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Volume 14-15 (2010): Issue 2010 (December 2010)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
ISSN
1895-8281
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 14-15 (2010): Issue 2010 (December 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
ISSN
1895-8281
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

38 Articles
Open Access

Device Distribution System Productivity Monitoring - Manufacturing Execution System on the Rolling Mill Example

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 7 - 14

Abstract

Device Distribution System Productivity Monitoring - Manufacturing Execution System on the Rolling Mill Example

The paper is focusing on device distribution system productivity monitoring - manufacturing execution system on the rolling mill example. The presented approach is helping both availability of manufacturing system shaping and safety keeping.

Keywords

  • availability
  • monitoring
  • MES
Open Access

A Concept of the Object State Identification

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 15 - 22

Abstract

A Concept of the Object State Identification

Relations between features and requirements are the basis for an object state identification. States of the object are defined by a finite partition of the Cartesian product of the future space C and the requirements space W. In many cases there are possible measurement random errors in assessing futures of the object. Hence, two type errors may be made. A I - Type error and a II -Type error are defined in this paper. Several examples of the introduced notions application are presented in this paper.

Keywords

  • state identification
  • identification's errors
Open Access

Statistical Verification of Experimental Tests to Determine Geographical Positions of Objects

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 23 - 34

Abstract

Statistical Verification of Experimental Tests to Determine Geographical Positions of Objects

The article describes statistical methods of verification of measurements taken to determine geographical position of a single soldier on a battlefield using the latest GPS satellite techniques. The GPS system allows of considerable improvement in effectiveness of military operations owing to its capabilities to provide precise location of either the whole organizational unit or a single soldier, and precise time. What has been gained from experimental tests are sets of tables with, among other elements, geographic coordinates to express location (longitude and latitude), and altitude.

Keywords

  • GPS measurements
  • statistical verification
Open Access

Probabilistic Safety Analysis of the Nuclear Power Plants in Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 35 - 48

Abstract

Probabilistic Safety Analysis of the Nuclear Power Plants in Slovakia

This paper gives the results of the safety analysis of the nuclear power plants in Slovakia. The probabilistic assessment of NPP concrete containment and technologically steel segment penetration for Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) level 2 of VVER 440/213 in the case of seismic and LOCA accident is presented. There is showed summary of calculation models and calculation methods for the probability analysis of the structural integrity considering load, material and model uncertainties. The numerical simulations on the base of LHS method were realized in the system ANSYS and FReET. Copyright©2010 Preprint of KONBiN

Keywords

  • Probabilistic Safety
  • Nuclear Power Plants
  • LHS
  • ANSYS
  • FReET
Open Access

Safety and Reliability Analysis of the High Rise Buildings Considering the Exterior Explosion Effect

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 49 - 60

Abstract

Safety and Reliability Analysis of the High Rise Buildings Considering the Exterior Explosion Effect

This paper deals with the problem of the building's resistance under influence of extreme loads from above-ground explosion. The shock wave propagation in the subsoil and in the air and the effect of the subsoil and space wave propagation on high rise building is evaluated. The blast load from explosion of 1000kg TNT at 30m distance from the building is defined in accordance with the USA standards. The William-Warnke's failure criterion and the smeared approach for cracking and reinforcement modelling is used for nonlinear analysis of the three type of the reinforced concrete walls. The wave propagation is simulated on 3D FEM model in software ANSYS on the base of the experimental results Yong Lu and Zhongqi Wang (2006). Copyright©2010 Preprint of KONBiN.

Keywords

  • blast load
  • reinforced concrete
  • wall collapse
  • FEM
  • ANSYS
Open Access

Examination of Operational Dependability Demonstrated by Turbine Reactive Engines

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 61 - 76

Abstract

Examination of Operational Dependability Demonstrated by Turbine Reactive Engines

The paper presents course and results of operational examination carried out for engines with particular consideration of land-based tests. It has been suggested that available, already recorded signals from the automatic and control systems can serve as a basis for assessment of the engine operability. The recorded signals can be analyzed in various manners, including the method that is based on the phase trajectory superposed with the Lyapunov function. It has been shown that analysis of signal interrelations presents substantial advantages, where the movement of the phase trajectory vector over the time period is subject to analysis and is related to successive values of the Lyapunov function that is calculated for subsequent moments of time (possibility to analyze both linear and non-linear systems, simultaneous analysis of three signals: operational, environment and feed), therefore the proposed method prevails over other approaches to analysis of signals. The final part of the paper deals with analysis of signals obtained from recorded waveforms from the automation and control systems of the K-15 engine.

Keywords

  • performance tests
  • serviceability assessment
  • engine adjustment
Open Access

A Synthetic Method to Investigate Reliability and Safety Potential of a Technical Facility During its Operation

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 77 - 90

Abstract

A Synthetic Method to Investigate Reliability and Safety Potential of a Technical Facility During its Operation

The paper presents presumptions to an innovative way intended to bring down each diagnostic information, even if it has been provided with participation of an expert, to the form that can be expressed in a conventional manner by the corresponding score of points. Each change of the signal (depending on its value and the moment when it appears) is associated with the score that has been already established by experts. The proposed innovative method consists in utilization of the obtained signals to find out parameters of the current settings and the technical status (equations 3, 4) and the safety and reliability of the object (equations 5, 6) with application of the combined status equations [3,5]. It will enable to perform continuous monitoring and prediction of the reliability and safety of the facility during its lifetime. The described method may prove to be extremely useful as it exhibits the overall deterioration of the facility in an unambiguous and synthetic manner and makes it possible to predict future operation status of the facility and, in consequence, to schedule appropriate maintenance operations (adjustments, repairs, overhauls).

Keywords

  • diagnostics
  • safety
  • reliability
Open Access

The Probability of Collision During Vessel Overtaking

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 91 - 99

Abstract

The Probability of Collision During Vessel Overtaking

There are many close quarter situations at sea, especially in narrow channels. The problem of overtaking on fairways is a complex issue. Navigation, when carried out in such areas causes reduce of a vessel's safety level, it is necessary to consider limits: ship's particulars, fairway's parameters, human factor, vessel traffic. If these factors are not considered during overtaking, it will cause ship out of fairway or collision. The paper contains the probability of collision during overtaking.

Keywords

  • overtaking
  • collision
Open Access

Prerequisites for Positive Impact of Foreign Direct Investments on Economic Growth

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 99 - 104

Abstract

Prerequisites for Positive Impact of Foreign Direct Investments on Economic Growth

The paper concentrates on determination of prerequisites for the positive effect of FDI on economic growth. For this purpose database of "Global Competitiveness Report" is used. Significant evidence was obtained for institutions, infrastructure, health and primary education, meaning that improvements in these variables would lead to increase in positive effect of attracted FDI on economic growth.

Keywords

  • foreign direct investments
  • economic growth
  • dynamic estimation
Open Access

Reliability Assessment of Existing Concrete Bridges

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 105 - 116

Abstract

Reliability Assessment of Existing Concrete Bridges

The remaining working life of an existing reinforced concrete bridge is analysed considering the serviceability limit states of crack width. Two new models of crack width provided Eurocode EN 1992 and in the Model Code 2010 are applied. The probabilistic methods of structural reliability are used for assessing the crack width limits and remaining working life of existing concrete bridges. It appears that the initial reliability with respect to the serviceability requirements resulting from the original design of the bridge seems to satisfy the required target reliability level recommended in Eurocodes. However, the reliability index significantly decreases with the reduction of the reinforcement area due to corrosion.

