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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
ISSN
1895-8281
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 13 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-4608
ISSN
1895-8281
First Published
26 Feb 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

28 Articles
Open Access

Prediction of Ship Performance in the Risk Based DSS Beds in SafePort European Project

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 7 - 16

Abstract

Prediction of Ship Performance in the Risk Based DSS Beds in SafePort European Project

The paper presents the program of experimental investigations of ship performance prepared to obtain and confirm the models introduced in decision support system BEDS (Berthing and Entry Decision Support System) developed within SafePort European Project. Copyright © 2010 Journal of KONBiN.

Keywords

  • model and full scale experiment
  • ship performance
  • DSS
Open Access

Regarding the Importance of the Mileage Distribution for Reliability Prognoses in Automotive Industry

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 17 - 28

Abstract

Regarding the Importance of the Mileage Distribution for Reliability Prognoses in Automotive Industry

In automotive industry there are few information about the load of a car in use. Therefore, the available data needs to be used and looked at carefully. Data that is nearly always available is the time in field, given by the date of registration and the date when failure occurred, and the driving distance. The driving distance can be used to describe the load of a car because in most cases the operating time is not known. This data can be used to calculate the mileage distribution of a car, which contains much additional information for safety and reliability analysis. Furthermore, it is useful to adopt testing routines and lifetime distances that are written down in specifications.

Keywords

  • mileage
  • reliability prognosis
  • failure behaviour
Open Access

The Influence of Biomechanical Property of Pilot (Crew) on Probability of Air-Crash

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 29 - 40

Abstract

The Influence of Biomechanical Property of Pilot (Crew) on Probability of Air-Crash

Article presents aspects concerning the correlation between probability (Pż) of loosing airworthiness of helicopter and probability (PE) of pilots and crew mistake during difficult landing manoeuvre. This allows to calculate the area of the reduced probability (PK) of air crash.

The aim is to define probability (Pż) as damage resistant parameter of helicopter and probability (PE) of pilot and staff mistake taking into account their assessment (scale of Coopera-Harpera) in making very hard manoeuvre.

That is why the influence of biomechanical characteristics of pilot (crew) is very important to determine the probability of air accident

Keywords

  • biomechanics
  • survivability
  • decision process of pilot (crew)
  • aircraft safety
Open Access

Risk Assessment of Extreme Weather Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants at Tidal Rivers

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 41 - 52

Abstract

Risk Assessment of Extreme Weather Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants at Tidal Rivers

The effects of flooding on a nuclear power plant site may have a major bearing on the safety of the plant and may result in a common cause failure for safety related systems, such as the emergency power supply systems. For river sites with tidal influences, an extreme flood event - tide combined with storm water level set-up - must be assumed. A storm-tide must be covered with an exceeding frequency of 10-4/a. However, the risk assessment regarding the availability of systems and components of a nuclear power plant also includes the situation of extreme low water level of rivers, i. e. below the minimum water level necessary for the supply of the nuclear power plants with cooling water.

Keywords

  • flooding
  • low water level
  • hazard analysis
Open Access

The Researches of Effectiveness of Road Restraint Systems

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 53 - 64

Abstract

The Researches of Effectiveness of Road Restraint Systems

The work describes model and experimental tests on the road restraint systems with particular attention to vehicle collisions with a concrete protective barrier. Vehicle and protective barrier crash tests include the experiment results in three basic fields: intensity of influence of the collision effects on vehicle passengers, collision impact on a vehicle and the road restraint system. It presents a test track concept as well as criteria for performing and evaluating the crash tests with a passenger vehicle and a safety barrier. The experimental tests were performed according to the test methodology recommended by the standard [2]. Examples of model test results were compared with experimental test results obtained on the test track.

Keywords

  • safety barrier
  • test track
  • model tests
  • experimental verification
Open Access

Combat Vehicle Dynamic Load Tests in the Aspect of the Operation Safety

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 65 - 78

Abstract

Combat Vehicle Dynamic Load Tests in the Aspect of the Operation Safety

The scientific team, working in the Mechanical Vehicle and Transport Institute of the Mechanical Department of the Military Technical Academy since the 90's, has been dealing with the analysis of dynamic loads of combat vehicles (tanks, infantry combat vehicles and wheeled armoured carriers). The work presents the combat vehicle tasks and operation tasks and conditions. Possible threats and possible effects of their influence were described on the basis of available information. The results of own model and experimental tests of dynamic loads affecting the aforementioned vehicles were presented. Selected analysis results were presented in a form of characteristics, diagrams and tables. Due to a type of analysed vehicles, the results are of qualitative nature rather than the quantitative one.

Keywords

  • combat vehicle
  • loading
  • investigation
  • safety
Open Access

Analysis of Risk of Interruption in Water Supply to Consumers

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 79 - 90

Abstract

Analysis of Risk of Interruption in Water Supply to Consumers

Water supply system belongs to the so called critical infrastructure of cities, and it should be a priority task for waterworks to ensure the suitable level of its safety. In this paper a method to analyse risk of interruptions in water supply to consumers was proposed. For Rzeszów water supply system maps of risk of interruptions in water supply to consumers have been developed. Results demonstrate the validity of the new tank for reliability of water supply.

Keywords

  • water supply system
  • risk analysis
  • risk maps
Open Access

Managing Inspections and Representing Safety at Industrial Parks

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 91 - 104

Abstract

Managing Inspections and Representing Safety at Industrial Parks

At industrial sites, there are often problems of misperceptions of the risks by the local community and it is essential to make visible both hazards and safety activities to all stakeholders (employees, citizens, authorities). A software prototype has been developed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a system for the presentation of safety activities within an industrial park. By means of a browser all safety activities are visible for the user. Both the activities undertaken by employers and those performed by the regulatory bodies may be monitored. At any time, the actual safety level may be demonstrated to any stakeholder. A correct perception of risks will be supported by this commitment to transparency.

