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Volume 13 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Volume 12 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 11 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 10 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 9 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 8 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Volume 7 (2016): Issue 1 (January 2016)

Volume 6 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)

Volume 5 (2014): Issue 1 (January 2014)

Volume 4 (2013): Issue 1 (January 2013)

Volume 3 (2012): Issue 1 (January 2012)

Volume 2 (2011): Issue 1 (January 2011)

Volume 1 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1891-5469
First Published
01 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 1 (2010): Issue 1 (January 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1891-5469
First Published
01 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

9 Articles

Editorials

Reviews

Open Access

Impedance cardiography: Pulsatile blood flow and the biophysical and electrodynamic basis for the stroke volume equations

Published Online: 03 Dec 2009
Page range: 2 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a branch of bioimpedance primarily concerned with the determination of left ventricular stroke volume (SV). As implemented, using the transthoracic approach, the technique involves applying a current field longitudinally across a segment of thorax by means of a constant magnitude, high frequency, low amplitude alternating current (AC). By Ohm’s Law, the voltage difference measured within the current field is proportional to the electrical impedance Z (Ω). Without ventilatory or cardiac activity, Z is known as the transthoracic, static base impedance Z0. Upon ventricular ejection, a characteristic time dependent cardiac-synchronous pulsatile impedance change is obtained, ΔZ(t), which, when placed electrically in parallel with Z0, constitutes the time-variable total transthoracic impedance Z(t). ΔZ(t) represents a dual-element composite waveform, which comprises both the radially-oriented volumetric expansion of and axially-directed forward blood flow within both great thoracic arteries. In its majority, however, ΔZ(t) is known to primarily emanate from the ascending aorta. Conceptually, commonly implemented methods assume a volumetric origin for the peak systolic upslope of ΔZ(t), (i.e. dZ/dtmax), with the presumed units of Ω·s–1. A recently introduced method assumes the rapid ejection of forward flowing blood in earliest systole causes significant changes in the velocity-induced blood resistivity variation (Δρb(t), Ωcm·s–1), and it is the peak rate of change of the blood resistivity variation dρb(t)/dtmax (Ωcm·s–2) that is the origin of dZ/dtmax. As a consequence of dZ/dtmax peaking in the time domain of peak aortic blood acceleration, dv/dtmax (cm·s–2), it is suggested that dZ/dtmax is an ohmic mean acceleration analog (Ω·s–2) and not a mean flow or velocity surrogate as generally assumed. As conceptualized, the normalized value, dZ/dtmax/Z0, is a dimensionless ohmic mean acceleration equivalent (s–2), and more precisely, the electrodynamic equivalent of peak aortic reduced average blood acceleration (PARABA, d<v>/dtmax/R, s–2). As necessary for stroke volume calculation, dZ/dtmax/Z0 must undergo square root transformation to yield an ohmic mean flow velocity equivalent. To compute SV, the square root of the dimensionless ohmic mean acceleration equivalent ([dZ/dtmax/Z0]0.5, s–1) is multiplied by a volume of electrically participating thoracic tissue (VEPT, mL) and left ventricular ejection time (TLVE, s). To find the bulk volume of the thoracic contents (i.e. VEPT), established methods implement exponential functions of measured thoracic length (L(cm)n) or height-based thoracic length equivalents (0.01×%H(cm)n). The new method conceptualizes VEPT as the intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV, mL), which is approximated through allometric equivalents of body mass (aMb). In contrast to the classical two-element parallel conduction model, the new method comprises a three-compartment model, which incorporates excess extra-vascular lung water (EVLW) as a component of both Z0 and VEPT. To fully appreciate the evolution and analytical justification for impedance-derived SV equations, a review of the basics of pulsatile blood flow is in order.

Keywords

  • Impedance cardiography
  • stroke volume
  • cardiac output
  • dZ/dt
  • acceleration
  • volume conductor
  • extravascular lung water
Open Access

Studies in Rheoencephalography (REG)

Published Online: 01 Apr 2010
Page range: 18 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents an overview of rheoencephalography (REG) – electrical impedance measurements of the brain – and summarizes past and ongoing research to develop medical applications of REG for neuro-critical care and for primary prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease. The availability of advanced electronics and computation has opened up the potential for use of REG technology as a noninvasive, continuous and inexpensive brain monitor for military and civilian applications. The clinical background information presented here introduces physiological and clinical environments where REG has potential for use in research and clinical settings.