Keywords

  • existing bridges
  • working life
  • failure probability
  • crack width
Open Access

Fuzzy Interpretation of a Transport System Operation Quality Assessment

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 117 - 133

Abstract

Fuzzy Interpretation of a Transport System Operation Quality Assessment

The paper deals with issues connected with an assessment of transport systems operation quality. The considerations concern real, systems with an intended set of operations, belonging to socio - technical systems of the type whose operation quality assessment is performed depending on value changes of features describing actions of operators, technical objects operated by them and he impact of he environment. Their assessment and providing them with the required functional and operational quality, both in terms of their operation safety efficiency, reliability and ecology, provides basis for accomplishment of the transport service according to the set requirements. This work presents possibilities of application of elements of fuzzy logic in selected stages of the assessment, on the basis of the developed method and the assessment model. Operation quality has been defined as being expressed by means of numerical values identified features, whereas it should be emphasized, that in some cases their direct identification is a significant problem. In connection with this, there was built a fuzzy assessment model for which the scope of changes of the system analyzed features is covered with fuzzy numbers, whereas, their sharp values account for the model initial data. Then, there was presented a fuzzy representation of values of features determined for the system assessment, their graphic interpretation was presented, along with an example of application of fuzzy logic elements for a municipal transport system assessment.

Keywords

  • system operation quality
  • evaluation model
  • quality vector
  • fuzzy evaluation model
  • fuzzy form of quality vector
Open Access

Social Indices in Risks Estimations of Financial Crisis: Case of Transition Economies

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 127 - 132

Abstract

Social Indices in Risks Estimations of Financial Crisis: Case of Transition Economies

The main purpose of our research is to investigate the empirical evidence of global financial crises influence on social sector development. A specific question guiding the research was to find the most vulnerable aspects of social sector in transition economies countries and construct a complex social indicator which would allow to estimate the dynamics of social sector development in pre-crises period and determine the appropriate policy measures to minimize the negative consequences in period of after-crises recovering.

As we do not have an extended data for the period after crises, for now we are not able to do any credible conclusions for the post-crises development of different aspects of social sector, but we can do cross-country comparison.

Keywords

  • social indices
  • global financial crises
Open Access

Diagnostic Tools for Electronic Integrated Communication Systems in Air Transportation Systems

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 133 - 142

Abstract

Diagnostic Tools for Electronic Integrated Communication Systems in Air Transportation Systems

The paper has been intended to present research/testing tools used in the Air Force Institute of Technology to build integrated communication systems and test operation thereof, as far as both devices that compose the system and the applied software are concerned. Particular attention has been paid to the so-called integration station (built under the Mi-8, Mi-17, Mi-24 modernisation project), intended to activate communication systems integrated on the basis of digital data buses (MIL-1553B). Also, the mobile servicing and control set ZDZSŁ-1 to service and diagnose these systems has been discussed in details. Such equipment has allowed AFIT to gain the-state-of-the-art capabilities presented by western companies in the field of integrating new communication devices/systems, the already accomplished modernisation of the W-3PL helicopter ("Głuszec"/"Capercaillie") and a project of such a system for the TS-11F "Iskra" ("Spark") being perfect examples. Some selected tasks performed with this testing station engaged have been discussed. Also, problems arising while activating and testing the developed software to integrate communication devices/systems (including digitally controlled radio stations of the RF-5800H and XM-6013P types, and communication control panels of the PSŁ-1 type have been given consideration in the scope of the software functionality and reliability. Presented are also additional monitoring and measuring systems used to test this software, just to mention acoustic generators as well as special and navigation signals testers.

Keywords

  • integrated communication systems
  • research/testing stations
Open Access

The Possible Use of the FMEA Method to Ensure Health Safety of Municipal Water

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 143 - 154

Abstract

The Possible Use of the FMEA Method to Ensure Health Safety of Municipal Water

The paper presents the adaptation of failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) to assess risk associated with the possibility of tap water contamination. In the case of drinking water quality, occurring threats include pollution by hazardous substances that have an impact on life-threatening risk, health risk and environmental risk. The main aim of this paper is to develop a methodology to use the FMEA method for water supply system.

Keywords

  • water supply system
  • risk
  • FMEA
Open Access

Computer-Aided Risk Analysis of Power Units

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 155 - 164

Abstract

Computer-Aided Risk Analysis of Power Units

Analysis of technical risk connected with operation of power units constitutes very important element of general assessment of operation quality. It takes into consideration and connects together economic aspects and unit operation safety. The SKOR computer software described below is provided for technical risk quantitative assessment created by power units elements. Results of calculations of damage probability of turbine caused by various damages scenarios are presented in the paper. The programme allows the risk assessment in off-line mode of specific power unit. It may constitute an essential help for inspection, control, planning, operation and repairs services.

Keywords

  • risk
  • power unit
Open Access

ISO 26262 - The Relevance and Importance of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Safety and Reliability Issues Regarding the Automotive Industry

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 165 - 176

Abstract

ISO 26262 - The Relevance and Importance of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Safety and Reliability Issues Regarding the Automotive Industry

Safety and reliability are key issues of today's and future automotive developments, where the involved companies have to deal with increasing functionality and complexity of software-based car functions. New functionalities cannot only be found in the area of driver assistance - most of the new car functions are and will be safety related as for example in vehicle dynamics control or active and passive safety systems. The development and integration of those functions will strengthen the need of safe processes during the system development. The new upcoming automotive standard on functional safety (ISO 26262), which is derived from the generic functional safety standard IEC 61508 to comply with the specific needs to the application sector of E/E-systems in road vehicles, will provide guidance to avoid the increasing risks from systematic faults and random hardware faults by providing feasible processes and requirements. It is evident that aspects and methods of the safety and reliability engineering are implemented and suited methods are performed in the development process at an early stage. This is one of the requirements of the new ISO 26262, which introduces a so called automotive safety lifecycle to handle all those activities that are necessary to guarantee the functional safety of automotive E/E-systems. In the following, a brief overview of the upcoming automotive standard, its new safety life cycle and the connected activities in order to ensure functional safety for safety related systems will be given. The main aim of this paper is to show the relevance and importance of one of the major tasks within the ISO 26262: the process of the hazard analysis and risk assessment as it is currently performed in the automotive industry. With the help of an example from the automotive sector, the basic steps of this method to determine the automotive safety integrity level (ASIL) are explained. Depending on the ASIL, safety requirements need to be derived as a result of the new standard regarding safety integrity attributes. Furthermore, the connection of the automotive functional safety process with methods for qualification and quantification of safety and reliability issues will be explained in this paper. The Fault Tree Analysis will be used to exemplify one of these methods which are applied subsequent to the hazard analysis and risk assessment and which make a contribution to the validation and verification of the safety process.

Keywords

  • functional safety
  • hazard analysis and risk assessment
  • automotive safety integrity level
  • fault tree analysis
Open Access

The Model of Risk Determination in Sea-River Navigation

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 177 - 186

Abstract

The Model of Risk Determination in Sea-River Navigation

The process of navigation should be safely and efficiently. Navigation in inland waters is hard by the relation between the ship size and water area. The determination of safety of ship's movement can be identified as a combination of probability of accident and losses. The overall risk of navigation ship can determined as the sum of these single risks depend on the under keel clearance, distance to navigational obstruction, air drought, collision with other floating craft and berthing energy. The paper presents method of the determination the safety of ship manoeuvring in sea-river navigation.

Keywords

  • safety of navigation
  • sea-river navigation
  • model of risk determination
Open Access

Application of Fuzzy Set Theory for Risk Assessment

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 187 - 196

Abstract

Application of Fuzzy Set Theory for Risk Assessment

In our age safety, reliability and security are essential issues in modern engineering. Modern technical systems should meet technical, safety and environmental protection requirements. The risk can appear as personal injury or death, mission degradation, property technical damage or destruction. The risk is a measure of harm or loss associated with the human activity. It is the combination of the probability and the consequence of a specified hazard being realized. For decision making the experts need the opinions of other sciences, sometimes they have to consider moral questions. To make reliable decision, the risk of the given system or process should be known correctly. Fuzzy set theory is a relatively new mathematical tool to depict and model inaccuracy and uncertainty of the real world and human thinking. The paper and presentation will give a short overview of risk assessment and illustrates the possibility of use of proposed fuzzy set theory based method by a case study.