Keywords

  • Inspections
  • Industrial Parks
  • Spatial Information System
  • Risk Perception
Open Access

Analysis of the Influence of Waves in the Occurrence of Accidents in the Portuguese Coast Using Bayesian Belief Networks

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 105 - 116

Abstract

Analysis of the Influence of Waves in the Occurrence of Accidents in the Portuguese Coast Using Bayesian Belief Networks

Sea and weather conditions are the second most frequent cause of accidents in Portuguese waters accounting for 23% of the occurrences. However due to lack of information in the Portuguese maritime accident database it is difficult to assess what this cause consists specifically, i.e., fog, large wave heights or other events. In the present study significant wave height data was introduced in a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model in order assess the correlation between their amplitude and certain accident typologies and related consequences (human injuries or fatalities). The results of different inferences of the BBN model show that through a simple modification of an accident model the influence of weather pattern can be assessed and specific risk factors can be identified.

Keywords

  • Bayesian Belief Networks
  • maritime accidents
  • significant wave height
Open Access

A Fuzzy - Neuron Model of the Ship Propulsion Risk Prediction

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 117 - 128

Abstract

A Fuzzy - Neuron Model of the Ship Propulsion Risk Prediction

A prediction model is presented of the ship propulsion risk, i.e. a risk of the consequences of loss of the ship propulsion capability. This is an expert model based on opinions elicited by the ship power plant operators. The risk level depends, among other things, on the reliability state of the ship propulsion system components. This state is defined by operators in a linguistic form. The formal risk model parameters are determined by means of a neural network.

Keywords

  • risk
  • ship
  • fuzzy
  • neuron
Open Access

Analysis of the Feasibility to Investigate Condition of Gas Turbine Vanes by Means of the Radiographic Method

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 129 - 138

Abstract

Analysis of the Feasibility to Investigate Condition of Gas Turbine Vanes by Means of the Radiographic Method

Operation of avionic turbine engines is always associated with possibility of various defects that may happen to turbine components, in particular to its vanes. The basic examination method intended to assess condition of the turbine vanes is the metallography, a destructive testing technology. The paper deals with the non-destructive test method of X-ray computer tomography (CT) that is chiefly used in medicine but is also suitable to diagnose how far the process of turbine vanes wear and tear is advanced. The computer tomography (CT) is the transmission diagnostic technique that makes it possible to obtain images of various layers within the investigated object. Application areas of this technique include also the quality control in manufacturing of technical facilities. The study presents results of assessments for gas turbine vanes with the use of the X-ray computer tomography after a specific period of the turbine operation. It was found out that the radiographic method, owing to availability of 3D images (including also internal defects) makes it possible to detect types of defects, their sizes and locations.

Keywords

  • X-ray computer tomography
  • turbine vane
  • status
  • diagnostics
Open Access

Integrated Avionics Systems - Diagnostic Tools and Data Transmission Standards

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 139 - 147

Abstract

Integrated Avionics Systems - Diagnostic Tools and Data Transmission Standards

The paper has been intended to present research tools used at AFIT to activate and test hardware and software implemented in the integrated avionics systems. Particular attention has been paid to the research stand (built under the R&D project of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education) intended to optimize avionics systems integrated with digital data buses employed (according to, among other things, MIL-STD-1553B and ARINC-429 standards). Specialized research equipment/test devices used to test software, including - apart from other things - test-patterns generators (within the range of display capability of the secondary head-up display (SHUD)) and information efficiency testers (for the SHUD and up-front control panel (UFCP) thereof) have also been presented.

Keywords

  • integrated avionics systems
  • research and measuring equipment
Open Access

Case Study of Conformity Assessment of Automated Production Line

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 149 - 164

Abstract

Case Study of Conformity Assessment of Automated Production Line

According to machinery directive 2006/42/WE, "assemblies of machinery which, in order to achieve the same end, are arranged and controlled so that they function as an integral whole" are considered as a machine. It means that before putting an automated production line into service the conformity assessment should be conducted. Different directives, e.g. machinery directive, low voltage directive, pressure equipment directive, etc may apply to the machines and devices forming an automated production. It is a duty of the main manufacturer to appoint the responsibility to particular manufactures of machines and devices. Using the automated production line for production of glass wool, built by the SAINT-GOBAIN Construction Products Poland, as a study case the general rules for conformity assessment of such have been presented in the paper.

Keywords

  • safety of machinery
  • conformity assessment
  • automated production lines
Open Access

A Method of Risk and Safety Assessment During the Ship Salvage Using the Hazard, Release and Consequence Analysis

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 165 - 176

Abstract

A Method of Risk and Safety Assessment During the Ship Salvage Using the Hazard, Release and Consequence Analysis

The paper concerns the ship salvage. The existing methods are very difficult to apply for the salvage purposes. A method based on the risk and safety assessment of ships in damaged conditions is presented in the paper. The level of risk is the measure of safety. The method applies the ship performance approach together with the risk assessment. The risk analysis is based on application of the matrix type risk model. The risk model enables to consider many possible scenarios of an accident using the Event Tree Analysis ETA concerning the hazards, releases and consequences.