REG studies over the past three decades have involved in vitro and in vivo groups (animal and human), including more than 1500 measurements and related electronic and computational results and practical applications. In vitro studies helped researchers understand the flow/volume relationship between Doppler ultrasound and electrical impedance signals and supported development of REG data processing methods. In animal studies, REG was used to monitor the lower limit of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation (AR) using a newly developed algorithm. These animal studies also confirmed correlations between REG and measurements of carotid flow (CF) and intracranial pressure (ICP). Human studies confirmed the applicability of REG for detecting cerebrovascular alteration, demonstrating the usefulness of REG in the field of stroke/cardio-vascular disease prevention. In these studies, REG was compared to known stroke risk factors and to results obtained using carotid ultrasound measurements. An intelligent REG system (Cerberus) has been developed for primary stroke prevention. In these studies, the biologically relevant variables of the REG signal were pulse amplitude (minimum – maximum distance) and duration of the anacrotic (rising) portion of the REG pulse wave.

The principal limitation of REG for clinical application is the lack of pathological and physiological correlations. The studies presented here have initiated such inquiries, but many clinical questions about the pathophysiological background of REG remain unanswered.

These results demonstrate that REG development is a multidisciplinary subject with relevance for medicine (vascular neurology and neurosurgery intensive care); electronic engineering; mathematics, and computer science (data processing). It is hoped that information presented in this article will provide assistance to those involved in REG research, particularly in development and clinical applications.

Keywords

  • Rheoencephalography
  • carotid flow
  • intracranial pressure
  • cerebral blood flow autoregulation
  • neuro-monitoring
  • REG data processing
  • arteriosclerosis
  • expert system

Articles

Open Access

Testing miniaturized electrodes for impedance measurements within the β-dispersion – a practical approach

Published Online: 07 Apr 2010
Page range: 41 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

Miniaturized electrodes are introduced in life sciences in a great number and variety. They are often designed for a special purpose without the need of quantitative analysis, such as for detecting cells or water droplets in a fluid channel. Other developments aim in monitoring a single quantity in a process where all other factors held constant.

To use miniaturized electrodes for quantitative measurements, their behavior should be known in detail and stable over time in order to allow a mathematical correction of the data measured.

Here we show test procedures for evaluating macroscopic but also microscopic electrodes. The most important quality parameters for electrode systems used in life science are the electrode impedance, its stability, the useful frequency range as well as the limits for applied stimulus without driving the electrode system into a non-linear region of the current/voltage relation. Proper electrode design allows a bandwidth from 100 Hz up to some MHz for impedances ranging over decades from 50 Ω up to several MΩ.

Keywords

  • Impedance
  • electrode polarization
  • voltammetry
  • miniaturization
Open Access

Magnetic induction pneumography: a planar coil system for continuous monitoring of lung function via contactless measurements

Published Online: 22 Oct 2010
Page range: 56 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Continuous monitoring of lung function is of particular interest to the mechanically ventilated patients during critical care. Recent studies have shown that magnetic induction measurements with single coils provide signals which are correlated with the lung dynamics and this idea is extended here by using a 5 by 5 planar coil matrix for data acquisition in order to image the regional thoracic conductivity changes. The coil matrix can easily be mounted onto the patient bed, and thus, the problems faced in methods that use contacting sensors can readily be eliminated and the patient comfort can be improved. In the proposed technique, the data are acquired by successively exciting each coil in order to induce an eddy-current density within the dorsal tissues and measuring the corresponding response magnetic field strength by the remaining coils. The recorded set of data is then used to reconstruct the internal conductivity distribution by means of algorithms that minimize the residual norm between the estimated and measured data. To investigate the feasibility of the technique, the sensitivity maps and the point spread functions at different locations and depths were studied. To simulate a realistic scenario, a chest model was generated by segmenting the tissue boundaries from NMR images. The reconstructions of the ventilation distribution and the development of an edematous lung injury were presented. The imaging artifacts caused by either the incorrect positioning of the patient or the expansion of the chest wall due to breathing were illustrated by simulations.

Keywords

  • Chest radiography
  • magnetic induction pneumography
  • ventilation monitoring
  • lung edema
  • inductive measurements
Open Access

Wounds as probes of electrical properties of skin

Published Online: 01 Nov 2010
Page range: 63 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

We have built a model where we use a wound as a probe of the dielectric properties of skin. In this way one is able to infer information about skin dielectric properties in situ. We introduce the notion of a skin electrochemical capacitor. This gives good agreement with recent measurements for the electric potential landscape around a wound. Possible diagnostic consequences are briefly touched upon.

