as one of the key parameters influencing liquid sloshing in partly filled tanks during sea voyage. This issue is strictly related to the safety of navigation matters and belongs to the group of non-linear hydrodynamic phenomena. The presented investigation is focused on the estimation of typical and extreme rolling amplitude of a vessel in terms of dynamic approach towards liquid motion onboard ships. The number of exemplary numerical simulations of liquid sloshing taking place in moving tanks is carried out and the heeling moment due to liquid sloshing is obtained.

Keywords

  • liquid sloshing in ship’s tank
  • free surface effect
  • ship’s rolling amplitude
  • dynamic stability of ships
  • safety of navigation

Słowa kluczowe

  • zjawisko sloshing’u w zbiornikach okrętowych
  • swobodne powierzchnie cieczy
  • amplituda kołysań statku
  • stateczność dynamiczna statku
  • bezpieczeństwo żeglugi
Open Access

The Evaluation of Availability of the Serviceability Assurance Subsystem Posts / Ocena Gotowości Stanowisk Podsystemu Zapewniania Zdatności

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 77 - 86

Abstract

Abstract

In complex transport means systems, in order to assure the possibility of appropriate carrying out of transport tasks it is necessary to maintain task serviceability status. It is achieved as a result of carrying out of service and repair processes at serviceability assurance subsystem posts. The possibility of appropriate carrying out of service and repair tasks assigned to the availability assurance subsystem depends to a large extent on the availability of the posts of the subsystem. This article presents the results of tests on the evaluation of availability of the serviceability assurance subsystem posts in transport means utilization system. An actual city bus transport system was used as test example. The presented results of the evaluation of the serviceability assurance subsystem posts were reached with the assumption that random variables describing the periods of time the posts remain available or unavailable have exponential and Erlang distributions. Source data necessary to determine the availability of the serviceability assurance subsystem posts were obtained at a selected actual city bus transport system basing on utilization data and the method of passive experiment in natural utilization conditions.

Keywords

  • transport system
  • serviceability assurance subsystem
  • availability
Open Access

Improper Driver Action as a Cause of Road Accidents / Niewłaściwe Działania Kierowców Jako Przyczyna Powstawania Zdarzeń Drogowych

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 87 - 98

Abstract

Abstract

Road traffic is inseparably connected with road accident. This is the human-driver whose role in the transportation process safety is of key importance. Driving a motor vehicle requires from the driver not only knowledge but also physical and psychical fitness. They need to have the ability of quick reaction, proper estimation of the road situation and doing maneuvers adequate to it. In this study, an assessment of the impact of improper behaviors of drivers on occurrence of road collisions and accidents, has been analyzed on the basis of literature analysis and the authors’ own research. In effect of the carried out tests there has been made a classification of the road events with a division into: cause, place, date, and time of their occurrence as well as drivers’ age and their driving experience. The whole study has been performed on the basis of a real transportation company, operating on the territory of an urban agglomeration with the population of 500 inhabitants.

Keywords

  • safety
  • transport
  • driver
  • accidents
  • road events

Słowa kluczowe

  • bezpieczeństwo
  • transport
  • kierowca
  • wypadki
  • zdarzenia drogowe
Open Access

The Method of Assessment of Transport Safety / Metoda Oceny Bezpieczeństwa Procesu Transportowego

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 99 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

This article introduces classification of transport systems into land transport systems (road and rail) as well as land and water transport systems (inland and sea), depending on the type of environment in which these systems carry out their tasks. Such systems fall under the class of social engineering systems of the Man - Technological Object - Environment (M - TO - E) type. Such systems are influenced by forcing factors, leading to changes in their states. Such factors may be divided into operational, outside and anthropotechnical and they influence the system on various levels, including degradation of the degree of its safety. The article attempts to evaluate the safety of the operation of transport systems on the basis of the evaluation of the safety of the transport process carried out over a defined time interval Δt.