Keywords

  • safety of ships
  • ship salvage
  • risk assessment
Open Access

The Width of a Fairway - Comparison of Models

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 177 - 186

Abstract

The Width of a Fairway - Comparison of Models

This article presents probabilistic and deterministic methods of safe waterway width assessment. The models were used to obtain optimal parameters of different type waterways. An analysis of results will be conducted to determine possible applications of the proposed methods.

Keywords

  • marine traffic engineering
  • waterways
  • fairway width
Open Access

Reliability and Safety of Mine Hoist Installations

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 187 - 196

Abstract

Reliability and Safety of Mine Hoist Installations

In recent years the required working conditions and safety features of the vertical transport systems in Polish collieries have been achieved through enhanced supervision and control and by prolonged repairs, diagnostics and maintenance procedures aimed to ensure the satisfactory performance levels of hoisting installations This approach to reliability and safety of transport systems, which ought to be treated as intricate anthropotechnic systems, result in an increased risk of life loss and injury of maintenance personnel and hoist operators. This paper is limited in scope and focuses on selected aspects:

- identification of the problem of reliability and safety of the hoisting systems,

- identification of causes of catastrophic failures,

- summary of major research data,

- list of methods, means and solutions developed at AGH-UST to improve the safety of hoisting installations.

Keywords

  • safety
  • mine hoist instalations
Open Access

Strategic Risk Measures in Road Traffic

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 197 - 208

Abstract

Strategic Risk Measures in Road Traffic

Strategic risk is a long-term risk which forms part of long-term decisions taken by organisations which manage road safety in a specific area. The strategic risk on a country's road network is the uncertainty about the strategic goal which is to protect road users from death and injury. When estimating risk in traffic engineering it is important to use the right measures of risk and methods for calculating or forecasting risk. The paper presents an analysis of macro level measures of strategic risk in road traffic.

Keywords

  • road traffic
  • safety
  • strategic risk
  • measures of risk
Open Access

Trans-Risk - An Integrated Method for Risk Management in Transport

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 209 - 220

Abstract

Trans-Risk - An Integrated Method for Risk Management in Transport

Many attempts have been made at risk management integration in other spheres of life. A review of risk management in the modes of transport shows some substantial differences in the terminology and the detailed rules and applications of risk management. As a result, it is important to try and integrate risk management methods in transport. This paper presents the results of the work of an interdisciplinary team working on integrating the methods of risk management. The members represented the four modes of transport listed in the project called Integrated System of Transport Safety ZEUS. The paper presents the background conditions for the integration of risk management in transport and a concept of an integrated method for risk management called TRANS-RISK.

Keywords

  • transport
  • safety
  • risk management
  • integration of methods
Open Access

Analysis of Factors Influencing the Density of Fatalities on National Roads in Poland

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 221 - 234

Abstract

Analysis of Factors Influencing the Density of Fatalities on National Roads in Poland

In Poland 20% of the total number of accidents occur on the national roads, which constitute 7% of the length of all roads. In the case of fatalities this share is significantly higher as it constitutes up to 36% of the total casualties. In accordance with the EU Directive (Journal of Laws EU L. 319/59) the level of road traffic safety should be raised by targeting investment on the most dangerous road sections. Finding the dependence between road and traffic factors and the number of accidents and casualties of road accidents may be helpful in predicting safety levels and selecting road traffic safety improvement measures. The paper presents the experience of other countries and preliminary tests results of the impact of the selected factors on the density and the number of road accident fatalities on the national roads in Poland.

Keywords

  • national roads
  • road traffic safety
  • impact factors
  • road accident fatalities
Open Access

Speed, Alcohol and Safety Belts as Important Factors Influencing the Number of Fatalities in Road Accidents in the Voivodships

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 235 - 246

Abstract

Speed, Alcohol and Safety Belts as Important Factors Influencing the Number of Fatalities in Road Accidents in the Voivodships

Regions are the basic units of management in the European Union. So far factors influencing road safety in the regions have been little recognised. Based on literature review, some factors affecting traffic safety in the EU regions have been identified. Then data available on the voivodships in Poland in 2000-2004 have been gathered. The gathered data have been analysed and the most important factors influencing the number and effects of road accidents have been identified. The following paper presents preliminary results of a wider research programme on road safety in the areas of the voivodships.

Keywords

  • regions
  • road traffic safety
  • impact factors
  • modelling
Open Access

The Influence of Unplanned Technical Services on Aircraft Fleet's Management

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 247 - 254

Abstract

The Influence of Unplanned Technical Services on Aircraft Fleet's Management

In this paper the influence of introduced airworthiness directives and bulletin services on in-service process were described. During the in-service time two main states can be distinguished: exploitation and service. An aircraft is an example of technical object in which exists strong relations between these states. The main aim of any airline is to maximize its profits. Such an optimization is affected by several factors. They are mainly connected to the service state (service cost minimization) as well as to the exploitation state (flight interval minimization, frequency ratio maximization, work waiting time minimization, etc.)

