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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
ISSN
1895-8281
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 20 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
ISSN
1895-8281
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

18 Articles
Open Access

Priorities in the risk assessment and risk management during the ship accident at sea /Priorytety w ocenie ryzyka i zarządzaniu ryzykiem w czasie katastrofy statku na morzu

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 5 - 16

Abstract

Summary

The paper concerns the safety of seaborne transportation and is devoted to safety ofocean engineering objects and ships in damaged conditions at sea. A method (procedure) ofsafety assessment of damaged objects (ships) is presented. The method is oriented on the objectperformance and risk assessment. For the risk assessment the risk based techniques are appliedincluding the Formal Safety Assessment FSA introduced by IMO. The method (procedure) isbased on application of the holistic approach to safety. An influence of factors affecting safetyfollowing from the different sources (design, operation, management, human factor) is takeninto account. The holistic risk model is implemented which enables to estimate the risk of notsurviving a collision (grounding, stranding, terrorist attack, etc.) using the object (ship)performance assessment during the accident. The event tree analysis ETA is used for the riskassessment. The different scenarios of accident are used and they include the hazards,intermediate events, additional events and consequences. The risk estimation is based on thematrix risk model. The safety measure in the method (procedure) is the level of risk. The riskassessment (RA, QRA) is conducted using the risk acceptance criteria (RAC) in the form ofeither the risk matrix or ALARP concept. The risk assessment is associated with using the riskcontrol options (RCO) as well. Within the method safety is the objective. The procedure of riskmanagement is presented in the paper. Finally, some remarks regarding the prioritization in therisk assessment and risk management during the ship accident at sea are described.

Keywords

  • safety of seaborne transportation
  • safety management
  • risk assessment
  • risk
  • oceanengineering object in damaged conditions
  • ship in damaged conditions

Słowa kluczowe:

  • bezpieczeństwo transportu morskiego
  • zarządzanie bezpieczeństwem
  • ocenaryzyka
  • ryzyko wypadku
  • obiekt oceanotechniczny w stanie uszkodzonym
  • statek w stanieuszkodzonym
Open Access

Integrated safety and reliability decision support system/Zintegrowany system wspomagania decyzji dotyczących bezpieczeństwa i niezawodności

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 17 - 28

Abstract

Summary

Integrated Safety and Reliability Decision Support System - IS&RDSS ispresented in the form of detailed and clear scheme-algorithm. There is also presented themethodology of IS&RDSS that is composed of the methods of complex technical systemsoperation processes modeling, their unknown parameters operation, reliability,availability, safety models identification, their reliability, availability and safety evaluationand prediction, their reliability, availability and safety improvement and their operation,reliability, availability, safety and cost optimization. The newest trends in the reliabilityand safety of complex technical systems analysis directed to the critical infrastructures andthe nanosystems are describe as well.

Keywords

  • complex system
  • reliability
  • safety
  • operation process
  • modeling
  • identification,prediction
  • optimization

Słowa kluczowe:

  • systemy złożone
  • niezawodność
  • bezpieczeństwo
  • proces eksploatacji,modelowanie
  • identyfikacja
  • predykcja
  • optymalizacja
Open Access

Availability and reliability analysis of large wind turbine systems in chosen localizations in Poland/Analiza dostępności i niezawodności dużej elektrowni wiatrowej w wybranych lokalizacjach w Polsce

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 29 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

A reliability analysis of wind turbine systems applies to chosen localizations inPoland was inspected. The average availability, capacity factor and energy efficiency of thelarge wind turbine generator have been analyzed. It is noticed that if a failure ratedecreases by modernizing assemblies by removing chosen subassemblies andreconstructing others, an average lifetime of the wind turbine enlarge noticeably.Moreover, it is possible to find, both poor and excellent wind potential on areas classifiedas not preferable for a wind industry.

Keywords

  • efficiency
  • reliability analysis
  • renewable energy
  • wind energy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • efektywność
  • analiza niezawodności
  • odnawialne źródła energii
  • energiawiatrowa.
Open Access

Combat survivability of helicopter/Analiza żywotności bojowej śmigłowca

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 37 - 46

Abstract

Abstract

The work provides a preliminary breakdown susceptibility analysis for a Mi-17helicopter in combat conditions. An analysis of breakdown forms and consequences forhelicopter sections and installations in battle conditions including probability of being shotdown when hit was made. The article presents a theoretical outline for calculation methodson helicopter kill probability in case of being shot, depending on critical elementconfiguration and number of hits. The probability figures have been calculated for aspecific model describing a Mi-17 helicopter. As a result of the conducted analysis it waspossible to determine, for a specified weapon caliber, probabilities and effects of receivingcombat damage. These results can be used as a starting point for developing a new armedversion of the helicopter.