Keywords

  • system
  • system state
  • forcing factors
  • safety

Słowa kluczowe

  • system
  • stan systemu
  • czynniki wymuszające
  • bezpieczeństwo
Open Access

Geometric Stability Measurements’ of Vehicles’ Pistons in Self-Cooling Process for Define Its Wear / Współrzędnościowe Pomiary Stabilności Geometrycznej Tłoków W Procesie Stygnięcia Dla Określenia Stopnia Ich Zużycia

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 113 - 120

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the investigation method allows for an analysis of failure of combustion engines piston surface. The essence of method is realization of precise measurement in various piston temperature and after that comparison of obtained results to reference piston - new one. Method has been presented on the basis of two pistons measurements.

Keywords

  • pistons investigations
  • diagnostic
  • measurement method
  • engine failure
  • coordinate measurement technic

Słowa kluczowe

  • badania tłoków
  • diagnostyka
  • metoda pomiarowa
  • uszkodzenia silnika
  • współrzędnościowa technika pomiarowa
Open Access

The Problem of Termal Stability of Present Aviation Turbine Fuels – Preliminary Study / Problem Stabilności Termicznej Współczesnych Paliw Do Turbinowych Silników Lotniczych – Badania Wstępne

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 121 - 130

Abstract

Abstract

The theme of this paper is the issue related to the thermal stability of aviation fuel to turbine jet engine. This paper presents the importance of this parameter in terms of the proper conduct of the combustion process in a jet engine. In paper were presented critical remarks of the standard test method of determining the thermal stability and its modification for the needs of realization of the research work, relying on multiple pass of fuel through the test system, which resulted in a greater selectivity results. In article presented the results of own research, on the effects of technology fuel production and additives put into fuel on change the thermal stability

Keywords

  • aviation fuel
  • thermal stability
  • turbine jet engine

Słowa kluczowe

  • paliwo lotnicze
  • stabilność termiczna
  • turbinowy silnik odrzutowy
Open Access

Microemulsion Fuels for Piston Engines / Mikroemulsyjne Paliwa Do Silników Tłokowych

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 131 - 140

Abstract

Abstract

The topic of the paper are emulsion fuels, which are the most effective way to reduce NOx emissions from motor vehicles. The macroemulsion fuels are characterized by a number of disadvantages, which include the limited stability of the emulsion, unacceptable low temperature properties and a strong tendency to cause corrosion of metals. Based on the above findings of the literature review appropriate additive to produce a microemulsion fuels were choosen. The results of the preliminary study showed the possibility of production of the microemulsion with a water content up to 25% V / V using the selected additive. Laboratory tests were carried out as a result of which the position was built to produce a microemulsion with the additive package and a procedure for preparation of a microemulsion diesel oil - water.

Keywords

  • microemulsion fuels
  • emissions
  • surfactants
  • piston engines

Słowa kluczowe

  • paliwo mikroemulsyjne
  • emisja
  • surfaktanty
  • silnik tłokowy
Open Access

Microemulsion Bioliquids / Biopłyny Mikroemulsyjne

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 141 - 148

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction of biofuels in place of heating oils and biocomponents of heating oils is fraught with technological and technical difficulties. The final product - microemulsion bioliquid must have in its composition more appropriately selected emulsifiers package designed to maintain a constant characteristic HLB resistant to variation of bioliquid components. Final microemulsion bioliquid should be stable at a wide range of temperature, the certain period of time, and should be produced under conditions easy to apply in industry. The paper presents preliminary results focused on liquid waste from dairy industry using as microemulsion bioliquid component and an economic analysis of microemulsion bioliquids application in supplying of electricity to local grids accordingly to their needs.