Keywords

  • Low Cost Carriers
  • aircraft
  • maintenance
  • scheduling
Open Access

Reliability and Safety of Complex Technical Systems an Overall Approach

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 255 - 274

Abstract

Reliability and Safety of Complex Technical Systems an Overall Approach

The paper is concerned with the identification, evaluation, prediction and optimization of reliability, availability and safety of technical systems related to their operation processes. The main emphasis is on multi-state systems composed of ageing components and changing during their operation their structures and their components reliability and safety characteristics. The convenient tools suggested for analyzing these complex technical systems are semi-markov modeling of the systems' operation processes and multistate approach to the systems' reliability modeling. The paper describes current theoretical results on the proposed approach to reliability and safety analysis of multi-state systems with ageing components in their operation processes and the possibility of their practical applications to the reliability, safety analysis and optimization of the complex technical port and maritime transportation systems.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • safety
  • complex systems
Open Access

Managing Competence and Certifying Persons Responsible for Functional Safety

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 275 - 288

Abstract

Managing Competence and Certifying Persons Responsible for Functional Safety

This article emphasizes that knowledge and competences of managers, engineers and specialists dealing with safety-related technologies for hazardous industry should be appropriately shaped in the technical education processes and training programmes fulfilling some quality requirements and assessment criteria. It concerns especially persons dealing with the functional safety solutions in the design and operation of the electric, electronic and programmable electronic (E/E/PE) systems. Such persons can now be certified in Poland according to a certification system developed by a Programme Committee consisting of experts from the industry and two Technical Universities (in Gdansk and Warsaw). This committee was created within the Office of Technical Inspection (UDT-CERT) in Warsaw. The UDT-CETRT is formally responsible for certifying persons dealing with functional safety solutions.

Keywords

  • Functional safety
  • managing competence
  • certifying persons
Open Access

The Operation Modes of E/E/PE System and Their Influence on Determining and Verifying the Safety Integrity Level

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 289 - 298

Abstract

The Operation Modes of E/E/PE System and Their Influence on Determining and Verifying the Safety Integrity Level

The standard PN-EN 61508 introduces some probabilistic criteria for the E/E/PE systems that can operate in different modes of operation, which are related to the safety integrity level (SIL). For the control and protection systems, operating in a low demand mode, the criterion is the average probability of dangerous failure on demand PFDavg. In case of systems working in a continuous mode of operation or high demand, the criterion is probability of dangerous failure per hour PFH. In practice, the E/E/PE systems implement many safety-related functions (SRFs), which have different requirements for high and low demands. Thus, there is the problem with choosing proper probabilistic criterion for determining required SIL for a safety-related function to be implemented by these systems as well as in the process of quantitative verification of SIL for considered architectures.

Keywords

  • functional safety
  • safety integrity level
  • safety-related system
  • modes of operation
Open Access

Prediction of IC Engine Power System Durability with the Use of Ring Pack Model

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 299 - 310

Abstract

Prediction of IC Engine Power System Durability with the Use of Ring Pack Model

The paper presents the new method of engine life prediction, which bases on the results of wear measurements taken on an investigated engine and simulations carried out with the use of the analytical model of ring pack of the engine. In the contrary to traditional methods the proposed method does not require the prior knowledge of the limit wear value, which is essential for the prediction, however its reliable establishing for new engines is difficult. In the presented method its value is determined with the use of the ring pack model. The example of durability calculation for an automotive diesel engine is also presented.

Keywords

  • IC engine
  • blowby
  • ring pack
  • durability prediction
Open Access

A Method of Aircraft Reliability Assessment as Referred to the Operational-Use Safety

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 311 - 324

Abstract

A Method of Aircraft Reliability Assessment as Referred to the Operational-Use Safety

Throughout the operational phase of aviation objects, the safety and reliability thereof are characterised with a set of a dozen or so, or even tens of indices correlated with each other. Hence, any analytical and assessment-oriented efforts as well as comparisons - for any specific feature - between both the objects themselves and the systems of manufacturing, operating, and maintaining them are usually hindered. The intended aim of this paper is to suggest some solution to this problem, one that consists in reducing the number of operational indices of safety down to several indices of significance which contain most information on the object under assessment or on a system of operating this object

Keywords

  • reliability
  • safety
  • operational use
  • aircraft
Open Access

Analysis of Feasibility to Assess Microstructure of Gas Turbine Blades by Means of the Thermographic Method

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 325 - 340

Abstract

Analysis of Feasibility to Assess Microstructure of Gas Turbine Blades by Means of the Thermographic Method

Operation of avionic turbine engines is always associated with possibility of various defects that may happen to turbine components, in particular to its blades. The most frequent reason for defects is overheating of the blade material but the thermal fatigue also occurs quite often. The most efficient examination method that provides plenty of information about structure of the investigated material of turbine blades is metallography but it is a destructive testing technology, so that the turbine no longer can be used after such investigation. This paper deals with methods of non-destructive tests that are currently in use and applicability of such methods to unbiased and trustworthy computer-aided diagnostics aimed to find out how the blade microstructure status varies in time. Results of initial examination of gas turbine blades are presented whereas the tests with use of the non-invasive thermographic method were carried out in order to assess condition of the blade material after the turbines had been subjected to the effect of high temperatures. Subsequently, the obtained results were successfully validated by means of the metallographic method. Eventually the conclusion could be made that the thermographic method makes it possible to achieve comprehensive and trustworthy information how microstructure of the blade materials is altered during the aircraft operation.

Keywords

  • gas turbine
  • blade
  • thermography
  • microstructure
  • diagnostics
Open Access

Uncertainty and Dependability of the Risk Model Applicable to Operation of Aircrafts

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 341 - 348

Abstract

Uncertainty and Dependability of the Risk Model Applicable to Operation of Aircrafts

The problem of risk appears as decisions are frequently made or must be made on the basis of results that are obtained for very scarce number of real cases, objects and short series. Therefore fundamentals for really crucial choices must be inferred from correlations that are burdened by a high degree of indeterminacy. On the other hand, risk should also be considered for such circumstances when assessments are performed under excessive certainty. This paper deals with a model of risk that is considered for the subsystem of aircraft maintenance and the subsystem of its operation where operational (fights) efficiency and safety of flights are the matters of crucial importance.