Keywords

  • Mi-17
  • survivability analysis
  • risk
  • safety

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Mi-17
  • analiza żywotności
  • ryzyko
  • bezpieczeństwo
Open Access

Reliability and risk analysis of trainer/Analiza niezawodności i ryzyka samolotu szkoleniowego

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 47 - 54

Abstract

Abstract

Exploitation of aircraft can be associated with risk of sustaining air accidents.The risk reduction is possible as a result of an analysis, portraying the most dangerousincidents and undesired events. In this paper the reliability based on events that occurredduring the current exploitation of trainers variant PZL-130 Orlik TC-I and PZL-130 OrlikTC-II was determined. From among all the events, ones characterized by the greatestlikelihood of occurrence were selected. The probability of occurrence and the average timeto undesired event were calculated. Then, a graph showing the most likely categories ofresults of undesired events that may occur during one fly was developed. The graphallowed for determining events associated with the highest risk of accident occurrence.Lower incidence of these events, or limitation of their consequences decrease the riskassociated with the Exploitation of trainers PZL-130 Orlik TC-I and PZL-130 Orlik TC-II.

Keywords

  • Orlik
  • risk analysis
  • safety

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Orlik
  • analiza ryzyka
  • bezpieczeństwo
Open Access

The automation of electronic equipment in cyberspace and electronic warfare/Automatyzacja działań urządzeń elektronicznych w środowisku cyberprzestrzeni i walki elektronicznej

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 55 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

: The rapid technological advancement of IT engineering has given rise toclandestine and intense war in the electromagnetic and IT environment. A signaltransmitted simultaneously to a large number of receivers has become a tool towage this kind of war. The signal itself is devoid of power and mass. Newtechnologies have given rise to new potential areas of warfare. Cyberspace is themost telling example of an artificially created environment. This new warfareenvironment has been claiming an ever larger proportion in the ways of sendingand receiving information command, reconnaissance electronic war, among manyothers. The article mentions topics closely connected with the automation ofelectrical devices operating under two different conditions: cybernetic andelectromagnetic. One dovetails with the other and both could use the same type ofequipment, yet their functions differ.

Keywords

  • cybernetic and electromagnetic environment
  • automation

Słowa kluczowe:

  • środowisko cybernetyczne
  • elektroniczne
  • automatyzacja
Open Access

The vast, heterogeneous distributed network simulation program - testing and training environment for the command and control systems/Program rzległej, heterogenicznej rozproszonej sieci symulacyjnej – środowisko testowe i treningowe dla zautomatyzowanych systemów dowodzenia

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 77 - 84

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes proposal to create a vast, heterogeneous,distributed simulation network dedicated to the needs for the Polish Armed Forces,the Research & Development Institutes and companies carrying out research anddevelopment projects for defense and security. The authors described possibility toutilize proposed network to implement computer-aided exercise at all levels ofcommand: from tactical to strategic level. In addition, it is described the possibilityof using the network for research development projects for the defense andsecurity, through the implementation of tests to verify the integration of newsolutions with existing systems and experimenting with innovative products.

Keywords

  • simulation
  • interoperability
  • training
  • CFBLNet.

Słowa kluczowe:

  • symulacja
  • interoperacyjność
  • trening
  • szkolenie
  • CFBLNet.
Open Access

Simulation and optimization of heavy-duty semitrailer dynamic model/Symulacja i optymalizacja dynamicznego modelu naczepy pojazdów transportu ciężkiego

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 85 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an optimization of a multibody truck semitrailer model; itspurpose was to find the best values of suspension parameters in order to minimize thedisadvantageous influence of force distribution in the high risk areas. A number ofsimulations with different parameters and under different load cases have been carried out,combined with a parametric and structural sensitivity analysis, and in this way individualfactors influencing particular forces have been estimated. The stiffness and dampingcoefficients of the construction suspension system have been adjusted by applyingmetamodeling techniques, using two different approaches: Kriging and polynomialregression. Finally, using a desirability function, the most optimal solution has been found.

Keywords

  • suspension system optimization
  • semitrailer suspension system
  • multibodydynamic system
  • desirability function
  • multi-objective optimization
  • response surface

Słowa kluczowe:

  • układ amortyzacji
  • układ zawieszenia
  • naczepa
  • powierzchnia odpowiedzi,optymalizacja wielokryterialna
  • regresja wielomianowa
  • Kriging
  • model dynamiczny.
Open Access

Strategic risk modelling in highway engineering/Modelowanie ryzyka strategicznego w inżynierii drogowej

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 107 - 118

Abstract

Abstract

The strategic risk of a country’s highway engineering is linked with howthat country accomplishes its strategic objectives. They are to protect road usersfrom death or injury, safeguard critical infrastructure and reinforce the rescuesystem. The paper gives an overview of road traffic risk models used for buildingtools for strategic decision-making in the area of road safety. They majority aremacro models built from available demographic, economic and technical data. Theoverview of the models shows a variety of methods for forecasting risk with factorand multi-level models as particularly useful models. Based on this, a generalconcept was developed of models of strategic societal risk on a road network.