Keywords

  • bioliquid
  • microemulsion
  • liquid fuel
  • energy

Słowa kluczowe

  • biopłyn
  • mikroemulsja
  • ciekłe paliwo
  • energetyka
Open Access

Artificial Neural Networks as Applied to Aircraft Flight Test Planning / Wykorzystanie Sztucznych Sieci Neuronowych W Planowaniu Badań W Locie

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 149 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

Any flight test programme is essentially based on a flight test plan, i.e. a document agreed upon and accepted by all the parties interested in the tests, and authorised by the superior body/authorities responsible for the execution of the tests. The flight test plan determines the number of flights and flight hours indispensable to verify whether a given aircraft satisfies specified requirements. Many and various external factors may have significant and adverse effect on the execution of the flight test program according to the earlier agreed schedule. The study also covers the structure of a model of a management system for aircraft prototype testing, and the structure of artificial neural network (ANN) developed on the basis of experimentally gained data from the military aircraft testing. A mathematical model based on the artificial neural network and its potential for the managing of aircraft prototypes testing has been formulated as well.

Keywords

  • flight test planning
  • flight test schedule,
  • artificial neural networks

Słowa kluczowe

  • planowanie badań w locie
  • program badań
  • sztuczne sieci neuronowe
Open Access

Introduction to Prediction of Operational Efficiency for a Selected Type of a Military Aircraft / Wprowadzenie Do Prognozy Skuteczności Działania Wybranego Typu Wojskowego Statku Powietrznego

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 163 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

The study reveals the general outline for a method of determining the operational efficiency of a military aircraft with respect to destruction of targets held by a potential enemy. The method consists in determination of selected probability factors that define the efficiency of an aircraft’s operation on a potential battlefield. The paper is focused on finding a formula for the mathematical expectation for the number of enemy targets that can be eliminated, where the analytical relationships is determined by means of difference equation that is subsequently transformed into the Fokker-Planck partial differential equation. The solution of that equation represents the function of probable density for the number of destroyable targets. When the function is known it can be then used to determine the efficiency factor related to the optimum (most desired) number of enemy targets that are destroyed. For these probabilities the denominator values are equal to one or the optimum values. The efficiency factor, determined in such a way, seems to be useful for determination of the operational potential demonstrated by a military aircraft.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • availability
  • efficiency
  • military aircraft
  • weapon systems

Słowa kluczowe

  • niezawodność
  • gotowość
  • skuteczność
  • efektywność
  • wojskowy statek powietrzny
  • system uzbrojenia
Open Access

Analysis and Comparison the Methods of Determining Reliability of Critical Points Helicopter Structure / Analiza I Porównanie Metod Wyznaczania Niezawodności Punktów Krytycznych Struktury Śmigłowca

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 179 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

In this work, algorithms have been used to compare the methods for determining reliability of critical points. Generalized models Stress-Strength- Interference (SSI) and Stress-Strength-Time (SST) have been analyzed. Input to the algorithms, stress and strength were generated by using the Markov chain model based on actual flight records. With this approach methods of determining the reliability of critical points of a helicopter’s structure are justified.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • critical points
  • algorithms

Słowa kluczowe

  • niezawodność
  • punkty krytyczne
  • algorytmy
16 Articles
Open Access

Reliability in Maritime Transport / Niezawodność W Transporcie Morskim

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 5 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the vessel reliability while realizing transportation task in maritime transport. The approach based on predicted failure intensity in particular stages of ship operation is proposed.

Keywords

  • ship reliability
  • failure intensity

Słowa kluczowe

  • niezawodność statku
  • intensywność uszkodzeń
Open Access

ProSIL Software for Functional Safety Management in Life Cycle / Aplikacja ProSIL Do Zarządzania Bezpieczeństwem Funkcjonalnym W Cyklu Życia

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 13 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

In the paper the ProSIL software to aid the functional safety management is presented. The software consists of three modules to aid: determination of the required SIL level (ProSILen), veryfication of the SIL level (ProSILver). In the aplication the method of the calibrated risk graph to determine the required safety integrity level SIL for defined safety instrumented functions is applied. The methods concerning functional safety analysis utilized in the process of the design and performing Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) according to PN-EN 61508 and PN-EN 61511 prepared by the team during researches are implemented.