Keywords

  • risk management
  • risk assessment
  • fuzzy set theory
  • reliability
Open Access

Numerical Verification of Engineering Decisions for Safety of Trunklines

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 197 - 210

Abstract

Numerical Verification of Engineering Decisions for Safety of Trunklines

The article presents basic theoretical statements for a method of numerical verification of engineering decisions accepted at design of new trunklines or remodeling of already existing ones. Numerical verification is aimed to guaranteed revealing and effective correction of engineering errors. Such errors can result in decrease of reliability, industrial safety, ecological compatibility and efficiency of further operation of a designed pipeline. The suggested method is based on computational prediction of designed pipeline behavior under rated operating conditions and in emergencies. To perform such forecasting it is necessary (in addition to the development of pipeline project) to create a set of ad hoc computational technologies and high accurate computer simulators. Copyright © 2010 Journal of KONBiN.

Keywords

  • Pipeline engineering
  • Life cycle simulation
  • High-accuracy computer simulator
Open Access

Reliability Model of Motorway Toll Collection System

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 211 - 222

Abstract

Reliability Model of Motorway Toll Collection System

In the paper, a methodology and a concept for establishment of a predictive reliability model of toll collection system at motorway section are presented. Markov processes and methods for projecting exploitation reliability have been used for modelling reliability. Elaboration of the model will allow for defining a projectable availability index of the system and its individual elements. The indices will allow for determining to what extent the system meets specific requirements and for preparing relevant exploitation strategy.

Keywords

  • modelling
  • predicting
  • reliability
  • toll collection system
Open Access

Integrated Safety Management System of the Railway Transport

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 223 - 234

Abstract

Integrated Safety Management System of the Railway Transport

The railway transport safety is the basic criterion responsible for its functioning evaluation, furthermore, it decides about its efficiency and also about the wide perceived grade of transport service quality. All parties, who are involved in the railway transport apply safety related procedures and they carry out the risk assessment regarding the process, which they perform for the railway engineering. In the article, there has been presented the present prevailing condition, but also the new legal requirements, connected with the safety in railway transport at the stage of design, manufacturing as well as the repair of products belonging to the railway transport, and also within the process of transport and management of both the railway infrastructure and railway sidings.

Keywords

  • railway transport
  • safety
  • Safety Management System
Open Access

Pole Placement Approach to Crane Control Problem

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 235 - 246

Abstract

Pole Placement Approach to Crane Control Problem

The time and positioning accuracy of transportation operations realized by material handling systems are more and more significant problem in automated manufacturing processes, as well as the exploitation quality, safety and reliability, which can be met by implementing automation systems and improving control quality of material handling devices. The presented problem of anti-sway control system was solved using pole placement method employed to the time-discrete closed loop crane control system, which can be used in adaptive solutions. The proposed solution is based on the assumption, that crane nonlinear system is considered as a linear model with varying parameters.

Keywords

  • overhead traveling crane
  • anti-sway control
  • pole placement
Open Access

The Application of a Neuro-Fuzzy Adaptive Crane Control System

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 247 - 258

Abstract

The Application of a Neuro-Fuzzy Adaptive Crane Control System

The unconventional methods, mostly based on fuzzy logic, are often addressed to a problem of anti-sway crane control. The problem of practical application of those solutions is important owing to come the growing expectations for time and precision of transportation operations and exploitation quality of material handling devices. The paper presents the designing methods of an adaptive anti-sway crane control system based on the neuro-fuzzy controller, as well as the software and hardware equipments used to aid the programming realization the fuzzy control algorithm on a programmable logic controller (PLC). The proposed application of control system was tested on the laboratory model of an overhead traveling crane.

Keywords

  • overhead traveling crane
  • fuzzy logic
  • neural network
Open Access

Heuristic Approach to Trajectory Planning of N-th Numerous Set of Automated Cranes

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 259 - 270

Abstract

Heuristic Approach to Trajectory Planning of N-th Numerous Set of Automated Cranes

Today new requirements are put for optimization, synchronization and planning the transportation operations supported via n-th numerous set composed by automated cranes, including also their availability. The above needs is the subject of consideration in the paper, and solved based on heuristic approach. The method of i-th cranes operations planning, as well as time-optimal and non-collision moving trajectory of a payload shifted by crane is solved using searching graph algorithm based on heuristic function. The presented approach is possible to apply also to n-th numerous sets of automated cranes. The application of crane set control system was based on supervisory system (HMI/ SCADA system) equipped in user interface for implementing the heuristic knowledge about considered process used to aid decision-making process.

Keywords

  • automated material handling system
  • crane
  • supervisory system
Open Access

Dimensioning the Navigational Safety in Maritime Transport

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 271 - 280

Abstract

Dimensioning the Navigational Safety in Maritime Transport

In the paper some problems of quantitive description of traffic safety in maritime transport are presented. Basic definitions and a stochastic approach to concept of traffic safety in transport are given. The stochastic method of dimensioning traffic safety, useful in short-term traffic control, is proposed.

Keywords

  • safety dimensioning
  • traffic control stochastic models
  • safety in sea transport
Open Access

Reliability of Merchant Ship Used for Sar Action

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 281 - 288

Abstract

Reliability of Merchant Ship Used for Sar Action

Paper presents elements that should be taken into consideration by SMC during chosen merchant ship for help in SAR action. Bayesian network was used to construct model of merchant ship reliability in SAR action. Preliminary assessment of ship usability uses basic information about ship from AIS or similar system. Other information to enhanced model are obtain from master by radio or form safety databases. The paper present analyses which elements are the most important. The aim of research is construct application which will inform SMC which ship in the distress area is the best for SAR action.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • merchant ship
  • SAR action
Open Access

Use of the Utility Tree Technique in Process of Treats Analysis for Information Security in Information and Communication Systems

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 289 - 298

Abstract

Use of the Utility Tree Technique in Process of Treats Analysis for Information Security in Information and Communication Systems

This paper describes a technique of utility tree, which can be used in process of risk analysis for information security in information and communication systems. The technique uses connections between vulnerabilities of a system's element, a frequency of an event incidence (which exploits the vulnerability) and its the importance of such events for information security. It also describes and evaluates the influence of an event on information and communication system. The technique uses a qualitative risks assessment, which makes it simple in use.

Keywords

  • risk analysis
  • information security
  • utility tree
  • information and communication system
Open Access

Reliability and Risk - Logical and Probabilistic Model

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 299 - 308

Abstract

Reliability and Risk - Logical and Probabilistic Model

Each real system and its surrounding can be synthetic described by two values: positive potential and negative potential. The first one expresses system ability to task realization and the second one shows sum of conditions which system has to realize. Defining order relations (bigger, smaller) between those potentials, the system reliability can be universally defined. But defining order relations with parameters of system activity "consequences", the risk can be defined. This is one of safety potential conception version postulated once by author. In the lecture are presented assumptions of new logic and probabilistic model of reliability and risk, basing on this idea.

Keywords

  • safety potential conception
  • reliability
  • risk
Open Access

Analysis of Undesirable Events Scenarios in Water Supply System by Means of Fault Tree Method

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 309 - 320

Abstract

Analysis of Undesirable Events Scenarios in Water Supply System by Means of Fault Tree Method

The operation of water distribution subsystem (WDS) is inseparably linked with the possibility of occurrence of failures, which are often random. Such events can cause interruptions in the supply of water or secondary water pollution in the water-pipe network, which main reason are unfavourable hydraulic conditions of the network operation (low-speed flow), combined with older pipelines or chemical instability of water. In order to determine stationary and unstationary likelihood of occurrence of peak undesirable event (threat to water consumers) Fault Tree Analysis was used, utilizing BlockSim 7. The expanded fault tree for different combinations of failure scenarios, was analysed. The paper contains the methodology of the analysis and an example of application.