Keywords

  • Wound
  • skin
  • electrochemical capacitor
  • electric field
  • electric potential
  • numerical modeling
Open Access

Positive phase error from parallel conductance in tetrapolar bio-impedance measurements and its compensation

Published Online: 01 Dec 2010
Page range: 71 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

Bioimpedance measurements are of great use and can provide considerable insight into biological processes. However, there are a number of possible sources of measurement error that must be considered. The most dominant source of error is found in bipolar measurements where electrode polarisation effects are superimposed on the true impedance of the sample. Even with the tetrapolar approach that is commonly used to circumvent this issue, other errors can persist. Here we characterise the positive phase and rise in impedance magnitude with frequency that can result from the presence of any parallel conductive pathways in the measurement set-up. It is shown that fitting experimental data to an equivalent electrical circuit model allows for more accurate determination of the true sample impedance as validated through finite element modelling (FEM) of the measurement chamber. Finally, the equivalent circuit model is used to extract dispersion information from cell cultures to characterise their growth.

Keywords

  • Bioimpedance
  • positive phase
  • inductance
Open Access

Assessing cardiac preload by the Initial Systolic Time Interval obtained from impedance cardiography

Published Online: 10 Dec 2010
Page range: 80 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI), obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG) and impedance cardiogram (ICG), is considered to be a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and reflects an early active period of the cardiac cycle. The clinical relevance of this time interval is subject of study. This paper introduces a method using ISTI to evaluate and predict the circulatory response to fluid administration in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and presents preliminary results of a pilot study by comparing ISTI with cardiac output (CO) responsiveness. Also the use of the pulse transit time (PTT), earlier recommended for this purpose, was investigated. The results showed an inverse relationship between ISTI and CO at all moments of fluid administration and also an inverse relationship between the changes ΔISTI and ΔCO before and after full fluid administration. No relationships between PTT and CO or ΔPTT and ΔCO were found. It is concluded that ISTI is dependent upon preload, and that ISTI has the potential to be used as a clinical parameter assessing preload.

Keywords

  • Bioimpedance
  • impedance cardiography
  • initial systolic time interval
  • cardiac preload
  • coronary artery bypass graft surgery
Open Access

Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

Published Online: 31 Dec 2010
Page range: 84 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF) methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

Key words

  • Bipolar microelectrodes
  • impedance spectroscopy
  • ex vivo
  • resistivity profiling
  • retina
9 Articles

Editorials

Reviews

Open Access

Impedance cardiography: Pulsatile blood flow and the biophysical and electrodynamic basis for the stroke volume equations

Published Online: 03 Dec 2009
Page range: 2 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a branch of bioimpedance primarily concerned with the determination of left ventricular stroke volume (SV). As implemented, using the transthoracic approach, the technique involves applying a current field longitudinally across a segment of thorax by means of a constant magnitude, high frequency, low amplitude alternating current (AC). By Ohm’s Law, the voltage difference measured within the current field is proportional to the electrical impedance Z (Ω). Without ventilatory or cardiac activity, Z is known as the transthoracic, static base impedance Z0. Upon ventricular ejection, a characteristic time dependent cardiac-synchronous pulsatile impedance change is obtained, ΔZ(t), which, when placed electrically in parallel with Z0, constitutes the time-variable total transthoracic impedance Z(t). ΔZ(t) represents a dual-element composite waveform, which comprises both the radially-oriented volumetric expansion of and axially-directed forward blood flow within both great thoracic arteries. In its majority, however, ΔZ(t) is known to primarily emanate from the ascending aorta. Conceptually, commonly implemented methods assume a volumetric origin for the peak systolic upslope of ΔZ(t), (i.e. dZ/dtmax), with the presumed units of Ω·s–1. A recently introduced method assumes the rapid ejection of forward flowing blood in earliest systole causes significant changes in the velocity-induced blood resistivity variation (Δρb(t), Ωcm·s–1), and it is the peak rate of change of the blood resistivity variation dρb(t)/dtmax (Ωcm·s–2) that is the origin of dZ/dtmax. As a consequence of dZ/dtmax peaking in the time domain of peak aortic blood acceleration, dv/dtmax (cm·s–2), it is suggested that dZ/dtmax is an ohmic mean acceleration analog (Ω·s–2) and not a mean flow or velocity surrogate as generally assumed. As conceptualized, the normalized value, dZ/dtmax/Z0, is a dimensionless ohmic mean acceleration equivalent (s–2), and more precisely, the electrodynamic equivalent of peak aortic reduced average blood acceleration (PARABA, d<v>/dtmax/R, s–2). As necessary for stroke volume calculation, dZ/dtmax/Z0 must undergo square root transformation to yield an ohmic mean flow velocity equivalent. To compute SV, the square root of the dimensionless ohmic mean acceleration equivalent ([dZ/dtmax/Z0]0.5, s–1) is multiplied by a volume of electrically participating thoracic tissue (VEPT, mL) and left ventricular ejection time (TLVE, s). To find the bulk volume of the thoracic contents (i.e. VEPT), established methods implement exponential functions of measured thoracic length (L(cm)n) or height-based thoracic length equivalents (0.01×%H(cm)n). The new method conceptualizes VEPT as the intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV, mL), which is approximated through allometric equivalents of body mass (aMb). In contrast to the classical two-element parallel conduction model, the new method comprises a three-compartment model, which incorporates excess extra-vascular lung water (EVLW) as a component of both Z0 and VEPT. To fully appreciate the evolution and analytical justification for impedance-derived SV equations, a review of the basics of pulsatile blood flow is in order.