Keywords

  • functional safety
  • SIL
  • ProSIL
  • ProSILer
  • ProSILen
  • BPCS
  • SIS

Słowa kluczowe

  • bezp. funkcjonalne
  • SIL
  • ProSIL
  • ProSILen
  • ProSILer
  • BPCS
  • SIS
Open Access

The Impact of Security Aspects on Functional Safety Analysis / Wpływ Aspektów Ochrony Informacji Na Wyniki Analiz Bezpieczeństwa Funkcjonalnego

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 27 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

It can be said that a distributed control and protection system’s security level may have a significant impact on functional safety analyses and their results. However the issue of integrating those both aspects are difficult and usually is neglected during functional safety analyses. Known methods of functional safety analyses don’t take into consideration this kind of concept also. This paper discusses an attempt to integrate safety and security aspects with respect to functional safety analysis as a main one. It is based on proposed classification of communication channels used in the system and the level of system distribution. The functional safety analysis is performed at every stage of system lifecycle. The most important part is related to description of required safety functions and determining required safety integrity level for them. Moreover the proposed concept should be taken into account on this stage, and assume that security should be considered as a risk parameter used in the functional safety analysis. On the other hand there is a verification of required SIL for designed safety-related system which implements safety function where security should be taken into consideration as well.

Keywords

  • functional safety
  • security
  • SIL
  • EAL
  • risk assessment
  • risk graphs

Słowa kluczowe

  • bezpieczeństwo funkcjonalne
  • ochrona informacji
  • SIL
  • EAL
  • ocena ryzyka
  • grafy ryzyka
Open Access

Assessment of Technical Condition Demonstrated by Gas Turbine Blades by Processing of Images for Their Surfaces / Oceny Stanu Łopatek Turbiny Gazowej Metodą Przetwarzania Obrazów Ich Powierzchni

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 41 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents a non-destructive test method that makes it possible to assess condition of gas turbine blades based on the analysis of their images acquired in visible light. The results of high temperature’s influence on the condition of blades are revealed. The direct relationship between the temperatures of blades and discoloration of their surfaces is demonstrated. These relationships have been found out by the analysis of images in the form of first order statistical parameters derived wherefrom. The studies revealed alterations of the blade superalloy microstructures entailed by the effect of high temperature, hence the results in the form of first order statistical parameters could be correlated against alterations of the blade superalloy microstructures. Eventually, the variations of first order statistical parameters as well as variations of the blade superalloy microstructures could be determined as the functions of temperature. These relationships make it possible to assess how much the alloy microstructure is altered due to high temperature merely by discoloration of the blade surface. The innovative method can be used for in-flight evaluation of the superalloy overheating for gas turbine blades in operation.

Keywords

  • gas turbine
  • blade
  • discoloration
  • heat resistant alloy
  • microstructure

Słowa kluczowe

  • turbina gazowa
  • łopatka
  • zmiana barwy
  • stop żaroodporny
  • degradacja mikrostruktury
Open Access

Dynamic Heeling Moment Due to Liquid Sloshing in a Rectangular Tank of Different Dimensions and Elevation in Ship’S Hull / Dynamiczny Moment Przechylający Od Swobodnych Powierzchni Cieczy W Prostokątnym Zbiorniku Okrętowym O Różnych Wymiarach I Lokalizacji Pionowej

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 51 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Liquid sloshing phenomenon taking place in partly filled ships’ tanks directly affects the stability of a vessel and her safety on seaway, however, only static calculations are carried out onboard ships nowadays. The presented investigation is focused on dynamic approach towards liquid motion onboard ships. The set of numerical simulations of liquid sloshing taking place in moving tanks is carried out in terms of tank’s dimensions and its elevation within ship’s hull. A number of characteristics of the heeling moment due to liquid sloshing is obtained and analyzed.