Keywords

  • highway engineering
  • strategic risk
  • concepts of modelling

Słowa kluczowe:

  • inżynieria drogowa
  • ryzyko strategiczne
  • koncepcje modelowania
Open Access

Improvement the systems of exploitation machine/Doskonalenie strategii utrzymania zdatności maszyn

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 119 - 132

Abstract

Abstract

It this work was talked over chosen and the new problems of exploitationof folded machine engines, helped with methods of technical diagnostics andmonitoring the state. This concerns more and more often: the questions perfectingthe effectiveness of methods of diagnosing, systems of preventive exchanges, newsolutions of software on stage co-ordinating the decision (one - and the multi -dimension), as and the dedicated systems of diagnosing in engineering ofdiagnostics. Introduced problems of this study finds in processes of destruction ofmachine engines his reason, concurrent every machine engine near at hand afterher producing, until to liquidation. The be shaping the costs of exploitation ofmachine engines and the possibilities of applying of well-known strategies ofexploitation differentiate in this area the variety of organizational workings. Thedeveloping technical diagnostics gives to rational exploitation of machine enginesthe basis in newly created or the perfected diagnostic systems of exploitation.

Keywords

  • the exploitation
  • modelling
  • the opinion of state
  • the co-ordinating thedecision
  • the dedicated systems of diagnostics.

Słowa kluczowe:

  • eksploatacja
  • modelowanie
  • ocena stanu
  • uzgadnianie decyzji,dedykowane systemy diagnostyki.
Open Access

Optimization and reliability of intelligent traffic lights control systems/Optymalizacja i niezawodność inteligentnych systemów sterowania ruchem drogowym

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 133 - 140

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents problems of optimization and reliability to control themovement of vehicles within the intersections using classical methods and geneticalgorithms with fuzzy evaluation of the chromosome. The authors doing research indicatedthat the genetic operators allow controlling traffic lights about 40% more efficient than bythe classical method. Classical methods are defined as models based only on motion sensorsand on the basis of FIFO. The proposed model of reliability of intelligent traffic lightscontrol system is based on the time of operation, traffic density and average speed ofvehicles traveling on a given stretch.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • optimization
  • control

Słowa kluczowe:

  • niezawodność
  • optymalizacja
  • sterowanie
Open Access

Determination of time intervals between subsequent corrosion inspections based on the example of the TS-11 ‘Iskra’ aircraft/Wyznaczanie okresów wykonywania przeglądów korozyjnych na przykładzie samolotu TS-11 „Iskra”

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 141 - 158

Abstract

Abstract

When the operation is driven by the actual technical condition of the equipmentwith current monitoring of the reliability level the problem appears how to scheduleinspections intended for restoring sound technical condition of aircrafts with regard tocorrosion protective coatings and keep them permanently available for operation withdetermination of maintenance jobs that must be carried out in the plane. The methods thatenable estimation how frequently inspections for detection of corrosion traces should becarried out include the method of characteristic sets, the Fourier spectral analysis as wellas the methods of indices that reflect the process of the aircraft operation. Each of theforegoing methods is suitable for the equipment operation but the only method that takesinto account the conditions that occurred during operation of the specific aircraft unit isthe method of indices that reflects the process of the aircraft operation.

Keywords

  • corrosion inspection
  • condition-driven operation
  • fault
  • defect.

Słowa kluczowe:

  • przegląd korozyjny
  • eksploatacja według stanu
  • uszkodzenie,niesprawność.
Open Access

The method for corrosion prevention and corrosion processes monitoring of structural components in aircrafts/Metoda zapobiegania i nadzoru nad procesami korozyjnymi elementów konstrukcji statków powietrznych

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 159 - 174

Abstract

Abstract

Operation, maintenance and overhauls by technical condition of equipmentwith simultaneous monitoring of the reliability level consists in acquisition, storage,verification and analysis of information related to reliability and efficiency of theoperation process involving a set of products classified to a single, common type. Resultsof the completed analyzes serve as a basis for taking decisions on the scope of necessaryprophylactic works. Each item of the product is replaced after such a defect that presentsno harm to the overall functioning of the system. In such a case an extremely importanttask is to determine the schedule and scope of inspections intended for restoration of fulloperability of the aircraft in respect of corrosion spots and condition of protectivecoatings. The proposed method comprises four phases consisting of the followingoperations: initial assessment, indirect examinations, direct tests and final evaluation.