Keywords

  • Impedance cardiography
  • stroke volume
  • cardiac output
  • dZ/dt
  • acceleration
  • volume conductor
  • extravascular lung water
Open Access

Studies in Rheoencephalography (REG)

Published Online: 01 Apr 2010
Page range: 18 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents an overview of rheoencephalography (REG) – electrical impedance measurements of the brain – and summarizes past and ongoing research to develop medical applications of REG for neuro-critical care and for primary prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease. The availability of advanced electronics and computation has opened up the potential for use of REG technology as a noninvasive, continuous and inexpensive brain monitor for military and civilian applications. The clinical background information presented here introduces physiological and clinical environments where REG has potential for use in research and clinical settings.

REG studies over the past three decades have involved in vitro and in vivo groups (animal and human), including more than 1500 measurements and related electronic and computational results and practical applications. In vitro studies helped researchers understand the flow/volume relationship between Doppler ultrasound and electrical impedance signals and supported development of REG data processing methods. In animal studies, REG was used to monitor the lower limit of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation (AR) using a newly developed algorithm. These animal studies also confirmed correlations between REG and measurements of carotid flow (CF) and intracranial pressure (ICP). Human studies confirmed the applicability of REG for detecting cerebrovascular alteration, demonstrating the usefulness of REG in the field of stroke/cardio-vascular disease prevention. In these studies, REG was compared to known stroke risk factors and to results obtained using carotid ultrasound measurements. An intelligent REG system (Cerberus) has been developed for primary stroke prevention. In these studies, the biologically relevant variables of the REG signal were pulse amplitude (minimum – maximum distance) and duration of the anacrotic (rising) portion of the REG pulse wave.

The principal limitation of REG for clinical application is the lack of pathological and physiological correlations. The studies presented here have initiated such inquiries, but many clinical questions about the pathophysiological background of REG remain unanswered.

These results demonstrate that REG development is a multidisciplinary subject with relevance for medicine (vascular neurology and neurosurgery intensive care); electronic engineering; mathematics, and computer science (data processing). It is hoped that information presented in this article will provide assistance to those involved in REG research, particularly in development and clinical applications.

Keywords

  • Rheoencephalography
  • carotid flow
  • intracranial pressure
  • cerebral blood flow autoregulation
  • neuro-monitoring
  • REG data processing
  • arteriosclerosis
  • expert system

Articles

Open Access

Testing miniaturized electrodes for impedance measurements within the β-dispersion – a practical approach

Published Online: 07 Apr 2010
Page range: 41 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

Miniaturized electrodes are introduced in life sciences in a great number and variety. They are often designed for a special purpose without the need of quantitative analysis, such as for detecting cells or water droplets in a fluid channel. Other developments aim in monitoring a single quantity in a process where all other factors held constant.

To use miniaturized electrodes for quantitative measurements, their behavior should be known in detail and stable over time in order to allow a mathematical correction of the data measured.

Here we show test procedures for evaluating macroscopic but also microscopic electrodes. The most important quality parameters for electrode systems used in life science are the electrode impedance, its stability, the useful frequency range as well as the limits for applied stimulus without driving the electrode system into a non-linear region of the current/voltage relation. Proper electrode design allows a bandwidth from 100 Hz up to some MHz for impedances ranging over decades from 50 Ω up to several MΩ.