Keywords

  • risk
  • model of risk
  • maintenance
28 Articles
Open Access

Prediction of Ship Performance in the Risk Based DSS Beds in SafePort European Project

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 7 - 16

Abstract

Prediction of Ship Performance in the Risk Based DSS Beds in SafePort European Project

The paper presents the program of experimental investigations of ship performance prepared to obtain and confirm the models introduced in decision support system BEDS (Berthing and Entry Decision Support System) developed within SafePort European Project. Copyright © 2010 Journal of KONBiN.

Keywords

  • model and full scale experiment
  • ship performance
  • DSS
Open Access

Regarding the Importance of the Mileage Distribution for Reliability Prognoses in Automotive Industry

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 17 - 28

Abstract

Regarding the Importance of the Mileage Distribution for Reliability Prognoses in Automotive Industry

In automotive industry there are few information about the load of a car in use. Therefore, the available data needs to be used and looked at carefully. Data that is nearly always available is the time in field, given by the date of registration and the date when failure occurred, and the driving distance. The driving distance can be used to describe the load of a car because in most cases the operating time is not known. This data can be used to calculate the mileage distribution of a car, which contains much additional information for safety and reliability analysis. Furthermore, it is useful to adopt testing routines and lifetime distances that are written down in specifications.

Keywords

  • mileage
  • reliability prognosis
  • failure behaviour
Open Access

The Influence of Biomechanical Property of Pilot (Crew) on Probability of Air-Crash

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 29 - 40

Abstract

The Influence of Biomechanical Property of Pilot (Crew) on Probability of Air-Crash

Article presents aspects concerning the correlation between probability (Pż) of loosing airworthiness of helicopter and probability (PE) of pilots and crew mistake during difficult landing manoeuvre. This allows to calculate the area of the reduced probability (PK) of air crash.

The aim is to define probability (Pż) as damage resistant parameter of helicopter and probability (PE) of pilot and staff mistake taking into account their assessment (scale of Coopera-Harpera) in making very hard manoeuvre.

That is why the influence of biomechanical characteristics of pilot (crew) is very important to determine the probability of air accident

Keywords

  • biomechanics
  • survivability
  • decision process of pilot (crew)
  • aircraft safety
Open Access

Risk Assessment of Extreme Weather Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants at Tidal Rivers

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 41 - 52

Abstract

Risk Assessment of Extreme Weather Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants at Tidal Rivers

The effects of flooding on a nuclear power plant site may have a major bearing on the safety of the plant and may result in a common cause failure for safety related systems, such as the emergency power supply systems. For river sites with tidal influences, an extreme flood event - tide combined with storm water level set-up - must be assumed. A storm-tide must be covered with an exceeding frequency of 10-4/a. However, the risk assessment regarding the availability of systems and components of a nuclear power plant also includes the situation of extreme low water level of rivers, i. e. below the minimum water level necessary for the supply of the nuclear power plants with cooling water.

Keywords

  • flooding
  • low water level
  • hazard analysis
Open Access

The Researches of Effectiveness of Road Restraint Systems

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 53 - 64

Abstract

The Researches of Effectiveness of Road Restraint Systems

The work describes model and experimental tests on the road restraint systems with particular attention to vehicle collisions with a concrete protective barrier. Vehicle and protective barrier crash tests include the experiment results in three basic fields: intensity of influence of the collision effects on vehicle passengers, collision impact on a vehicle and the road restraint system. It presents a test track concept as well as criteria for performing and evaluating the crash tests with a passenger vehicle and a safety barrier. The experimental tests were performed according to the test methodology recommended by the standard [2]. Examples of model test results were compared with experimental test results obtained on the test track.

Keywords

  • safety barrier
  • test track
  • model tests
  • experimental verification
Open Access

Combat Vehicle Dynamic Load Tests in the Aspect of the Operation Safety

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 65 - 78

Abstract

Combat Vehicle Dynamic Load Tests in the Aspect of the Operation Safety

The scientific team, working in the Mechanical Vehicle and Transport Institute of the Mechanical Department of the Military Technical Academy since the 90's, has been dealing with the analysis of dynamic loads of combat vehicles (tanks, infantry combat vehicles and wheeled armoured carriers). The work presents the combat vehicle tasks and operation tasks and conditions. Possible threats and possible effects of their influence were described on the basis of available information. The results of own model and experimental tests of dynamic loads affecting the aforementioned vehicles were presented. Selected analysis results were presented in a form of characteristics, diagrams and tables. Due to a type of analysed vehicles, the results are of qualitative nature rather than the quantitative one.

Keywords

  • combat vehicle
  • loading
  • investigation
  • safety
Open Access

Analysis of Risk of Interruption in Water Supply to Consumers

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 79 - 90

Abstract

Analysis of Risk of Interruption in Water Supply to Consumers

Water supply system belongs to the so called critical infrastructure of cities, and it should be a priority task for waterworks to ensure the suitable level of its safety. In this paper a method to analyse risk of interruptions in water supply to consumers was proposed. For Rzeszów water supply system maps of risk of interruptions in water supply to consumers have been developed. Results demonstrate the validity of the new tank for reliability of water supply.

Keywords

  • water supply system
  • risk analysis
  • risk maps
Open Access

Managing Inspections and Representing Safety at Industrial Parks

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 91 - 104

Abstract

Managing Inspections and Representing Safety at Industrial Parks

At industrial sites, there are often problems of misperceptions of the risks by the local community and it is essential to make visible both hazards and safety activities to all stakeholders (employees, citizens, authorities). A software prototype has been developed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a system for the presentation of safety activities within an industrial park. By means of a browser all safety activities are visible for the user. Both the activities undertaken by employers and those performed by the regulatory bodies may be monitored. At any time, the actual safety level may be demonstrated to any stakeholder. A correct perception of risks will be supported by this commitment to transparency.