Keywords

  • corrosion inspection
  • condition-driven operation
  • structure
  • fault,aircraft

Słowa kluczowe:

  • przegląd korozyjny
  • eksploatacja według stanu
  • konstrukcja,uszkodzenie
  • statek powietrzny
Open Access

An economic aspect of shaping reliability and safety of the ‘pilot-aircraft’ system/Ekonomiczny aspekt kształtowania niezawodności i bezpieczeństwa systemu „pilot – statek powietrzny”

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 175 - 184

Abstract

Abstract

An economic factor is what should be given careful consideration throughout theaircraft service process. This is what significantly adds to the question of aircraft utilityvalue. Any aircraft of even exceptionally good engineering properties may show ratherpoor utility value if it proves extremely expensive while in operation. If significance ofeconomic issues throughout the process of operating military aircraft remainsunderestimated, it may straightforward lead to false if not disastrous solutions. Rationaldecisions on increasing expenditures on improvement in the operational use of militaryaircraft are expected to result in: substantial increase in operational readiness of aircraft,significant increase in aircraft reliability, increase in the ratio of effectiveness for theoperational use of aircraft. Any increase in the above-mentioned fundamental rates ofaircraft operation will provide some rise in the level of safety for the aircrew.

Keywords

  • safety
  • reliability
  • aircraft
  • effectiveness

Słowa kluczowe:

  • bezpieczeństwo
  • niezawodność
  • statek powietrzny
  • skuteczność
Open Access

Models of team actions within the national rescue system/Modele działań zespołów w krajowym systemie ratowniczym

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 185 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

The paper has been intended to present models of intervention actions launchedby the rescue system and undertaken by a team carried by a means of transport. Themodels are expected to simulate how the undertaken actions are performed. This, in turn,would allow the assessment of crew/team’s readiness to perform/accomplish theexpected tasks within some fixed limits of time. Distinguished and described is a methodto analyse intervention actions by rescue teams. General classification of tasks and thequestion of how stress affects the time to complete these tasks have also been included.An algorithm has been given to assess the process of mobilising teams for rescue actions.Furthermore, models of various intervention-action structures under crisis conditionshave been presented. What else the paper submits is a method to assess reliability of anengineered means of rescue. The basis for the assessment is formed by a change of aselected diagnostic parameter. The main objective of this method is to search for thedistribution of time to a failure of some specific type, characteristic of the object/deviceand operating conditions given consideration.

Keywords

  • rescue systems
  • organisation of actions
  • intervention

Słowa kluczowe:

  • systemy ratownicze
  • organizacja działań
  • interwencja
Open Access

Introduction to cybernetic theory of hazard/Wprowadzenie do cybernetycznej teorii zagrożeń

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 201 - 214

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents selected highlights of the cybernetic theory ofhazards. This theory is a basis for high school teaching of safety engineering. Itis assumed that the theory of hazard, should be dealt with modeling and formaldescription of the behavior of the antropotechnical system in dangerouscircumstances. As a basic tri-state systems are described: operator, mean andinfrastructure of transport. The interactivity elements of system present matrices ofdesired and undesired incidents transition in the system multi-state threats. As anobvious aspect of the theory was qualitative and formal description unsafetycharacteristics. Unsafety states of antropotechnical system divided into border andcritical. The critical state of the system that not less than one element of the systemis in critical condition. Times attributed the occurrence of damage, makingmistakes and critical impact forcing factors are treated as random variables. It isassumed that the basic characteristics of developments the dangerouscircumstances are the intensity of critical failures and / or irreversible humanerrors. The unsafety characteristics represent a conditional unsafety probabilityand are associated with the coefficients of expected time to critical events.

Keywords

  • technosphere
  • antropotechnical system
  • forcing factors
  • the criticalstage
  • risk characteristics.

Słowa kluczowe:

  • technosfera
  • układ antropotechniczny
  • zagrożenie
  • stan krytyczny,charakterystyki intensywność uszkodzeń.
Open Access

Some problems of aircraft’s lead-acid batteries/Wybrane zagadnienia z ekspoatacji lotniczych pokładowych kwasowych baterii akumulatorowych

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 215 - 234

Abstract

Keywords

  • aircraft battery
  • electric cell
  • wax effect.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lotnicza bateria akumulatorowa
  • ogniwo elektryczne
  • zjawisko woskowatości,
Open Access

Mi-24 requires transmition monitoring system/Mi-24 wymagania systemu monitorowania transmisji

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 235 - 252

Abstract

Abstract

Measure-research information providing to design a monitoring systemfor a power unit is presented in the paper. The monitoring system is similar HUMSused onboard CH-47 Chinook helicopter. The Polish system would be “enrich”data provided by means of FAM-C method. This method is based on ameasurement of output frequency modulation of aircraft’s alternators. A hypothesisof manual destructive influence of a worn out upper bearing of Mi-24 helicopter’sWR-24 gearbox is presented.

Keywords

  • technical diagnostics
  • FAM-C diagnostic method
  • transmission
  • mainrotor
  • tail rotor
  • dynamic unbalance
  • power unit’s
  • monitoring system HUMS.