Keywords

  • Impedance
  • electrode polarization
  • voltammetry
  • miniaturization
Open Access

Magnetic induction pneumography: a planar coil system for continuous monitoring of lung function via contactless measurements

Published Online: 22 Oct 2010
Page range: 56 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

Continuous monitoring of lung function is of particular interest to the mechanically ventilated patients during critical care. Recent studies have shown that magnetic induction measurements with single coils provide signals which are correlated with the lung dynamics and this idea is extended here by using a 5 by 5 planar coil matrix for data acquisition in order to image the regional thoracic conductivity changes. The coil matrix can easily be mounted onto the patient bed, and thus, the problems faced in methods that use contacting sensors can readily be eliminated and the patient comfort can be improved. In the proposed technique, the data are acquired by successively exciting each coil in order to induce an eddy-current density within the dorsal tissues and measuring the corresponding response magnetic field strength by the remaining coils. The recorded set of data is then used to reconstruct the internal conductivity distribution by means of algorithms that minimize the residual norm between the estimated and measured data. To investigate the feasibility of the technique, the sensitivity maps and the point spread functions at different locations and depths were studied. To simulate a realistic scenario, a chest model was generated by segmenting the tissue boundaries from NMR images. The reconstructions of the ventilation distribution and the development of an edematous lung injury were presented. The imaging artifacts caused by either the incorrect positioning of the patient or the expansion of the chest wall due to breathing were illustrated by simulations.

Keywords

  • Chest radiography
  • magnetic induction pneumography
  • ventilation monitoring
  • lung edema
  • inductive measurements
Open Access

Wounds as probes of electrical properties of skin

Published Online: 01 Nov 2010
Page range: 63 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

We have built a model where we use a wound as a probe of the dielectric properties of skin. In this way one is able to infer information about skin dielectric properties in situ. We introduce the notion of a skin electrochemical capacitor. This gives good agreement with recent measurements for the electric potential landscape around a wound. Possible diagnostic consequences are briefly touched upon.

Keywords

  • Wound
  • skin
  • electrochemical capacitor
  • electric field
  • electric potential
  • numerical modeling
Open Access

Positive phase error from parallel conductance in tetrapolar bio-impedance measurements and its compensation

Published Online: 01 Dec 2010
Page range: 71 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

Bioimpedance measurements are of great use and can provide considerable insight into biological processes. However, there are a number of possible sources of measurement error that must be considered. The most dominant source of error is found in bipolar measurements where electrode polarisation effects are superimposed on the true impedance of the sample. Even with the tetrapolar approach that is commonly used to circumvent this issue, other errors can persist. Here we characterise the positive phase and rise in impedance magnitude with frequency that can result from the presence of any parallel conductive pathways in the measurement set-up. It is shown that fitting experimental data to an equivalent electrical circuit model allows for more accurate determination of the true sample impedance as validated through finite element modelling (FEM) of the measurement chamber. Finally, the equivalent circuit model is used to extract dispersion information from cell cultures to characterise their growth.

Keywords

  • Bioimpedance
  • positive phase
  • inductance
Open Access

Assessing cardiac preload by the Initial Systolic Time Interval obtained from impedance cardiography

Published Online: 10 Dec 2010
Page range: 80 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI), obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG) and impedance cardiogram (ICG), is considered to be a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and reflects an early active period of the cardiac cycle. The clinical relevance of this time interval is subject of study. This paper introduces a method using ISTI to evaluate and predict the circulatory response to fluid administration in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and presents preliminary results of a pilot study by comparing ISTI with cardiac output (CO) responsiveness. Also the use of the pulse transit time (PTT), earlier recommended for this purpose, was investigated. The results showed an inverse relationship between ISTI and CO at all moments of fluid administration and also an inverse relationship between the changes ΔISTI and ΔCO before and after full fluid administration. No relationships between PTT and CO or ΔPTT and ΔCO were found. It is concluded that ISTI is dependent upon preload, and that ISTI has the potential to be used as a clinical parameter assessing preload.

Keywords

  • Bioimpedance
  • impedance cardiography
  • initial systolic time interval
  • cardiac preload
  • coronary artery bypass graft surgery
Open Access

Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

Published Online: 31 Dec 2010
Page range: 84 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF) methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

Key words

  • Bipolar microelectrodes
  • impedance spectroscopy
  • ex vivo
  • resistivity profiling
  • retina

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