Keywords

  • water supply system
  • fault tree
  • failure
Open Access

Effects of Improved Traffic Management on Sustainable Distributed Road Transportation Safety Based on Asian Experiences

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 321 - 332

Abstract

Effects of Improved Traffic Management on Sustainable Distributed Road Transportation Safety Based on Asian Experiences

Knowledge of the improved traffic management and its effect on road safety is an important component in the process of sustainable road network development. Having in mind that so many road traffic casualties occur, a key priority in transport policy is making highways as safe as possible. The mentioned objective is attained by means of sustainable safety. The paper focuses on sustainable road safety and his principles, based on selected Asian countries experiences. The knowledge base covers institutional responsibility of road safety, the development of a road safety action plan, raising awareness and understanding of road safety problems, road crash data systems, road safety education and training, traffic safety legislation, enforcement of traffic laws and monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of road safety activities. In order to improve road transportation safety an organized sustainable approach is needed via concentrated action of all of participants in the process of realizing the transport service such as: governments at all levels, those who are professionally engaged in transport and traffic engineering and road users themselves.

Keywords

  • safety
  • road transportation
  • and management
Open Access

Violation of The Steady-State Friction behaviour of A Precise Hydraulic Pair Due To Imbalanced Radial Hydrostatic Force

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 333 - 350

Abstract

Violation of The Steady-State Friction behaviour of A Precise Hydraulic Pair Due To Imbalanced Radial Hydrostatic Force

W hat has been presented in the paper is a question of violation of the steady-state friction behaviour of a sliding hydraulic pair due to imbalanced radial hydrostatic force that affects the pair. The origins of hydrostatic radial forces in a sliding pair and the effect of this imbalance have been discussed. Computations have been outlined to illustrate how radial hydrostatic forces affect the cylindrical slide. Reasons for the cylindrical slide getting wedged in the sleeve have also been shown. Qualitative assessment of radial forces on the cylindrical slide located in the sleeve has been carried out, and the amounts of imbalance - shown. The qualitative assessment of radial forces in the precise hydraulic pair included a few characteristic variants of a non-uniform distribution of pressure of the working liquid in the annular clearance between the slide and the sleeve. The ways of reducing the imbalance of radial forces from liquid's pressure that affect the cylindrical slide of the hydraulic pair.

Keywords

  • hydraulic servomechanism
  • cylindrical slider (spool)
  • hydrostatic radial force
  • hydraulic precision pair
Open Access

Technical Risk Analysis of Railway Vehicle

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 351 - 358

Abstract

Technical Risk Analysis of Railway Vehicle

The first official document concerning technical risk assessment in railway transport was "Safety Directive" #49 released in 2004 by European Commission. It was particularized in commission regulation number 352 from 2009 on the adoption of a common safety method on risk evaluation and assessment. The actual requirement of technical risk assessment results from building and implementing IRIS, and from 2012 it will result from certification of maintenance facilities (Directive 110/2008/EC). In this article legal basics concerning technical risk assessment, and analysis of railway accidents were discussed.

Keywords

  • safety
  • technical risk assessment
  • railway vehicle
Open Access

Analysis of the Influence of Carried Out Repairs Efficiency on Transport Means Operational Reliability

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 359 - 376

Abstract

Analysis of the Influence of Carried Out Repairs Efficiency on Transport Means Operational Reliability

The Maintenance factors and destructive processes which affect systems and elements of technical objects result in undesirable changes of values of their functional features, which causes damages. A damage to a technical object has been defined as exceeding permitted boundary values by significant features characterizing their elements. On the basis of analysis results of the author's own research concerning damages to means of transport, used in real transport systems, it has been found that these damages are the effect of different forcing factors. A certain number of damages is caused by natural wear of machine elements, whereas other damages can occur in result of ineffective repair of a previous damage. Thus, the so called recurrent (secondary) damages occur in a short period of time. On the basis of literature and maintenance and operation analysis results it was found that the most frequent cause of recurrent damage occurrence is improper quality of repairs of the analyzed means of transport. Primary damages are not dependent on each other and they appear randomly, whereas recurrent damages do depend on each other and their occurrence is the conditioned by earlier occurrence of a repair, and above all, by its poor quality. In the paper, a method for evaluation the influence of carried out repairs on transport means operational reliability, has been presented On the basis of the analysis of the moments in which damages to the means of transport and of the time interval lengths between them a simulation model representing a real stream of the damages was built, which enables to evaluate influence of the efficiency of the performed repairs of the means of transport in the real transport system

Keywords

  • transport system
  • mean of transport
  • model
  • damage
Open Access

Identification of Undesirable Events in the Municipal Transport System

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 377 - 388

Abstract

Identification of Undesirable Events in the Municipal Transport System

Road transport systems are socio-technical systems of the type Human - Technical object- Environment <H-TO-E>. In these systems hazards can be caused by: the human H, the technical object TO, and influence of the environment on the technical object and people who are present in the system and its environment. The authors of the paper make an attempt to evaluate the level of threats resulting from intended or not intended actions of people situated in this environment.

Keywords

  • safety
  • undesirable events
Open Access

Use of Analtic Hierarchy Process for Assessment of Transport System Operation Safety

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 389 - 400

Abstract

Use of Analtic Hierarchy Process for Assessment of Transport System Operation Safety

Transport systems are socio-technical systems in which accomplishment of a direct task is the responsibility of an executive subsystem made up of elementary subsystems of the type - technical object (operator - transport means) carrying out tasks within the system surroundings. Due to the presence of people in the transport system, the most significant criterion for the assessment of carried out rides is their safety. The safety level of carried out transport tasks is affected by threats posed by forcing factors which have an influence on the elementary executive system. These factors can be divided into:

- operational

- external

- antropotechnical

Due to the complex nature of the analyzed systems, the authors of the paper have made an attempt to evaluate the influence of these factors on the system operational safety.

Keywords

  • operational safety
  • urban transport
  • threat
Open Access

Simulation Testings of Emergency Braking of the Mining Shaft Hoist

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 401 - 408

Abstract

Simulation Testings of Emergency Braking of the Mining Shaft Hoist

For each mining shaft hoist braking devices shall be provided, which in the event of conveyance overwind the boundary positions, act upon conveyances with braking forces, independently on the brake mounted in a drive. The state, in which the conveyances overwind the boundary positions, is called the shaft hoist emergency braking state. It is the most dangerous emergency event occurring during the shaft hoist operation. Digital simulation of the hoist emergency braking state, carried out on the appropriate model, enables to assess kinematic and dynamic parameters of that process.

Keywords

  • mining shaft hoist
  • braking forces
  • conveyances
  • Koepe pulley
  • digital simulation
Open Access

Chosen Aspects of Analysis of Road Traffic Safety in Poland Between 1995 and 2008

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 409 - 420

Abstract

Chosen Aspects of Analysis of Road Traffic Safety in Poland Between 1995 and 2008

In this paper certain occurrences are presented, resulting from statistical data concerning road traffic accidents in the period between 1995 and 2008. Some trends for the next years are also presented along with the consideration of certain indicators for Mazowieckie Voivodship. Analysis of the chosen data let us formulate the conclusions concerning the concrete aspects of road traffic safety both in Poland and Mazowsze. Attempt was made to evaluate the actual condition of road traffic safety as well as its upgrade.

Keywords

  • safety
  • accident
  • statistical data
Open Access

A Probabilistic Method of Determining Fatigue Lives of Some Selected Structural Components of an Aircraft to Maintain the Required Flight Safety Level - An Outline

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 421 - 436

Abstract

A Probabilistic Method of Determining Fatigue Lives of Some Selected Structural Components of an Aircraft to Maintain the Required Flight Safety Level - An Outline

The paper has been intended to outline a method of determining fatigue life of a structural component of an aircraft for some assumed flight safety level. The results gained allowed of finding the density function of time (i.e. flying time) indispensable to exceed the permissible crack length. With this function determined, one could determine reliability of the component to be then used to find fatigue life of this structural component. Two solutions have been given consideration, both depending on the m coefficient in the Paris relationship, i.e. for m = 2 and m ≠ 2.