Słowa kluczowe

  • diagnostyka techniczna
  • metoda diagnostyczna FAM-C
  • systemmonitorowania zespołu napędowego HUMS.
18 Articles
Open Access

Priorities in the risk assessment and risk management during the ship accident at sea /Priorytety w ocenie ryzyka i zarządzaniu ryzykiem w czasie katastrofy statku na morzu

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 5 - 16

Abstract

Summary

The paper concerns the safety of seaborne transportation and is devoted to safety ofocean engineering objects and ships in damaged conditions at sea. A method (procedure) ofsafety assessment of damaged objects (ships) is presented. The method is oriented on the objectperformance and risk assessment. For the risk assessment the risk based techniques are appliedincluding the Formal Safety Assessment FSA introduced by IMO. The method (procedure) isbased on application of the holistic approach to safety. An influence of factors affecting safetyfollowing from the different sources (design, operation, management, human factor) is takeninto account. The holistic risk model is implemented which enables to estimate the risk of notsurviving a collision (grounding, stranding, terrorist attack, etc.) using the object (ship)performance assessment during the accident. The event tree analysis ETA is used for the riskassessment. The different scenarios of accident are used and they include the hazards,intermediate events, additional events and consequences. The risk estimation is based on thematrix risk model. The safety measure in the method (procedure) is the level of risk. The riskassessment (RA, QRA) is conducted using the risk acceptance criteria (RAC) in the form ofeither the risk matrix or ALARP concept. The risk assessment is associated with using the riskcontrol options (RCO) as well. Within the method safety is the objective. The procedure of riskmanagement is presented in the paper. Finally, some remarks regarding the prioritization in therisk assessment and risk management during the ship accident at sea are described.

Keywords

  • safety of seaborne transportation
  • safety management
  • risk assessment
  • risk
  • oceanengineering object in damaged conditions
  • ship in damaged conditions

Słowa kluczowe:

  • bezpieczeństwo transportu morskiego
  • zarządzanie bezpieczeństwem
  • ocenaryzyka
  • ryzyko wypadku
  • obiekt oceanotechniczny w stanie uszkodzonym
  • statek w stanieuszkodzonym
Open Access

Integrated safety and reliability decision support system/Zintegrowany system wspomagania decyzji dotyczących bezpieczeństwa i niezawodności

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 17 - 28

Abstract

Summary

Integrated Safety and Reliability Decision Support System - IS&RDSS ispresented in the form of detailed and clear scheme-algorithm. There is also presented themethodology of IS&RDSS that is composed of the methods of complex technical systemsoperation processes modeling, their unknown parameters operation, reliability,availability, safety models identification, their reliability, availability and safety evaluationand prediction, their reliability, availability and safety improvement and their operation,reliability, availability, safety and cost optimization. The newest trends in the reliabilityand safety of complex technical systems analysis directed to the critical infrastructures andthe nanosystems are describe as well.

Keywords

  • complex system
  • reliability
  • safety
  • operation process
  • modeling
  • identification,prediction
  • optimization

Słowa kluczowe:

  • systemy złożone
  • niezawodność
  • bezpieczeństwo
  • proces eksploatacji,modelowanie
  • identyfikacja
  • predykcja
  • optymalizacja
Open Access

Availability and reliability analysis of large wind turbine systems in chosen localizations in Poland/Analiza dostępności i niezawodności dużej elektrowni wiatrowej w wybranych lokalizacjach w Polsce

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 29 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

A reliability analysis of wind turbine systems applies to chosen localizations inPoland was inspected. The average availability, capacity factor and energy efficiency of thelarge wind turbine generator have been analyzed. It is noticed that if a failure ratedecreases by modernizing assemblies by removing chosen subassemblies andreconstructing others, an average lifetime of the wind turbine enlarge noticeably.Moreover, it is possible to find, both poor and excellent wind potential on areas classifiedas not preferable for a wind industry.

Keywords

  • efficiency
  • reliability analysis
  • renewable energy
  • wind energy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • efektywność
  • analiza niezawodności
  • odnawialne źródła energii
  • energiawiatrowa.
Open Access

Combat survivability of helicopter/Analiza żywotności bojowej śmigłowca

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 37 - 46

Abstract

Abstract

The work provides a preliminary breakdown susceptibility analysis for a Mi-17helicopter in combat conditions. An analysis of breakdown forms and consequences forhelicopter sections and installations in battle conditions including probability of being shotdown when hit was made. The article presents a theoretical outline for calculation methodson helicopter kill probability in case of being shot, depending on critical elementconfiguration and number of hits. The probability figures have been calculated for aspecific model describing a Mi-17 helicopter. As a result of the conducted analysis it waspossible to determine, for a specified weapon caliber, probabilities and effects of receivingcombat damage. These results can be used as a starting point for developing a new armedversion of the helicopter.