Keywords

  • liquid sloshing in ship’s tank
  • free surface effect
  • dynamic stability of ships
  • safety of navigation

Słowa kluczowe

  • zjawisko sloshing’u w zbiornikach okrętowych
  • swobodne powierzchnie cieczy
  • stateczność dynamiczna statku
  • bezpieczeństwo żeglugi
Open Access

Ship’S Rolling Amplitude as a Significant Factor Influencing Liquid Sloshing in Partly Filled Tanks / Amplituda Kołysań Statku Jako Istotny Parametr W Badaniach Zjawiska Sloshingu W Niepełnych Zbiornikach Okrętowych

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 63 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

The study considers ship’s rolling amplitude as one of the key parameters influencing liquid sloshing in partly filled tanks during sea voyage. This issue is strictly related to the safety of navigation matters and belongs to the group of non-linear hydrodynamic phenomena. The presented investigation is focused on the estimation of typical and extreme rolling amplitude of a vessel in terms of dynamic approach towards liquid motion onboard ships. The number of exemplary numerical simulations of liquid sloshing taking place in moving tanks is carried out and the heeling moment due to liquid sloshing is obtained.

Keywords

  • liquid sloshing in ship’s tank
  • free surface effect
  • ship’s rolling amplitude
  • dynamic stability of ships
  • safety of navigation

Słowa kluczowe

  • zjawisko sloshing’u w zbiornikach okrętowych
  • swobodne powierzchnie cieczy
  • amplituda kołysań statku
  • stateczność dynamiczna statku
  • bezpieczeństwo żeglugi
Open Access

The Evaluation of Availability of the Serviceability Assurance Subsystem Posts / Ocena Gotowości Stanowisk Podsystemu Zapewniania Zdatności

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 77 - 86

Abstract

Abstract

In complex transport means systems, in order to assure the possibility of appropriate carrying out of transport tasks it is necessary to maintain task serviceability status. It is achieved as a result of carrying out of service and repair processes at serviceability assurance subsystem posts. The possibility of appropriate carrying out of service and repair tasks assigned to the availability assurance subsystem depends to a large extent on the availability of the posts of the subsystem. This article presents the results of tests on the evaluation of availability of the serviceability assurance subsystem posts in transport means utilization system. An actual city bus transport system was used as test example. The presented results of the evaluation of the serviceability assurance subsystem posts were reached with the assumption that random variables describing the periods of time the posts remain available or unavailable have exponential and Erlang distributions. Source data necessary to determine the availability of the serviceability assurance subsystem posts were obtained at a selected actual city bus transport system basing on utilization data and the method of passive experiment in natural utilization conditions.

Keywords

  • transport system
  • serviceability assurance subsystem
  • availability
Open Access

Improper Driver Action as a Cause of Road Accidents / Niewłaściwe Działania Kierowców Jako Przyczyna Powstawania Zdarzeń Drogowych

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 87 - 98

Abstract

Abstract

Road traffic is inseparably connected with road accident. This is the human-driver whose role in the transportation process safety is of key importance. Driving a motor vehicle requires from the driver not only knowledge but also physical and psychical fitness. They need to have the ability of quick reaction, proper estimation of the road situation and doing maneuvers adequate to it. In this study, an assessment of the impact of improper behaviors of drivers on occurrence of road collisions and accidents, has been analyzed on the basis of literature analysis and the authors’ own research. In effect of the carried out tests there has been made a classification of the road events with a division into: cause, place, date, and time of their occurrence as well as drivers’ age and their driving experience. The whole study has been performed on the basis of a real transportation company, operating on the territory of an urban agglomeration with the population of 500 inhabitants.