Keywords

  • Inspections
  • Industrial Parks
  • Spatial Information System
  • Risk Perception
Open Access

Analysis of the Influence of Waves in the Occurrence of Accidents in the Portuguese Coast Using Bayesian Belief Networks

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 105 - 116

Abstract

Analysis of the Influence of Waves in the Occurrence of Accidents in the Portuguese Coast Using Bayesian Belief Networks

Sea and weather conditions are the second most frequent cause of accidents in Portuguese waters accounting for 23% of the occurrences. However due to lack of information in the Portuguese maritime accident database it is difficult to assess what this cause consists specifically, i.e., fog, large wave heights or other events. In the present study significant wave height data was introduced in a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model in order assess the correlation between their amplitude and certain accident typologies and related consequences (human injuries or fatalities). The results of different inferences of the BBN model show that through a simple modification of an accident model the influence of weather pattern can be assessed and specific risk factors can be identified.

Keywords

  • Bayesian Belief Networks
  • maritime accidents
  • significant wave height
Open Access

A Fuzzy - Neuron Model of the Ship Propulsion Risk Prediction

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 117 - 128

Abstract

A Fuzzy - Neuron Model of the Ship Propulsion Risk Prediction

A prediction model is presented of the ship propulsion risk, i.e. a risk of the consequences of loss of the ship propulsion capability. This is an expert model based on opinions elicited by the ship power plant operators. The risk level depends, among other things, on the reliability state of the ship propulsion system components. This state is defined by operators in a linguistic form. The formal risk model parameters are determined by means of a neural network.

Keywords

  • risk
  • ship
  • fuzzy
  • neuron
Open Access

Analysis of the Feasibility to Investigate Condition of Gas Turbine Vanes by Means of the Radiographic Method

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 129 - 138

Abstract

Analysis of the Feasibility to Investigate Condition of Gas Turbine Vanes by Means of the Radiographic Method

Operation of avionic turbine engines is always associated with possibility of various defects that may happen to turbine components, in particular to its vanes. The basic examination method intended to assess condition of the turbine vanes is the metallography, a destructive testing technology. The paper deals with the non-destructive test method of X-ray computer tomography (CT) that is chiefly used in medicine but is also suitable to diagnose how far the process of turbine vanes wear and tear is advanced. The computer tomography (CT) is the transmission diagnostic technique that makes it possible to obtain images of various layers within the investigated object. Application areas of this technique include also the quality control in manufacturing of technical facilities. The study presents results of assessments for gas turbine vanes with the use of the X-ray computer tomography after a specific period of the turbine operation. It was found out that the radiographic method, owing to availability of 3D images (including also internal defects) makes it possible to detect types of defects, their sizes and locations.

Keywords

  • X-ray computer tomography
  • turbine vane
  • status
  • diagnostics
Open Access

Integrated Avionics Systems - Diagnostic Tools and Data Transmission Standards

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 139 - 147

Abstract

Integrated Avionics Systems - Diagnostic Tools and Data Transmission Standards

The paper has been intended to present research tools used at AFIT to activate and test hardware and software implemented in the integrated avionics systems. Particular attention has been paid to the research stand (built under the R&D project of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education) intended to optimize avionics systems integrated with digital data buses employed (according to, among other things, MIL-STD-1553B and ARINC-429 standards). Specialized research equipment/test devices used to test software, including - apart from other things - test-patterns generators (within the range of display capability of the secondary head-up display (SHUD)) and information efficiency testers (for the SHUD and up-front control panel (UFCP) thereof) have also been presented.

Keywords

  • integrated avionics systems
  • research and measuring equipment
Open Access

Case Study of Conformity Assessment of Automated Production Line

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 149 - 164

Abstract

Case Study of Conformity Assessment of Automated Production Line

According to machinery directive 2006/42/WE, "assemblies of machinery which, in order to achieve the same end, are arranged and controlled so that they function as an integral whole" are considered as a machine. It means that before putting an automated production line into service the conformity assessment should be conducted. Different directives, e.g. machinery directive, low voltage directive, pressure equipment directive, etc may apply to the machines and devices forming an automated production. It is a duty of the main manufacturer to appoint the responsibility to particular manufactures of machines and devices. Using the automated production line for production of glass wool, built by the SAINT-GOBAIN Construction Products Poland, as a study case the general rules for conformity assessment of such have been presented in the paper.

Keywords

  • safety of machinery
  • conformity assessment
  • automated production lines
Open Access

A Method of Risk and Safety Assessment During the Ship Salvage Using the Hazard, Release and Consequence Analysis

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 165 - 176

Abstract

A Method of Risk and Safety Assessment During the Ship Salvage Using the Hazard, Release and Consequence Analysis

The paper concerns the ship salvage. The existing methods are very difficult to apply for the salvage purposes. A method based on the risk and safety assessment of ships in damaged conditions is presented in the paper. The level of risk is the measure of safety. The method applies the ship performance approach together with the risk assessment. The risk analysis is based on application of the matrix type risk model. The risk model enables to consider many possible scenarios of an accident using the Event Tree Analysis ETA concerning the hazards, releases and consequences.

Keywords

  • safety of ships
  • ship salvage
  • risk assessment
Open Access

The Width of a Fairway - Comparison of Models

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 177 - 186

Abstract

The Width of a Fairway - Comparison of Models

This article presents probabilistic and deterministic methods of safe waterway width assessment. The models were used to obtain optimal parameters of different type waterways. An analysis of results will be conducted to determine possible applications of the proposed methods.