Keywords

  • Mi-17
  • survivability analysis
  • risk
  • safety

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Mi-17
  • analiza żywotności
  • ryzyko
  • bezpieczeństwo
Open Access

Reliability and risk analysis of trainer/Analiza niezawodności i ryzyka samolotu szkoleniowego

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 47 - 54

Abstract

Abstract

Exploitation of aircraft can be associated with risk of sustaining air accidents.The risk reduction is possible as a result of an analysis, portraying the most dangerousincidents and undesired events. In this paper the reliability based on events that occurredduring the current exploitation of trainers variant PZL-130 Orlik TC-I and PZL-130 OrlikTC-II was determined. From among all the events, ones characterized by the greatestlikelihood of occurrence were selected. The probability of occurrence and the average timeto undesired event were calculated. Then, a graph showing the most likely categories ofresults of undesired events that may occur during one fly was developed. The graphallowed for determining events associated with the highest risk of accident occurrence.Lower incidence of these events, or limitation of their consequences decrease the riskassociated with the Exploitation of trainers PZL-130 Orlik TC-I and PZL-130 Orlik TC-II.

Keywords

  • Orlik
  • risk analysis
  • safety

Słowa kluczowe:

  • Orlik
  • analiza ryzyka
  • bezpieczeństwo
Open Access

The automation of electronic equipment in cyberspace and electronic warfare/Automatyzacja działań urządzeń elektronicznych w środowisku cyberprzestrzeni i walki elektronicznej

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 55 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

: The rapid technological advancement of IT engineering has given rise toclandestine and intense war in the electromagnetic and IT environment. A signaltransmitted simultaneously to a large number of receivers has become a tool towage this kind of war. The signal itself is devoid of power and mass. Newtechnologies have given rise to new potential areas of warfare. Cyberspace is themost telling example of an artificially created environment. This new warfareenvironment has been claiming an ever larger proportion in the ways of sendingand receiving information command, reconnaissance electronic war, among manyothers. The article mentions topics closely connected with the automation ofelectrical devices operating under two different conditions: cybernetic andelectromagnetic. One dovetails with the other and both could use the same type ofequipment, yet their functions differ.

Keywords

  • cybernetic and electromagnetic environment
  • automation

Słowa kluczowe:

  • środowisko cybernetyczne
  • elektroniczne
  • automatyzacja
Open Access

The vast, heterogeneous distributed network simulation program - testing and training environment for the command and control systems/Program rzległej, heterogenicznej rozproszonej sieci symulacyjnej – środowisko testowe i treningowe dla zautomatyzowanych systemów dowodzenia

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 77 - 84

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes proposal to create a vast, heterogeneous,distributed simulation network dedicated to the needs for the Polish Armed Forces,the Research & Development Institutes and companies carrying out research anddevelopment projects for defense and security. The authors described possibility toutilize proposed network to implement computer-aided exercise at all levels ofcommand: from tactical to strategic level. In addition, it is described the possibilityof using the network for research development projects for the defense andsecurity, through the implementation of tests to verify the integration of newsolutions with existing systems and experimenting with innovative products.

Keywords

  • simulation
  • interoperability
  • training
  • CFBLNet.

Słowa kluczowe:

  • symulacja
  • interoperacyjność
  • trening
  • szkolenie
  • CFBLNet.
Open Access

Simulation and optimization of heavy-duty semitrailer dynamic model/Symulacja i optymalizacja dynamicznego modelu naczepy pojazdów transportu ciężkiego

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 85 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an optimization of a multibody truck semitrailer model; itspurpose was to find the best values of suspension parameters in order to minimize thedisadvantageous influence of force distribution in the high risk areas. A number ofsimulations with different parameters and under different load cases have been carried out,combined with a parametric and structural sensitivity analysis, and in this way individualfactors influencing particular forces have been estimated. The stiffness and dampingcoefficients of the construction suspension system have been adjusted by applyingmetamodeling techniques, using two different approaches: Kriging and polynomialregression. Finally, using a desirability function, the most optimal solution has been found.

Keywords

  • suspension system optimization
  • semitrailer suspension system
  • multibodydynamic system
  • desirability function
  • multi-objective optimization
  • response surface

Słowa kluczowe:

  • układ amortyzacji
  • układ zawieszenia
  • naczepa
  • powierzchnia odpowiedzi,optymalizacja wielokryterialna
  • regresja wielomianowa
  • Kriging
  • model dynamiczny.
Open Access

Strategic risk modelling in highway engineering/Modelowanie ryzyka strategicznego w inżynierii drogowej

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 107 - 118

Abstract

Abstract

The strategic risk of a country’s highway engineering is linked with howthat country accomplishes its strategic objectives. They are to protect road usersfrom death or injury, safeguard critical infrastructure and reinforce the rescuesystem. The paper gives an overview of road traffic risk models used for buildingtools for strategic decision-making in the area of road safety. They majority aremacro models built from available demographic, economic and technical data. Theoverview of the models shows a variety of methods for forecasting risk with factorand multi-level models as particularly useful models. Based on this, a generalconcept was developed of models of strategic societal risk on a road network.

Keywords

  • highway engineering
  • strategic risk
  • concepts of modelling

Słowa kluczowe:

  • inżynieria drogowa
  • ryzyko strategiczne
  • koncepcje modelowania
Open Access

Improvement the systems of exploitation machine/Doskonalenie strategii utrzymania zdatności maszyn

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 119 - 132

Abstract

Abstract

It this work was talked over chosen and the new problems of exploitationof folded machine engines, helped with methods of technical diagnostics andmonitoring the state. This concerns more and more often: the questions perfectingthe effectiveness of methods of diagnosing, systems of preventive exchanges, newsolutions of software on stage co-ordinating the decision (one - and the multi -dimension), as and the dedicated systems of diagnosing in engineering ofdiagnostics. Introduced problems of this study finds in processes of destruction ofmachine engines his reason, concurrent every machine engine near at hand afterher producing, until to liquidation. The be shaping the costs of exploitation ofmachine engines and the possibilities of applying of well-known strategies ofexploitation differentiate in this area the variety of organizational workings. Thedeveloping technical diagnostics gives to rational exploitation of machine enginesthe basis in newly created or the perfected diagnostic systems of exploitation.

Keywords

  • the exploitation
  • modelling
  • the opinion of state
  • the co-ordinating thedecision
  • the dedicated systems of diagnostics.

Słowa kluczowe:

  • eksploatacja
  • modelowanie
  • ocena stanu
  • uzgadnianie decyzji,dedykowane systemy diagnostyki.
Open Access

Optimization and reliability of intelligent traffic lights control systems/Optymalizacja i niezawodność inteligentnych systemów sterowania ruchem drogowym

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 133 - 140

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents problems of optimization and reliability to control themovement of vehicles within the intersections using classical methods and geneticalgorithms with fuzzy evaluation of the chromosome. The authors doing research indicatedthat the genetic operators allow controlling traffic lights about 40% more efficient than bythe classical method. Classical methods are defined as models based only on motion sensorsand on the basis of FIFO. The proposed model of reliability of intelligent traffic lightscontrol system is based on the time of operation, traffic density and average speed ofvehicles traveling on a given stretch.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • optimization
  • control

Słowa kluczowe:

  • niezawodność
  • optymalizacja
  • sterowanie
Open Access

Determination of time intervals between subsequent corrosion inspections based on the example of the TS-11 ‘Iskra’ aircraft/Wyznaczanie okresów wykonywania przeglądów korozyjnych na przykładzie samolotu TS-11 „Iskra”

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 141 - 158

Abstract

Abstract

When the operation is driven by the actual technical condition of the equipmentwith current monitoring of the reliability level the problem appears how to scheduleinspections intended for restoring sound technical condition of aircrafts with regard tocorrosion protective coatings and keep them permanently available for operation withdetermination of maintenance jobs that must be carried out in the plane. The methods thatenable estimation how frequently inspections for detection of corrosion traces should becarried out include the method of characteristic sets, the Fourier spectral analysis as wellas the methods of indices that reflect the process of the aircraft operation. Each of theforegoing methods is suitable for the equipment operation but the only method that takesinto account the conditions that occurred during operation of the specific aircraft unit isthe method of indices that reflects the process of the aircraft operation.

Keywords

  • corrosion inspection
  • condition-driven operation
  • fault
  • defect.

Słowa kluczowe:

  • przegląd korozyjny
  • eksploatacja według stanu
  • uszkodzenie,niesprawność.
Open Access

The method for corrosion prevention and corrosion processes monitoring of structural components in aircrafts/Metoda zapobiegania i nadzoru nad procesami korozyjnymi elementów konstrukcji statków powietrznych

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 159 - 174

Abstract

Abstract

Operation, maintenance and overhauls by technical condition of equipmentwith simultaneous monitoring of the reliability level consists in acquisition, storage,verification and analysis of information related to reliability and efficiency of theoperation process involving a set of products classified to a single, common type. Resultsof the completed analyzes serve as a basis for taking decisions on the scope of necessaryprophylactic works. Each item of the product is replaced after such a defect that presentsno harm to the overall functioning of the system. In such a case an extremely importanttask is to determine the schedule and scope of inspections intended for restoration of fulloperability of the aircraft in respect of corrosion spots and condition of protectivecoatings. The proposed method comprises four phases consisting of the followingoperations: initial assessment, indirect examinations, direct tests and final evaluation.