Keywords

  • crack
  • reliability
  • critical condition
  • fatigue life
38 Articles
Open Access

Device Distribution System Productivity Monitoring - Manufacturing Execution System on the Rolling Mill Example

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 7 - 14

Abstract

Device Distribution System Productivity Monitoring - Manufacturing Execution System on the Rolling Mill Example

The paper is focusing on device distribution system productivity monitoring - manufacturing execution system on the rolling mill example. The presented approach is helping both availability of manufacturing system shaping and safety keeping.

Keywords

  • availability
  • monitoring
  • MES
Open Access

A Concept of the Object State Identification

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 15 - 22

Abstract

A Concept of the Object State Identification

Relations between features and requirements are the basis for an object state identification. States of the object are defined by a finite partition of the Cartesian product of the future space C and the requirements space W. In many cases there are possible measurement random errors in assessing futures of the object. Hence, two type errors may be made. A I - Type error and a II -Type error are defined in this paper. Several examples of the introduced notions application are presented in this paper.

Keywords

  • state identification
  • identification's errors
Open Access

Statistical Verification of Experimental Tests to Determine Geographical Positions of Objects

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 23 - 34

Abstract

Statistical Verification of Experimental Tests to Determine Geographical Positions of Objects

The article describes statistical methods of verification of measurements taken to determine geographical position of a single soldier on a battlefield using the latest GPS satellite techniques. The GPS system allows of considerable improvement in effectiveness of military operations owing to its capabilities to provide precise location of either the whole organizational unit or a single soldier, and precise time. What has been gained from experimental tests are sets of tables with, among other elements, geographic coordinates to express location (longitude and latitude), and altitude.

Keywords

  • GPS measurements
  • statistical verification
Open Access

Probabilistic Safety Analysis of the Nuclear Power Plants in Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 35 - 48

Abstract

Probabilistic Safety Analysis of the Nuclear Power Plants in Slovakia

This paper gives the results of the safety analysis of the nuclear power plants in Slovakia. The probabilistic assessment of NPP concrete containment and technologically steel segment penetration for Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) level 2 of VVER 440/213 in the case of seismic and LOCA accident is presented. There is showed summary of calculation models and calculation methods for the probability analysis of the structural integrity considering load, material and model uncertainties. The numerical simulations on the base of LHS method were realized in the system ANSYS and FReET. Copyright©2010 Preprint of KONBiN

Keywords

  • Probabilistic Safety
  • Nuclear Power Plants
  • LHS
  • ANSYS
  • FReET
Open Access

Safety and Reliability Analysis of the High Rise Buildings Considering the Exterior Explosion Effect

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 49 - 60

Abstract

Safety and Reliability Analysis of the High Rise Buildings Considering the Exterior Explosion Effect

This paper deals with the problem of the building's resistance under influence of extreme loads from above-ground explosion. The shock wave propagation in the subsoil and in the air and the effect of the subsoil and space wave propagation on high rise building is evaluated. The blast load from explosion of 1000kg TNT at 30m distance from the building is defined in accordance with the USA standards. The William-Warnke's failure criterion and the smeared approach for cracking and reinforcement modelling is used for nonlinear analysis of the three type of the reinforced concrete walls. The wave propagation is simulated on 3D FEM model in software ANSYS on the base of the experimental results Yong Lu and Zhongqi Wang (2006). Copyright©2010 Preprint of KONBiN.

Keywords

  • blast load
  • reinforced concrete
  • wall collapse
  • FEM
  • ANSYS
Open Access

Examination of Operational Dependability Demonstrated by Turbine Reactive Engines

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 61 - 76

Abstract

Examination of Operational Dependability Demonstrated by Turbine Reactive Engines

The paper presents course and results of operational examination carried out for engines with particular consideration of land-based tests. It has been suggested that available, already recorded signals from the automatic and control systems can serve as a basis for assessment of the engine operability. The recorded signals can be analyzed in various manners, including the method that is based on the phase trajectory superposed with the Lyapunov function. It has been shown that analysis of signal interrelations presents substantial advantages, where the movement of the phase trajectory vector over the time period is subject to analysis and is related to successive values of the Lyapunov function that is calculated for subsequent moments of time (possibility to analyze both linear and non-linear systems, simultaneous analysis of three signals: operational, environment and feed), therefore the proposed method prevails over other approaches to analysis of signals. The final part of the paper deals with analysis of signals obtained from recorded waveforms from the automation and control systems of the K-15 engine.

Keywords

  • performance tests
  • serviceability assessment
  • engine adjustment
Open Access

A Synthetic Method to Investigate Reliability and Safety Potential of a Technical Facility During its Operation

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 77 - 90

Abstract

A Synthetic Method to Investigate Reliability and Safety Potential of a Technical Facility During its Operation

The paper presents presumptions to an innovative way intended to bring down each diagnostic information, even if it has been provided with participation of an expert, to the form that can be expressed in a conventional manner by the corresponding score of points. Each change of the signal (depending on its value and the moment when it appears) is associated with the score that has been already established by experts. The proposed innovative method consists in utilization of the obtained signals to find out parameters of the current settings and the technical status (equations 3, 4) and the safety and reliability of the object (equations 5, 6) with application of the combined status equations [3,5]. It will enable to perform continuous monitoring and prediction of the reliability and safety of the facility during its lifetime. The described method may prove to be extremely useful as it exhibits the overall deterioration of the facility in an unambiguous and synthetic manner and makes it possible to predict future operation status of the facility and, in consequence, to schedule appropriate maintenance operations (adjustments, repairs, overhauls).

Keywords

  • diagnostics
  • safety
  • reliability
Open Access

The Probability of Collision During Vessel Overtaking

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 91 - 99

Abstract

The Probability of Collision During Vessel Overtaking

There are many close quarter situations at sea, especially in narrow channels. The problem of overtaking on fairways is a complex issue. Navigation, when carried out in such areas causes reduce of a vessel's safety level, it is necessary to consider limits: ship's particulars, fairway's parameters, human factor, vessel traffic. If these factors are not considered during overtaking, it will cause ship out of fairway or collision. The paper contains the probability of collision during overtaking.

Keywords

  • overtaking
  • collision
Open Access

Prerequisites for Positive Impact of Foreign Direct Investments on Economic Growth

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 99 - 104

Abstract

Prerequisites for Positive Impact of Foreign Direct Investments on Economic Growth

The paper concentrates on determination of prerequisites for the positive effect of FDI on economic growth. For this purpose database of "Global Competitiveness Report" is used. Significant evidence was obtained for institutions, infrastructure, health and primary education, meaning that improvements in these variables would lead to increase in positive effect of attracted FDI on economic growth.

Keywords

  • foreign direct investments
  • economic growth
  • dynamic estimation
Open Access

Reliability Assessment of Existing Concrete Bridges

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 105 - 116

Abstract

Reliability Assessment of Existing Concrete Bridges

The remaining working life of an existing reinforced concrete bridge is analysed considering the serviceability limit states of crack width. Two new models of crack width provided Eurocode EN 1992 and in the Model Code 2010 are applied. The probabilistic methods of structural reliability are used for assessing the crack width limits and remaining working life of existing concrete bridges. It appears that the initial reliability with respect to the serviceability requirements resulting from the original design of the bridge seems to satisfy the required target reliability level recommended in Eurocodes. However, the reliability index significantly decreases with the reduction of the reinforcement area due to corrosion.

Keywords

  • existing bridges
  • working life
  • failure probability
  • crack width
Open Access

Fuzzy Interpretation of a Transport System Operation Quality Assessment

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 117 - 133

Abstract

Fuzzy Interpretation of a Transport System Operation Quality Assessment

The paper deals with issues connected with an assessment of transport systems operation quality. The considerations concern real, systems with an intended set of operations, belonging to socio - technical systems of the type whose operation quality assessment is performed depending on value changes of features describing actions of operators, technical objects operated by them and he impact of he environment. Their assessment and providing them with the required functional and operational quality, both in terms of their operation safety efficiency, reliability and ecology, provides basis for accomplishment of the transport service according to the set requirements. This work presents possibilities of application of elements of fuzzy logic in selected stages of the assessment, on the basis of the developed method and the assessment model. Operation quality has been defined as being expressed by means of numerical values identified features, whereas it should be emphasized, that in some cases their direct identification is a significant problem. In connection with this, there was built a fuzzy assessment model for which the scope of changes of the system analyzed features is covered with fuzzy numbers, whereas, their sharp values account for the model initial data. Then, there was presented a fuzzy representation of values of features determined for the system assessment, their graphic interpretation was presented, along with an example of application of fuzzy logic elements for a municipal transport system assessment.

Keywords

  • system operation quality
  • evaluation model
  • quality vector
  • fuzzy evaluation model
  • fuzzy form of quality vector
Open Access

Social Indices in Risks Estimations of Financial Crisis: Case of Transition Economies

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 127 - 132

Abstract

Social Indices in Risks Estimations of Financial Crisis: Case of Transition Economies

The main purpose of our research is to investigate the empirical evidence of global financial crises influence on social sector development. A specific question guiding the research was to find the most vulnerable aspects of social sector in transition economies countries and construct a complex social indicator which would allow to estimate the dynamics of social sector development in pre-crises period and determine the appropriate policy measures to minimize the negative consequences in period of after-crises recovering.

As we do not have an extended data for the period after crises, for now we are not able to do any credible conclusions for the post-crises development of different aspects of social sector, but we can do cross-country comparison.

Keywords

  • social indices
  • global financial crises
Open Access

Diagnostic Tools for Electronic Integrated Communication Systems in Air Transportation Systems

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 133 - 142

Abstract

Diagnostic Tools for Electronic Integrated Communication Systems in Air Transportation Systems

The paper has been intended to present research/testing tools used in the Air Force Institute of Technology to build integrated communication systems and test operation thereof, as far as both devices that compose the system and the applied software are concerned. Particular attention has been paid to the so-called integration station (built under the Mi-8, Mi-17, Mi-24 modernisation project), intended to activate communication systems integrated on the basis of digital data buses (MIL-1553B). Also, the mobile servicing and control set ZDZSŁ-1 to service and diagnose these systems has been discussed in details. Such equipment has allowed AFIT to gain the-state-of-the-art capabilities presented by western companies in the field of integrating new communication devices/systems, the already accomplished modernisation of the W-3PL helicopter ("Głuszec"/"Capercaillie") and a project of such a system for the TS-11F "Iskra" ("Spark") being perfect examples. Some selected tasks performed with this testing station engaged have been discussed. Also, problems arising while activating and testing the developed software to integrate communication devices/systems (including digitally controlled radio stations of the RF-5800H and XM-6013P types, and communication control panels of the PSŁ-1 type have been given consideration in the scope of the software functionality and reliability. Presented are also additional monitoring and measuring systems used to test this software, just to mention acoustic generators as well as special and navigation signals testers.

Keywords

  • integrated communication systems
  • research/testing stations
Open Access

The Possible Use of the FMEA Method to Ensure Health Safety of Municipal Water

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 143 - 154

Abstract

The Possible Use of the FMEA Method to Ensure Health Safety of Municipal Water

The paper presents the adaptation of failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) to assess risk associated with the possibility of tap water contamination. In the case of drinking water quality, occurring threats include pollution by hazardous substances that have an impact on life-threatening risk, health risk and environmental risk. The main aim of this paper is to develop a methodology to use the FMEA method for water supply system.

Keywords

  • water supply system
  • risk
  • FMEA
Open Access

Computer-Aided Risk Analysis of Power Units

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 155 - 164

Abstract

Computer-Aided Risk Analysis of Power Units

Analysis of technical risk connected with operation of power units constitutes very important element of general assessment of operation quality. It takes into consideration and connects together economic aspects and unit operation safety. The SKOR computer software described below is provided for technical risk quantitative assessment created by power units elements. Results of calculations of damage probability of turbine caused by various damages scenarios are presented in the paper. The programme allows the risk assessment in off-line mode of specific power unit. It may constitute an essential help for inspection, control, planning, operation and repairs services.

Keywords

  • risk
  • power unit
Open Access

ISO 26262 - The Relevance and Importance of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Safety and Reliability Issues Regarding the Automotive Industry

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 165 - 176

Abstract

ISO 26262 - The Relevance and Importance of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Safety and Reliability Issues Regarding the Automotive Industry

Safety and reliability are key issues of today's and future automotive developments, where the involved companies have to deal with increasing functionality and complexity of software-based car functions. New functionalities cannot only be found in the area of driver assistance - most of the new car functions are and will be safety related as for example in vehicle dynamics control or active and passive safety systems. The development and integration of those functions will strengthen the need of safe processes during the system development. The new upcoming automotive standard on functional safety (ISO 26262), which is derived from the generic functional safety standard IEC 61508 to comply with the specific needs to the application sector of E/E-systems in road vehicles, will provide guidance to avoid the increasing risks from systematic faults and random hardware faults by providing feasible processes and requirements. It is evident that aspects and methods of the safety and reliability engineering are implemented and suited methods are performed in the development process at an early stage. This is one of the requirements of the new ISO 26262, which introduces a so called automotive safety lifecycle to handle all those activities that are necessary to guarantee the functional safety of automotive E/E-systems. In the following, a brief overview of the upcoming automotive standard, its new safety life cycle and the connected activities in order to ensure functional safety for safety related systems will be given. The main aim of this paper is to show the relevance and importance of one of the major tasks within the ISO 26262: the process of the hazard analysis and risk assessment as it is currently performed in the automotive industry. With the help of an example from the automotive sector, the basic steps of this method to determine the automotive safety integrity level (ASIL) are explained. Depending on the ASIL, safety requirements need to be derived as a result of the new standard regarding safety integrity attributes. Furthermore, the connection of the automotive functional safety process with methods for qualification and quantification of safety and reliability issues will be explained in this paper. The Fault Tree Analysis will be used to exemplify one of these methods which are applied subsequent to the hazard analysis and risk assessment and which make a contribution to the validation and verification of the safety process.

Keywords

  • functional safety
  • hazard analysis and risk assessment
  • automotive safety integrity level
  • fault tree analysis
Open Access

The Model of Risk Determination in Sea-River Navigation

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 177 - 186

Abstract

The Model of Risk Determination in Sea-River Navigation

The process of navigation should be safely and efficiently. Navigation in inland waters is hard by the relation between the ship size and water area. The determination of safety of ship's movement can be identified as a combination of probability of accident and losses. The overall risk of navigation ship can determined as the sum of these single risks depend on the under keel clearance, distance to navigational obstruction, air drought, collision with other floating craft and berthing energy. The paper presents method of the determination the safety of ship manoeuvring in sea-river navigation.

Keywords

  • safety of navigation
  • sea-river navigation
  • model of risk determination
Open Access

Application of Fuzzy Set Theory for Risk Assessment

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 187 - 196

Abstract

Application of Fuzzy Set Theory for Risk Assessment

In our age safety, reliability and security are essential issues in modern engineering. Modern technical systems should meet technical, safety and environmental protection requirements. The risk can appear as personal injury or death, mission degradation, property technical damage or destruction. The risk is a measure of harm or loss associated with the human activity. It is the combination of the probability and the consequence of a specified hazard being realized. For decision making the experts need the opinions of other sciences, sometimes they have to consider moral questions. To make reliable decision, the risk of the given system or process should be known correctly. Fuzzy set theory is a relatively new mathematical tool to depict and model inaccuracy and uncertainty of the real world and human thinking. The paper and presentation will give a short overview of risk assessment and illustrates the possibility of use of proposed fuzzy set theory based method by a case study.