Keywords

  • marine traffic engineering
  • waterways
  • fairway width
Open Access

Reliability and Safety of Mine Hoist Installations

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 187 - 196

Abstract

Reliability and Safety of Mine Hoist Installations

In recent years the required working conditions and safety features of the vertical transport systems in Polish collieries have been achieved through enhanced supervision and control and by prolonged repairs, diagnostics and maintenance procedures aimed to ensure the satisfactory performance levels of hoisting installations This approach to reliability and safety of transport systems, which ought to be treated as intricate anthropotechnic systems, result in an increased risk of life loss and injury of maintenance personnel and hoist operators. This paper is limited in scope and focuses on selected aspects:

- identification of the problem of reliability and safety of the hoisting systems,

- identification of causes of catastrophic failures,

- summary of major research data,

- list of methods, means and solutions developed at AGH-UST to improve the safety of hoisting installations.

Keywords

  • safety
  • mine hoist instalations
Open Access

Strategic Risk Measures in Road Traffic

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 197 - 208

Abstract

Strategic Risk Measures in Road Traffic

Strategic risk is a long-term risk which forms part of long-term decisions taken by organisations which manage road safety in a specific area. The strategic risk on a country's road network is the uncertainty about the strategic goal which is to protect road users from death and injury. When estimating risk in traffic engineering it is important to use the right measures of risk and methods for calculating or forecasting risk. The paper presents an analysis of macro level measures of strategic risk in road traffic.

Keywords

  • road traffic
  • safety
  • strategic risk
  • measures of risk
Open Access

Trans-Risk - An Integrated Method for Risk Management in Transport

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 209 - 220

Abstract

Trans-Risk - An Integrated Method for Risk Management in Transport

Many attempts have been made at risk management integration in other spheres of life. A review of risk management in the modes of transport shows some substantial differences in the terminology and the detailed rules and applications of risk management. As a result, it is important to try and integrate risk management methods in transport. This paper presents the results of the work of an interdisciplinary team working on integrating the methods of risk management. The members represented the four modes of transport listed in the project called Integrated System of Transport Safety ZEUS. The paper presents the background conditions for the integration of risk management in transport and a concept of an integrated method for risk management called TRANS-RISK.

Keywords

  • transport
  • safety
  • risk management
  • integration of methods
Open Access

Analysis of Factors Influencing the Density of Fatalities on National Roads in Poland

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 221 - 234

Abstract

Analysis of Factors Influencing the Density of Fatalities on National Roads in Poland

In Poland 20% of the total number of accidents occur on the national roads, which constitute 7% of the length of all roads. In the case of fatalities this share is significantly higher as it constitutes up to 36% of the total casualties. In accordance with the EU Directive (Journal of Laws EU L. 319/59) the level of road traffic safety should be raised by targeting investment on the most dangerous road sections. Finding the dependence between road and traffic factors and the number of accidents and casualties of road accidents may be helpful in predicting safety levels and selecting road traffic safety improvement measures. The paper presents the experience of other countries and preliminary tests results of the impact of the selected factors on the density and the number of road accident fatalities on the national roads in Poland.

Keywords

  • national roads
  • road traffic safety
  • impact factors
  • road accident fatalities
Open Access

Speed, Alcohol and Safety Belts as Important Factors Influencing the Number of Fatalities in Road Accidents in the Voivodships

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 235 - 246

Abstract

Speed, Alcohol and Safety Belts as Important Factors Influencing the Number of Fatalities in Road Accidents in the Voivodships

Regions are the basic units of management in the European Union. So far factors influencing road safety in the regions have been little recognised. Based on literature review, some factors affecting traffic safety in the EU regions have been identified. Then data available on the voivodships in Poland in 2000-2004 have been gathered. The gathered data have been analysed and the most important factors influencing the number and effects of road accidents have been identified. The following paper presents preliminary results of a wider research programme on road safety in the areas of the voivodships.

Keywords

  • regions
  • road traffic safety
  • impact factors
  • modelling
Open Access

The Influence of Unplanned Technical Services on Aircraft Fleet's Management

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 247 - 254

Abstract

The Influence of Unplanned Technical Services on Aircraft Fleet's Management

In this paper the influence of introduced airworthiness directives and bulletin services on in-service process were described. During the in-service time two main states can be distinguished: exploitation and service. An aircraft is an example of technical object in which exists strong relations between these states. The main aim of any airline is to maximize its profits. Such an optimization is affected by several factors. They are mainly connected to the service state (service cost minimization) as well as to the exploitation state (flight interval minimization, frequency ratio maximization, work waiting time minimization, etc.)

Keywords

  • Low Cost Carriers
  • aircraft
  • maintenance
  • scheduling
Open Access

Reliability and Safety of Complex Technical Systems an Overall Approach

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 255 - 274

Abstract

Reliability and Safety of Complex Technical Systems an Overall Approach

The paper is concerned with the identification, evaluation, prediction and optimization of reliability, availability and safety of technical systems related to their operation processes. The main emphasis is on multi-state systems composed of ageing components and changing during their operation their structures and their components reliability and safety characteristics. The convenient tools suggested for analyzing these complex technical systems are semi-markov modeling of the systems' operation processes and multistate approach to the systems' reliability modeling. The paper describes current theoretical results on the proposed approach to reliability and safety analysis of multi-state systems with ageing components in their operation processes and the possibility of their practical applications to the reliability, safety analysis and optimization of the complex technical port and maritime transportation systems.