Keywords

  • safety
  • transport
  • driver
  • accidents
  • road events

Słowa kluczowe

  • bezpieczeństwo
  • transport
  • kierowca
  • wypadki
  • zdarzenia drogowe
Open Access

The Method of Assessment of Transport Safety / Metoda Oceny Bezpieczeństwa Procesu Transportowego

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 99 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

This article introduces classification of transport systems into land transport systems (road and rail) as well as land and water transport systems (inland and sea), depending on the type of environment in which these systems carry out their tasks. Such systems fall under the class of social engineering systems of the Man - Technological Object - Environment (M - TO - E) type. Such systems are influenced by forcing factors, leading to changes in their states. Such factors may be divided into operational, outside and anthropotechnical and they influence the system on various levels, including degradation of the degree of its safety. The article attempts to evaluate the safety of the operation of transport systems on the basis of the evaluation of the safety of the transport process carried out over a defined time interval Δt.

Keywords

  • system
  • system state
  • forcing factors
  • safety

Słowa kluczowe

  • system
  • stan systemu
  • czynniki wymuszające
  • bezpieczeństwo
Open Access

Geometric Stability Measurements’ of Vehicles’ Pistons in Self-Cooling Process for Define Its Wear / Współrzędnościowe Pomiary Stabilności Geometrycznej Tłoków W Procesie Stygnięcia Dla Określenia Stopnia Ich Zużycia

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 113 - 120

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the investigation method allows for an analysis of failure of combustion engines piston surface. The essence of method is realization of precise measurement in various piston temperature and after that comparison of obtained results to reference piston - new one. Method has been presented on the basis of two pistons measurements.

Keywords

  • pistons investigations
  • diagnostic
  • measurement method
  • engine failure
  • coordinate measurement technic

Słowa kluczowe

  • badania tłoków
  • diagnostyka
  • metoda pomiarowa
  • uszkodzenia silnika
  • współrzędnościowa technika pomiarowa
Open Access

The Problem of Termal Stability of Present Aviation Turbine Fuels – Preliminary Study / Problem Stabilności Termicznej Współczesnych Paliw Do Turbinowych Silników Lotniczych – Badania Wstępne

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 121 - 130

Abstract

Abstract

The theme of this paper is the issue related to the thermal stability of aviation fuel to turbine jet engine. This paper presents the importance of this parameter in terms of the proper conduct of the combustion process in a jet engine. In paper were presented critical remarks of the standard test method of determining the thermal stability and its modification for the needs of realization of the research work, relying on multiple pass of fuel through the test system, which resulted in a greater selectivity results. In article presented the results of own research, on the effects of technology fuel production and additives put into fuel on change the thermal stability

Keywords

  • aviation fuel
  • thermal stability
  • turbine jet engine

Słowa kluczowe

  • paliwo lotnicze
  • stabilność termiczna
  • turbinowy silnik odrzutowy
Open Access

Microemulsion Fuels for Piston Engines / Mikroemulsyjne Paliwa Do Silników Tłokowych

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 131 - 140

Abstract

Abstract

The topic of the paper are emulsion fuels, which are the most effective way to reduce NOx emissions from motor vehicles. The macroemulsion fuels are characterized by a number of disadvantages, which include the limited stability of the emulsion, unacceptable low temperature properties and a strong tendency to cause corrosion of metals. Based on the above findings of the literature review appropriate additive to produce a microemulsion fuels were choosen. The results of the preliminary study showed the possibility of production of the microemulsion with a water content up to 25% V / V using the selected additive. Laboratory tests were carried out as a result of which the position was built to produce a microemulsion with the additive package and a procedure for preparation of a microemulsion diesel oil - water.