Keywords

  • corrosion inspection
  • condition-driven operation
  • structure
  • fault,aircraft

Słowa kluczowe:

  • przegląd korozyjny
  • eksploatacja według stanu
  • konstrukcja,uszkodzenie
  • statek powietrzny
Open Access

An economic aspect of shaping reliability and safety of the ‘pilot-aircraft’ system/Ekonomiczny aspekt kształtowania niezawodności i bezpieczeństwa systemu „pilot – statek powietrzny”

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 175 - 184

Abstract

Abstract

An economic factor is what should be given careful consideration throughout theaircraft service process. This is what significantly adds to the question of aircraft utilityvalue. Any aircraft of even exceptionally good engineering properties may show ratherpoor utility value if it proves extremely expensive while in operation. If significance ofeconomic issues throughout the process of operating military aircraft remainsunderestimated, it may straightforward lead to false if not disastrous solutions. Rationaldecisions on increasing expenditures on improvement in the operational use of militaryaircraft are expected to result in: substantial increase in operational readiness of aircraft,significant increase in aircraft reliability, increase in the ratio of effectiveness for theoperational use of aircraft. Any increase in the above-mentioned fundamental rates ofaircraft operation will provide some rise in the level of safety for the aircrew.

Keywords

  • safety
  • reliability
  • aircraft
  • effectiveness

Słowa kluczowe:

  • bezpieczeństwo
  • niezawodność
  • statek powietrzny
  • skuteczność
Open Access

Models of team actions within the national rescue system/Modele działań zespołów w krajowym systemie ratowniczym

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 185 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

The paper has been intended to present models of intervention actions launchedby the rescue system and undertaken by a team carried by a means of transport. Themodels are expected to simulate how the undertaken actions are performed. This, in turn,would allow the assessment of crew/team’s readiness to perform/accomplish theexpected tasks within some fixed limits of time. Distinguished and described is a methodto analyse intervention actions by rescue teams. General classification of tasks and thequestion of how stress affects the time to complete these tasks have also been included.An algorithm has been given to assess the process of mobilising teams for rescue actions.Furthermore, models of various intervention-action structures under crisis conditionshave been presented. What else the paper submits is a method to assess reliability of anengineered means of rescue. The basis for the assessment is formed by a change of aselected diagnostic parameter. The main objective of this method is to search for thedistribution of time to a failure of some specific type, characteristic of the object/deviceand operating conditions given consideration.

Keywords

  • rescue systems
  • organisation of actions
  • intervention

Słowa kluczowe:

  • systemy ratownicze
  • organizacja działań
  • interwencja
Open Access

Introduction to cybernetic theory of hazard/Wprowadzenie do cybernetycznej teorii zagrożeń

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 201 - 214

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents selected highlights of the cybernetic theory ofhazards. This theory is a basis for high school teaching of safety engineering. Itis assumed that the theory of hazard, should be dealt with modeling and formaldescription of the behavior of the antropotechnical system in dangerouscircumstances. As a basic tri-state systems are described: operator, mean andinfrastructure of transport. The interactivity elements of system present matrices ofdesired and undesired incidents transition in the system multi-state threats. As anobvious aspect of the theory was qualitative and formal description unsafetycharacteristics. Unsafety states of antropotechnical system divided into border andcritical. The critical state of the system that not less than one element of the systemis in critical condition. Times attributed the occurrence of damage, makingmistakes and critical impact forcing factors are treated as random variables. It isassumed that the basic characteristics of developments the dangerouscircumstances are the intensity of critical failures and / or irreversible humanerrors. The unsafety characteristics represent a conditional unsafety probabilityand are associated with the coefficients of expected time to critical events.

Keywords

  • technosphere
  • antropotechnical system
  • forcing factors
  • the criticalstage
  • risk characteristics.

Słowa kluczowe:

  • technosfera
  • układ antropotechniczny
  • zagrożenie
  • stan krytyczny,charakterystyki intensywność uszkodzeń.
Open Access

Some problems of aircraft’s lead-acid batteries/Wybrane zagadnienia z ekspoatacji lotniczych pokładowych kwasowych baterii akumulatorowych

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 215 - 234

Abstract

Keywords

  • aircraft battery
  • electric cell
  • wax effect.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lotnicza bateria akumulatorowa
  • ogniwo elektryczne
  • zjawisko woskowatości,
Open Access

Mi-24 requires transmition monitoring system/Mi-24 wymagania systemu monitorowania transmisji

Published Online: 09 Nov 2012
Page range: 235 - 252

Abstract

Abstract

Measure-research information providing to design a monitoring systemfor a power unit is presented in the paper. The monitoring system is similar HUMSused onboard CH-47 Chinook helicopter. The Polish system would be “enrich”data provided by means of FAM-C method. This method is based on ameasurement of output frequency modulation of aircraft’s alternators. A hypothesisof manual destructive influence of a worn out upper bearing of Mi-24 helicopter’sWR-24 gearbox is presented.

Keywords

  • technical diagnostics
  • FAM-C diagnostic method
  • transmission
  • mainrotor
  • tail rotor
  • dynamic unbalance
  • power unit’s
  • monitoring system HUMS.

Słowa kluczowe

  • diagnostyka techniczna
  • metoda diagnostyczna FAM-C
  • systemmonitorowania zespołu napędowego HUMS.

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