Keywords

  • reliability
  • safety
  • complex systems
Open Access

Managing Competence and Certifying Persons Responsible for Functional Safety

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 275 - 288

Abstract

Managing Competence and Certifying Persons Responsible for Functional Safety

This article emphasizes that knowledge and competences of managers, engineers and specialists dealing with safety-related technologies for hazardous industry should be appropriately shaped in the technical education processes and training programmes fulfilling some quality requirements and assessment criteria. It concerns especially persons dealing with the functional safety solutions in the design and operation of the electric, electronic and programmable electronic (E/E/PE) systems. Such persons can now be certified in Poland according to a certification system developed by a Programme Committee consisting of experts from the industry and two Technical Universities (in Gdansk and Warsaw). This committee was created within the Office of Technical Inspection (UDT-CERT) in Warsaw. The UDT-CETRT is formally responsible for certifying persons dealing with functional safety solutions.

Keywords

  • Functional safety
  • managing competence
  • certifying persons
Open Access

The Operation Modes of E/E/PE System and Their Influence on Determining and Verifying the Safety Integrity Level

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 289 - 298

Abstract

The Operation Modes of E/E/PE System and Their Influence on Determining and Verifying the Safety Integrity Level

The standard PN-EN 61508 introduces some probabilistic criteria for the E/E/PE systems that can operate in different modes of operation, which are related to the safety integrity level (SIL). For the control and protection systems, operating in a low demand mode, the criterion is the average probability of dangerous failure on demand PFDavg. In case of systems working in a continuous mode of operation or high demand, the criterion is probability of dangerous failure per hour PFH. In practice, the E/E/PE systems implement many safety-related functions (SRFs), which have different requirements for high and low demands. Thus, there is the problem with choosing proper probabilistic criterion for determining required SIL for a safety-related function to be implemented by these systems as well as in the process of quantitative verification of SIL for considered architectures.

Keywords

  • functional safety
  • safety integrity level
  • safety-related system
  • modes of operation
Open Access

Prediction of IC Engine Power System Durability with the Use of Ring Pack Model

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 299 - 310

Abstract

Prediction of IC Engine Power System Durability with the Use of Ring Pack Model

The paper presents the new method of engine life prediction, which bases on the results of wear measurements taken on an investigated engine and simulations carried out with the use of the analytical model of ring pack of the engine. In the contrary to traditional methods the proposed method does not require the prior knowledge of the limit wear value, which is essential for the prediction, however its reliable establishing for new engines is difficult. In the presented method its value is determined with the use of the ring pack model. The example of durability calculation for an automotive diesel engine is also presented.

Keywords

  • IC engine
  • blowby
  • ring pack
  • durability prediction
Open Access

A Method of Aircraft Reliability Assessment as Referred to the Operational-Use Safety

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 311 - 324

Abstract

A Method of Aircraft Reliability Assessment as Referred to the Operational-Use Safety

Throughout the operational phase of aviation objects, the safety and reliability thereof are characterised with a set of a dozen or so, or even tens of indices correlated with each other. Hence, any analytical and assessment-oriented efforts as well as comparisons - for any specific feature - between both the objects themselves and the systems of manufacturing, operating, and maintaining them are usually hindered. The intended aim of this paper is to suggest some solution to this problem, one that consists in reducing the number of operational indices of safety down to several indices of significance which contain most information on the object under assessment or on a system of operating this object

Keywords

  • reliability
  • safety
  • operational use
  • aircraft
Open Access

Analysis of Feasibility to Assess Microstructure of Gas Turbine Blades by Means of the Thermographic Method

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 325 - 340

Abstract

Analysis of Feasibility to Assess Microstructure of Gas Turbine Blades by Means of the Thermographic Method

Operation of avionic turbine engines is always associated with possibility of various defects that may happen to turbine components, in particular to its blades. The most frequent reason for defects is overheating of the blade material but the thermal fatigue also occurs quite often. The most efficient examination method that provides plenty of information about structure of the investigated material of turbine blades is metallography but it is a destructive testing technology, so that the turbine no longer can be used after such investigation. This paper deals with methods of non-destructive tests that are currently in use and applicability of such methods to unbiased and trustworthy computer-aided diagnostics aimed to find out how the blade microstructure status varies in time. Results of initial examination of gas turbine blades are presented whereas the tests with use of the non-invasive thermographic method were carried out in order to assess condition of the blade material after the turbines had been subjected to the effect of high temperatures. Subsequently, the obtained results were successfully validated by means of the metallographic method. Eventually the conclusion could be made that the thermographic method makes it possible to achieve comprehensive and trustworthy information how microstructure of the blade materials is altered during the aircraft operation.

Keywords

  • gas turbine
  • blade
  • thermography
  • microstructure
  • diagnostics
Open Access

Uncertainty and Dependability of the Risk Model Applicable to Operation of Aircrafts

Published Online: 30 Aug 2010
Page range: 341 - 348

Abstract

Uncertainty and Dependability of the Risk Model Applicable to Operation of Aircrafts

The problem of risk appears as decisions are frequently made or must be made on the basis of results that are obtained for very scarce number of real cases, objects and short series. Therefore fundamentals for really crucial choices must be inferred from correlations that are burdened by a high degree of indeterminacy. On the other hand, risk should also be considered for such circumstances when assessments are performed under excessive certainty. This paper deals with a model of risk that is considered for the subsystem of aircraft maintenance and the subsystem of its operation where operational (fights) efficiency and safety of flights are the matters of crucial importance.

Keywords

  • risk
  • model of risk
  • maintenance

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