Keywords

  • risk management
  • risk assessment
  • fuzzy set theory
  • reliability
Open Access

Numerical Verification of Engineering Decisions for Safety of Trunklines

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 197 - 210

Abstract

Numerical Verification of Engineering Decisions for Safety of Trunklines

The article presents basic theoretical statements for a method of numerical verification of engineering decisions accepted at design of new trunklines or remodeling of already existing ones. Numerical verification is aimed to guaranteed revealing and effective correction of engineering errors. Such errors can result in decrease of reliability, industrial safety, ecological compatibility and efficiency of further operation of a designed pipeline. The suggested method is based on computational prediction of designed pipeline behavior under rated operating conditions and in emergencies. To perform such forecasting it is necessary (in addition to the development of pipeline project) to create a set of ad hoc computational technologies and high accurate computer simulators. Copyright © 2010 Journal of KONBiN.

Keywords

  • Pipeline engineering
  • Life cycle simulation
  • High-accuracy computer simulator
Open Access

Reliability Model of Motorway Toll Collection System

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 211 - 222

Abstract

Reliability Model of Motorway Toll Collection System

In the paper, a methodology and a concept for establishment of a predictive reliability model of toll collection system at motorway section are presented. Markov processes and methods for projecting exploitation reliability have been used for modelling reliability. Elaboration of the model will allow for defining a projectable availability index of the system and its individual elements. The indices will allow for determining to what extent the system meets specific requirements and for preparing relevant exploitation strategy.

Keywords

  • modelling
  • predicting
  • reliability
  • toll collection system
Open Access

Integrated Safety Management System of the Railway Transport

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 223 - 234

Abstract

Integrated Safety Management System of the Railway Transport

The railway transport safety is the basic criterion responsible for its functioning evaluation, furthermore, it decides about its efficiency and also about the wide perceived grade of transport service quality. All parties, who are involved in the railway transport apply safety related procedures and they carry out the risk assessment regarding the process, which they perform for the railway engineering. In the article, there has been presented the present prevailing condition, but also the new legal requirements, connected with the safety in railway transport at the stage of design, manufacturing as well as the repair of products belonging to the railway transport, and also within the process of transport and management of both the railway infrastructure and railway sidings.

Keywords

  • railway transport
  • safety
  • Safety Management System
Open Access

Pole Placement Approach to Crane Control Problem

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 235 - 246

Abstract

Pole Placement Approach to Crane Control Problem

The time and positioning accuracy of transportation operations realized by material handling systems are more and more significant problem in automated manufacturing processes, as well as the exploitation quality, safety and reliability, which can be met by implementing automation systems and improving control quality of material handling devices. The presented problem of anti-sway control system was solved using pole placement method employed to the time-discrete closed loop crane control system, which can be used in adaptive solutions. The proposed solution is based on the assumption, that crane nonlinear system is considered as a linear model with varying parameters.

Keywords

  • overhead traveling crane
  • anti-sway control
  • pole placement
Open Access

The Application of a Neuro-Fuzzy Adaptive Crane Control System

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 247 - 258

Abstract

The Application of a Neuro-Fuzzy Adaptive Crane Control System

The unconventional methods, mostly based on fuzzy logic, are often addressed to a problem of anti-sway crane control. The problem of practical application of those solutions is important owing to come the growing expectations for time and precision of transportation operations and exploitation quality of material handling devices. The paper presents the designing methods of an adaptive anti-sway crane control system based on the neuro-fuzzy controller, as well as the software and hardware equipments used to aid the programming realization the fuzzy control algorithm on a programmable logic controller (PLC). The proposed application of control system was tested on the laboratory model of an overhead traveling crane.

Keywords

  • overhead traveling crane
  • fuzzy logic
  • neural network
Open Access

Heuristic Approach to Trajectory Planning of N-th Numerous Set of Automated Cranes

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 259 - 270

Abstract

Heuristic Approach to Trajectory Planning of N-th Numerous Set of Automated Cranes

Today new requirements are put for optimization, synchronization and planning the transportation operations supported via n-th numerous set composed by automated cranes, including also their availability. The above needs is the subject of consideration in the paper, and solved based on heuristic approach. The method of i-th cranes operations planning, as well as time-optimal and non-collision moving trajectory of a payload shifted by crane is solved using searching graph algorithm based on heuristic function. The presented approach is possible to apply also to n-th numerous sets of automated cranes. The application of crane set control system was based on supervisory system (HMI/ SCADA system) equipped in user interface for implementing the heuristic knowledge about considered process used to aid decision-making process.

Keywords

  • automated material handling system
  • crane
  • supervisory system
Open Access

Dimensioning the Navigational Safety in Maritime Transport

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 271 - 280

Abstract

Dimensioning the Navigational Safety in Maritime Transport

In the paper some problems of quantitive description of traffic safety in maritime transport are presented. Basic definitions and a stochastic approach to concept of traffic safety in transport are given. The stochastic method of dimensioning traffic safety, useful in short-term traffic control, is proposed.

Keywords

  • safety dimensioning
  • traffic control stochastic models
  • safety in sea transport
Open Access

Reliability of Merchant Ship Used for Sar Action

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 281 - 288

Abstract

Reliability of Merchant Ship Used for Sar Action

Paper presents elements that should be taken into consideration by SMC during chosen merchant ship for help in SAR action. Bayesian network was used to construct model of merchant ship reliability in SAR action. Preliminary assessment of ship usability uses basic information about ship from AIS or similar system. Other information to enhanced model are obtain from master by radio or form safety databases. The paper present analyses which elements are the most important. The aim of research is construct application which will inform SMC which ship in the distress area is the best for SAR action.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • merchant ship
  • SAR action
Open Access

Use of the Utility Tree Technique in Process of Treats Analysis for Information Security in Information and Communication Systems

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 289 - 298

Abstract

Use of the Utility Tree Technique in Process of Treats Analysis for Information Security in Information and Communication Systems

This paper describes a technique of utility tree, which can be used in process of risk analysis for information security in information and communication systems. The technique uses connections between vulnerabilities of a system's element, a frequency of an event incidence (which exploits the vulnerability) and its the importance of such events for information security. It also describes and evaluates the influence of an event on information and communication system. The technique uses a qualitative risks assessment, which makes it simple in use.

Keywords

  • risk analysis
  • information security
  • utility tree
  • information and communication system
Open Access

Reliability and Risk - Logical and Probabilistic Model

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 299 - 308

Abstract

Reliability and Risk - Logical and Probabilistic Model

Each real system and its surrounding can be synthetic described by two values: positive potential and negative potential. The first one expresses system ability to task realization and the second one shows sum of conditions which system has to realize. Defining order relations (bigger, smaller) between those potentials, the system reliability can be universally defined. But defining order relations with parameters of system activity "consequences", the risk can be defined. This is one of safety potential conception version postulated once by author. In the lecture are presented assumptions of new logic and probabilistic model of reliability and risk, basing on this idea.

Keywords

  • safety potential conception
  • reliability
  • risk
Open Access

Analysis of Undesirable Events Scenarios in Water Supply System by Means of Fault Tree Method

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 309 - 320

Abstract

Analysis of Undesirable Events Scenarios in Water Supply System by Means of Fault Tree Method

The operation of water distribution subsystem (WDS) is inseparably linked with the possibility of occurrence of failures, which are often random. Such events can cause interruptions in the supply of water or secondary water pollution in the water-pipe network, which main reason are unfavourable hydraulic conditions of the network operation (low-speed flow), combined with older pipelines or chemical instability of water. In order to determine stationary and unstationary likelihood of occurrence of peak undesirable event (threat to water consumers) Fault Tree Analysis was used, utilizing BlockSim 7. The expanded fault tree for different combinations of failure scenarios, was analysed. The paper contains the methodology of the analysis and an example of application.

Keywords

  • water supply system
  • fault tree
  • failure
Open Access

Effects of Improved Traffic Management on Sustainable Distributed Road Transportation Safety Based on Asian Experiences

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 321 - 332

Abstract

Effects of Improved Traffic Management on Sustainable Distributed Road Transportation Safety Based on Asian Experiences

Knowledge of the improved traffic management and its effect on road safety is an important component in the process of sustainable road network development. Having in mind that so many road traffic casualties occur, a key priority in transport policy is making highways as safe as possible. The mentioned objective is attained by means of sustainable safety. The paper focuses on sustainable road safety and his principles, based on selected Asian countries experiences. The knowledge base covers institutional responsibility of road safety, the development of a road safety action plan, raising awareness and understanding of road safety problems, road crash data systems, road safety education and training, traffic safety legislation, enforcement of traffic laws and monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of road safety activities. In order to improve road transportation safety an organized sustainable approach is needed via concentrated action of all of participants in the process of realizing the transport service such as: governments at all levels, those who are professionally engaged in transport and traffic engineering and road users themselves.

Keywords

  • safety
  • road transportation
  • and management
Open Access

Violation of The Steady-State Friction behaviour of A Precise Hydraulic Pair Due To Imbalanced Radial Hydrostatic Force

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 333 - 350

Abstract

Violation of The Steady-State Friction behaviour of A Precise Hydraulic Pair Due To Imbalanced Radial Hydrostatic Force

W hat has been presented in the paper is a question of violation of the steady-state friction behaviour of a sliding hydraulic pair due to imbalanced radial hydrostatic force that affects the pair. The origins of hydrostatic radial forces in a sliding pair and the effect of this imbalance have been discussed. Computations have been outlined to illustrate how radial hydrostatic forces affect the cylindrical slide. Reasons for the cylindrical slide getting wedged in the sleeve have also been shown. Qualitative assessment of radial forces on the cylindrical slide located in the sleeve has been carried out, and the amounts of imbalance - shown. The qualitative assessment of radial forces in the precise hydraulic pair included a few characteristic variants of a non-uniform distribution of pressure of the working liquid in the annular clearance between the slide and the sleeve. The ways of reducing the imbalance of radial forces from liquid's pressure that affect the cylindrical slide of the hydraulic pair.

Keywords

  • hydraulic servomechanism
  • cylindrical slider (spool)
  • hydrostatic radial force
  • hydraulic precision pair
Open Access

Technical Risk Analysis of Railway Vehicle

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 351 - 358

Abstract

Technical Risk Analysis of Railway Vehicle

The first official document concerning technical risk assessment in railway transport was "Safety Directive" #49 released in 2004 by European Commission. It was particularized in commission regulation number 352 from 2009 on the adoption of a common safety method on risk evaluation and assessment. The actual requirement of technical risk assessment results from building and implementing IRIS, and from 2012 it will result from certification of maintenance facilities (Directive 110/2008/EC). In this article legal basics concerning technical risk assessment, and analysis of railway accidents were discussed.

Keywords

  • safety
  • technical risk assessment
  • railway vehicle
Open Access

Analysis of the Influence of Carried Out Repairs Efficiency on Transport Means Operational Reliability

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 359 - 376

Abstract

Analysis of the Influence of Carried Out Repairs Efficiency on Transport Means Operational Reliability

The Maintenance factors and destructive processes which affect systems and elements of technical objects result in undesirable changes of values of their functional features, which causes damages. A damage to a technical object has been defined as exceeding permitted boundary values by significant features characterizing their elements. On the basis of analysis results of the author's own research concerning damages to means of transport, used in real transport systems, it has been found that these damages are the effect of different forcing factors. A certain number of damages is caused by natural wear of machine elements, whereas other damages can occur in result of ineffective repair of a previous damage. Thus, the so called recurrent (secondary) damages occur in a short period of time. On the basis of literature and maintenance and operation analysis results it was found that the most frequent cause of recurrent damage occurrence is improper quality of repairs of the analyzed means of transport. Primary damages are not dependent on each other and they appear randomly, whereas recurrent damages do depend on each other and their occurrence is the conditioned by earlier occurrence of a repair, and above all, by its poor quality. In the paper, a method for evaluation the influence of carried out repairs on transport means operational reliability, has been presented On the basis of the analysis of the moments in which damages to the means of transport and of the time interval lengths between them a simulation model representing a real stream of the damages was built, which enables to evaluate influence of the efficiency of the performed repairs of the means of transport in the real transport system

Keywords

  • transport system
  • mean of transport
  • model
  • damage
Open Access

Identification of Undesirable Events in the Municipal Transport System

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 377 - 388

Abstract

Identification of Undesirable Events in the Municipal Transport System

Road transport systems are socio-technical systems of the type Human - Technical object- Environment <H-TO-E>. In these systems hazards can be caused by: the human H, the technical object TO, and influence of the environment on the technical object and people who are present in the system and its environment. The authors of the paper make an attempt to evaluate the level of threats resulting from intended or not intended actions of people situated in this environment.

Keywords

  • safety
  • undesirable events
Open Access

Use of Analtic Hierarchy Process for Assessment of Transport System Operation Safety

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 389 - 400

Abstract

Use of Analtic Hierarchy Process for Assessment of Transport System Operation Safety

Transport systems are socio-technical systems in which accomplishment of a direct task is the responsibility of an executive subsystem made up of elementary subsystems of the type - technical object (operator - transport means) carrying out tasks within the system surroundings. Due to the presence of people in the transport system, the most significant criterion for the assessment of carried out rides is their safety. The safety level of carried out transport tasks is affected by threats posed by forcing factors which have an influence on the elementary executive system. These factors can be divided into:

- operational

- external

- antropotechnical

Due to the complex nature of the analyzed systems, the authors of the paper have made an attempt to evaluate the influence of these factors on the system operational safety.

Keywords

  • operational safety
  • urban transport
  • threat
Open Access

Simulation Testings of Emergency Braking of the Mining Shaft Hoist

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 401 - 408

Abstract

Simulation Testings of Emergency Braking of the Mining Shaft Hoist

For each mining shaft hoist braking devices shall be provided, which in the event of conveyance overwind the boundary positions, act upon conveyances with braking forces, independently on the brake mounted in a drive. The state, in which the conveyances overwind the boundary positions, is called the shaft hoist emergency braking state. It is the most dangerous emergency event occurring during the shaft hoist operation. Digital simulation of the hoist emergency braking state, carried out on the appropriate model, enables to assess kinematic and dynamic parameters of that process.

Keywords

  • mining shaft hoist
  • braking forces
  • conveyances
  • Koepe pulley
  • digital simulation
Open Access

Chosen Aspects of Analysis of Road Traffic Safety in Poland Between 1995 and 2008

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 409 - 420

Abstract

Chosen Aspects of Analysis of Road Traffic Safety in Poland Between 1995 and 2008

In this paper certain occurrences are presented, resulting from statistical data concerning road traffic accidents in the period between 1995 and 2008. Some trends for the next years are also presented along with the consideration of certain indicators for Mazowieckie Voivodship. Analysis of the chosen data let us formulate the conclusions concerning the concrete aspects of road traffic safety both in Poland and Mazowsze. Attempt was made to evaluate the actual condition of road traffic safety as well as its upgrade.

Keywords

  • safety
  • accident
  • statistical data
Open Access

A Probabilistic Method of Determining Fatigue Lives of Some Selected Structural Components of an Aircraft to Maintain the Required Flight Safety Level - An Outline

Published Online: 04 Aug 2010
Page range: 421 - 436

Abstract

A Probabilistic Method of Determining Fatigue Lives of Some Selected Structural Components of an Aircraft to Maintain the Required Flight Safety Level - An Outline

The paper has been intended to outline a method of determining fatigue life of a structural component of an aircraft for some assumed flight safety level. The results gained allowed of finding the density function of time (i.e. flying time) indispensable to exceed the permissible crack length. With this function determined, one could determine reliability of the component to be then used to find fatigue life of this structural component. Two solutions have been given consideration, both depending on the m coefficient in the Paris relationship, i.e. for m = 2 and m ≠ 2.

Keywords

  • crack
  • reliability
  • critical condition
  • fatigue life

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