Keywords

  • microemulsion fuels
  • emissions
  • surfactants
  • piston engines

Słowa kluczowe

  • paliwo mikroemulsyjne
  • emisja
  • surfaktanty
  • silnik tłokowy
Open Access

Microemulsion Bioliquids / Biopłyny Mikroemulsyjne

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 141 - 148

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction of biofuels in place of heating oils and biocomponents of heating oils is fraught with technological and technical difficulties. The final product - microemulsion bioliquid must have in its composition more appropriately selected emulsifiers package designed to maintain a constant characteristic HLB resistant to variation of bioliquid components. Final microemulsion bioliquid should be stable at a wide range of temperature, the certain period of time, and should be produced under conditions easy to apply in industry. The paper presents preliminary results focused on liquid waste from dairy industry using as microemulsion bioliquid component and an economic analysis of microemulsion bioliquids application in supplying of electricity to local grids accordingly to their needs.

Keywords

  • bioliquid
  • microemulsion
  • liquid fuel
  • energy

Słowa kluczowe

  • biopłyn
  • mikroemulsja
  • ciekłe paliwo
  • energetyka
Open Access

Artificial Neural Networks as Applied to Aircraft Flight Test Planning / Wykorzystanie Sztucznych Sieci Neuronowych W Planowaniu Badań W Locie

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 149 - 162

Abstract

Abstract

Any flight test programme is essentially based on a flight test plan, i.e. a document agreed upon and accepted by all the parties interested in the tests, and authorised by the superior body/authorities responsible for the execution of the tests. The flight test plan determines the number of flights and flight hours indispensable to verify whether a given aircraft satisfies specified requirements. Many and various external factors may have significant and adverse effect on the execution of the flight test program according to the earlier agreed schedule. The study also covers the structure of a model of a management system for aircraft prototype testing, and the structure of artificial neural network (ANN) developed on the basis of experimentally gained data from the military aircraft testing. A mathematical model based on the artificial neural network and its potential for the managing of aircraft prototypes testing has been formulated as well.

Keywords

  • flight test planning
  • flight test schedule,
  • artificial neural networks

Słowa kluczowe

  • planowanie badań w locie
  • program badań
  • sztuczne sieci neuronowe
Open Access

Introduction to Prediction of Operational Efficiency for a Selected Type of a Military Aircraft / Wprowadzenie Do Prognozy Skuteczności Działania Wybranego Typu Wojskowego Statku Powietrznego

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 163 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

The study reveals the general outline for a method of determining the operational efficiency of a military aircraft with respect to destruction of targets held by a potential enemy. The method consists in determination of selected probability factors that define the efficiency of an aircraft’s operation on a potential battlefield. The paper is focused on finding a formula for the mathematical expectation for the number of enemy targets that can be eliminated, where the analytical relationships is determined by means of difference equation that is subsequently transformed into the Fokker-Planck partial differential equation. The solution of that equation represents the function of probable density for the number of destroyable targets. When the function is known it can be then used to determine the efficiency factor related to the optimum (most desired) number of enemy targets that are destroyed. For these probabilities the denominator values are equal to one or the optimum values. The efficiency factor, determined in such a way, seems to be useful for determination of the operational potential demonstrated by a military aircraft.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • availability
  • efficiency
  • military aircraft
  • weapon systems

Słowa kluczowe

  • niezawodność
  • gotowość
  • skuteczność
  • efektywność
  • wojskowy statek powietrzny
  • system uzbrojenia
Open Access

Analysis and Comparison the Methods of Determining Reliability of Critical Points Helicopter Structure / Analiza I Porównanie Metod Wyznaczania Niezawodności Punktów Krytycznych Struktury Śmigłowca

Published Online: 09 Nov 2013
Page range: 179 - 186

Abstract

Abstract

In this work, algorithms have been used to compare the methods for determining reliability of critical points. Generalized models Stress-Strength- Interference (SSI) and Stress-Strength-Time (SST) have been analyzed. Input to the algorithms, stress and strength were generated by using the Markov chain model based on actual flight records. With this approach methods of determining the reliability of critical points of a helicopter’s structure are justified.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • critical points
  • algorithms

Słowa kluczowe

  • niezawodność
  • punkty krytyczne
  • algorytmy

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo